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Chapters

Gardner, A.P. 2017, 'Flipping on a shoestring: A Case Study of Engineering Mechanics at the University of Technology Sydney' in Reidsema, C., Kavanagh, L., Hadgraft, R. & Smith, N. (eds), The Flipped Classroom: Practice and Practices in Higher Education, Springer, Singapore, pp. 163-176.

Nghiem, L.D., Hai, F.I., Price, W.E., Wickham, R., Ngo, H.H. & Guo, W. 2017, 'By-products of Anaerobic Treatment: Methane and Digestate From Manures and Cosubstrates' in Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Biological Treatment of Industrial Effluents, Elsevier, THe Netherlands, pp. 469-484.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Anaerobic digestion is a widely used and probably the most sustainable technique for biogas production and nutrient recovery from manure. This chapter describes the process of anaerobic digestion of manure and other cosubstrates with a specific focus on biogas and digestate utilization. Biogas purification is one of the most significant bottlenecks to fully realizing the range of biogas utilization for not just energy production but also other forms of beneficial usages. Thus, biogas purification techniques are discussed in detail in this chapter. Digestate from manure is an excellent biofertilizer and can be applied using the same equipment designed for liquid fertilizer. Previous studies corroborated in this chapter highlight the importance of quality control and digestate application practice particularly when manure is codigested with other cosubstrates or the digestate is used on a different farm.

Journal articles

Abdolali, A., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Zhou, J.L., Zhang, J., Liang, S., Chang, S.W., Nguyen, D.D. & Liu, Y. 2017, 'Application of a breakthrough biosorbent for removing heavy metals from synthetic and real wastewaters in a lab-scale continuous fixed-bed column.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 229, pp. 78-87.
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A continuous fixed-bed study was carried out utilising a breakthrough biosorbent, specifically multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) for removing cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. The effect of operating conditions, i.e. influent flow rate, metal concentration and bed depth was investigated at pH 5.5±0.1 for a synthetic wastewater sample. Results confirmed that the total amount of metal adsorption declined with increasing influent flow rate and also rose when each metal concentration also increased. The maximum biosorption capacities of 38.25, 63.37, 108.12 and 35.23mg/g for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, were achieved at 31cm bed height, 10mL/min flow rate and 20mg/L initial concentration. The Thomas model better described the whole dynamic behaviour of the column rather than the Dose Response and Yoon-Nelson models. Finally, desorption studies indicated that metal-loaded biosorbent could be used after three consecutive sorption, desorption and regeneration cycles by applying a semi-simulated real wastewater.

Ahmed, M., Guo, W., Zhou, J., Johir, M. & Ngo, H. 2017, 'Competitive sorption affinity of sulfonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics toward functionalized biochar for water and wastewater treatment', Bioresource Technology.
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Competitive sorption of sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ) and chloramphenicol (CP) toward functionalized biochar (fBC) was highly pH dependent with maximum sorption at pH ∼4.0-4.25. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Langmuir and Freundlich models in the order STZ > SMX > CP > SMT. Kinetics data were slightly better fitted by the pseudo second-order model than pseudo first-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. Maximum sorptive interactions occurred at pH 4.0-4.25 through H-bonds formations for neutral sulfonamides species and through negative charge assisted H-bond (CAHB) formation for CP, in addition to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions. EDA was the main mechanism for the sorption of positive sulfonamides species and CP at pH < 2.0. Sorption of negative sulfonamides species and CP at pH > 7.0 was regulated by H-bond formation and proton exchange with water by forming CAHB, respectively. The results suggested fBC to be highly efficient in removing antibiotics mixture.

Ahmed, M., zhou, J., Ngo, H., Guo, W., Johir, M. & Kiressan, S. 2017, 'Nano-Fe0 Immobilized onto Functionalized Biochar Gaining Excellent Stability during Sorption and Reduction of Chloramphenicol via Transforming to Reusable Magnetic Composite', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 322, pp. 571-581.
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The widely used nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI or nFe0) particles and their composite material lose reductive nature during application, and the stability of transformed composite material for repeatable application is not addressed to date. To shed light on this, nZVI was synthesized from scrap material and immobilized on functionalized biochar (fBC) to prepare nZVI-fBC composite. Comparative study between nZVI and nZVI-fBC composite on the removal of chlorinated antibiotic chloramphenicol from different water types was conducted. The results suggested that nZVI was solely responsible for reduction of chloramphenicol. Whereas nZVI-fBC could be applied once, within a few hours, for the reduction of chloramphenico (29–32.5%) and subsequently sorption (67.5–70.5%) by transforming to a fully magnetic composite (nFe3O4-fBC) gaining stability with synergistic sorption performance. In both cases, two reduction by-products were identified namely 2-chloro-N-[1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-aminophenyl)propan-2-yl]acetamide (m/z 257) and dechlorinated N-[1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-aminophenyl)propan-2-yl]acetamide (m/z 223). The complete removal of 3.1 µM L−1 of chloramphenicol in different water was faster by nZVI-fBC (∼12–15 h) than by stable nFe3O4-fBC composite (∼18 h). Both nZVI-fBC and nFe3O4-fBC composites removed chloramphenicol in the order: deionized water > lake water > synthetic wastewater. nFe3O4-fBC showed excellent reusability after regeneration, with the regenerated nFe3O4-fBC composite (after 6 cycles of application) showing significant performance for methylene blue removal (∼287 mg g−1). Therefore, the transformed nFe3O4-fBC composite is a promising and reusable sorbent for the efficient removal of organic contaminants.

Ahmed, M.B., Johir, M.A.H., Zhou, J.L., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W. & Sornalingam, K. 2017, 'Photolytic and Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic UV Filters in Contaminated Water', Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry.
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Ahmed, M.B., Zhou, J.L., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Johir, M.A.H. & Sornalingam, K. 2017, 'Single and competitive sorption properties and mechanism of functionalized biochar for removing sulfonamide antibiotics from water', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 311, pp. 348-358.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Single and competitive sorption of ionisable sulphonamides sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfathiazole on functionalized biochar was highly pH dependent. The equilibrium data were well represented by both Langmuir and Freundlich models for single solutes, and by the Langmuir model for competitive solutes. Sorption capacity and distribution coefficient values decreased as sulfathiazole > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine. The sorption capacity of each antibiotic in competitive mode is about three times lower than in single solute sorption. The kinetics data were best described by the pseudo second-order (PSO) model for single solutes, and by PSO and intra-particle diffusion models for competitive solutes. Adsorption mechanism was governed by pore filling through diffusion process. The findings from pH shift, FTIR spectra and Raman band shift showed that sorption of neutral sulfonamide species occurred mainly due to strong H-bonds followed by π+-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA), and by Lewis acid-base interaction. Moreover, EDA was the main mechanism for the sorption of positive sulfonamides species. The sorption of negative species was mainly regulated by proton exchange with water forming negative charge assisted H-bond (CAHB), followed by the neutralization of –OH groups by H+ released from functionalized biochar surface; in addition π-π electron-acceptor-acceptor (EAA) interaction played an important role.

Ahmed, M.B., Zhou, J.L., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Thomaidis, N.S. & Xu, J. 2017, 'Progress in the biological and chemical treatment technologies for emerging contaminant removal from wastewater: A critical review.', Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 323, pp. 274-298.
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This review focuses on the removal of emerging contaminants (ECs) by biological, chemical and hybrid technologies in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results showed that endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) were better removed by membrane bioreactor (MBR), activated sludge and aeration processes among different biological processes. Surfactants, EDCs and personal care products (PCPs) can be well removed by activated sludge process. Pesticides and pharmaceuticals showed good removal efficiencies by biological activated carbon. Microalgae treatment processes can remove almost all types of ECs to some extent. Other biological processes were found less effective in ECs removal from wastewater. Chemical oxidation processes such as ozonation/H2O2, UV photolysis/H2O2 and photo-Fenton processes can successfully remove up to 100% of pesticides, beta blockers and pharmaceuticals, while EDCs can be better removed by ozonation and UV photocatalysis. Fenton process was found less effective in the removal of any types of ECs. A hybrid system based on ozonation followed by biological activated carbon was found highly efficient in the removal of pesticides, beta blockers and pharmaceuticals. A hybrid ozonation-ultrasound system can remove up to 100% of many pharmaceuticals. Future research directions to enhance the removal of ECs have been elaborated.

Altaee, A., Millar, G.J., Zaragoza, G. & Sharif, A. 2017, 'Energy efficiency of RO and FO–RO system for high-salinity seawater treatment', Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 77-91.
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Aryal, R., Beecham, S., Sarkar, B., Chong, M.N., Kinsela, A., Kandasamy, J. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Readily Wash-Off Road Dust and Associated Heavy Metals on Motorways', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 228, no. 1.
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Askari, M., Li, J. & Samali, B. 2017, 'Cost-effective multi-objective optimal positioning of magnetorheological dampers and active actuators in large nonlinear structures', Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 230-253.
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The optimal number and location of control devices not only play a major role in an effective structural control system but also lead to a cost-effective design. This article presents a multi-objective optimization method based on a new genetic algorithm for simultaneous finding of the optimal number and placement of actuators and magnetorheological dampers, in active and semi-active vibration control of structures. The proposed strategy considers three objective functions to be minimized through optimization, including peak inter-storey drift ratio, peak acceleration and peak base shear force to make sure both human comfort and safety of the structure are guaranteed. Also, by choosing a pre-defined level of performance on dynamic responses of a structure, the designer can decide on decreasing or increasing the number of control devices in a systematic way and minimize the control cost. The approach is then validated through a nonlinear 20-storey benchmark problem. The results from active control system show how a problem that was initially solved with 25 actuators can be solved with less than a quarter of those actuators, having similar results in terms of aforementioned indices. The optimal distribution of different numbers of magnetorheological dampers in the same benchmark building is also studied in this article and compared to those obtained from actuators. Due to highly nonlinear behaviour of these devices, and also the complexity of the under-study benchmark structure, few reported researches have been conducted in this area. Also, the comparison between optimal places of active and semi-active control devices in the same structure has hitherto not been reported in the open literature.

Chekli, L., Corjon, E., Tabatabai, S.A.A., Naidu, G., Tamburic, B., Park, S.H. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Performance of titanium salts compared to conventional FeCl3 for the removal of algal organic matter (AOM) in synthetic seawater: Coagulation performance, organic fraction removal and floc characteristics.', J Environ Manage, vol. 201, pp. 28-36.
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During algal bloom periods, operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment processes (e.g. ultrafiltration (UF)) has been hindered due to the high concentration of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM). The present study evaluated for the first time the performance of titanium salts (i.e. titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC)) for the removal of AOM in seawater and results were compared with the conventional FeCl3 coagulant. Previous studies already demonstrated that titanium salts not only provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional coagulants by producing a valuable by-product but also minimise the environmental impact of sludge production. Results from this study showed that both TiCl4 and PTC achieved better performance than FeCl3 in terms of turbidity, UV254 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal at similar coagulant dose. Liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) was used to determine the removal of AOM compounds based on their molecular weight (MW). This investigation revealed that both humic substances and low MW organics were preferentially removed (i.e. up to 93% removal) while all three coagulants showed poorer performance for the removal of high MW biopolymers (i.e. less than 50% removal). The detailed characterization of flocs indicated that both titanium coagulants can grow faster, reach larger size and present a more compact structure, which is highly advantageous for the design of smaller and more compact mixing and sedimentation tanks. Both titanium coagulants also presented a higher ability to withstand shear force, which was related to the higher amount of DOC adsorbed with the aggregated flocs. Finally, TiCl4 had a better recovery after breakage suggesting that charge neutralization may be the dominant mechanism for this coagulant, while the lower recovery of both PTC and FeCl3 indicated that sweep flocculation is also a contributing mechanism for the coagulation of AOM...

Chekli, L., Eripret, C., Park, S.H., Tabatabai, S.A.A., Vronska, O., Tamburic, B., Kim, J.H. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 175, pp. 99-106.
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Chekli, L., Kim, J.E., El Saliby, I., Kim, Y., Phuntsho, S., Li, S., Ghaffour, N., Leiknes, T.O. & Kyong Shon, H. 2017, 'Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 181, pp. 18-28.
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Chekli, L., Kim, Y., Phuntsho, S., Li, S., Ghaffour, N., Leiknes, T. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Evaluation of fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis for sustainable agriculture and water reuse in arid regions.', J Environ Manage, vol. 187, pp. 137-145.
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The present study focused on the performance of the FDFO process to achieve simultaneous water reuse from wastewater and production of nutrient solution for hydroponic application. Bio-methane potential (BMP) measurements were firstly carried out to determine the effect of osmotic concentration of wastewater achieved in the FDFO process on the anaerobic activity. Results showed that 95% water recovery from the FDFO process is the optimum value for further AnMBR treatment. Nine different fertilizers were then tested based on their FO performance (i.e. water flux, water recovery and reverse salt flux) and final nutrient concentration. From this initial screening, ammonium phosphate monobasic (MAP), ammonium sulfate (SOA) and mono-potassium phosphate were selected for long term experiments to investigate the maximum water recovery achievable. After the experiments, hydraulic membrane cleaning was performed to assess the water flux recovery. SOA showed the highest water recovery rate, up to 76% while KH2PO4 showed the highest water flux recovery, up to 75% and finally MAP showed the lowest final nutrient concentration. However, substantial dilution was still necessary to comply with the standards for fertigation even if the recovery rate was increased.

Chen, C., Guo, W., Ngo, H.H., Chang, S.W., Duc Nguyen, D., Dan Nguyen, P., Bui, X.T. & Wu, Y. 2017, 'Impact of reactor configurations on the performance of a granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment', International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 121, pp. 131-138.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This study compared overall performance of an external granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor and a submerged granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor (EG-AnMBR and SG-AnMBR, respectively), to determine which type of G-AnMBRs is more preferred for munici pal wastewater treatment. Both systems presented similar COD removal efficiencies (over 91%) and methane yield of 160 mL CH 4 (STP) (g COD removed ) −1 although volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation was found in the SG-AnMBR. Membrane direct incorporation into the SG-AnMBR significantly affected the concentration and properties of microbial products (e.g. soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)) in the cake layer, mixed liquor and granular sludge, as well as granular sludge size and settleability. The EG-AnMBR demonstrated less SMP and EPS in the mixed liquor and cake layer, which might reduce the cake layer resistance and lower the fouling rate. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis of foulant revealed that biopolymers along with low molecular weight neutrals and acids and building blocks were responsible for higher fouling propensity in the SG-AnMBR. It is evident that compared to the SG-AnMBR, the EG-AnMBR serves as a better G-AnMBR configuration for municipal wastewater treatment due to less fouling propensity and superior granule quality.

Chen, C., Guo, W.S., Ngo, H.H., Liu, Y., Du, B., Wei, Q., Wei, D., Nguyen, D.D. & Chang, S.W. 2017, 'Evaluation of a sponge assisted-granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SG-AnMBR) for municipal wastewater treatment', Renewable Energy, vol. 111, pp. 620-627.
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Chen, G., Liu, R., Shon, H.K., Wang, Y., Song, J., Li, X.M. & He, T. 2017, 'Open porous hydrophilic supported thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane via co-casting for treatment of high-salinity wastewater', Desalination, vol. 405, pp. 76-84.
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Chen, X., Liu, Y., Peng, L. & Ni, B.J. 2017, 'Perchlorate, nitrate, and sulfate reduction in hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor: Model-based evaluation', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 316, pp. 82-90.
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Chung, W.J., Torrejos, R.E.C., Park, M.J., Vivas, E.L., Limjuco, L.A., Lawagon, C.P., Parohinog, K.J., Lee, S.P., Shon, H.K., Kim, H. & Nisola, G.M. 2017, 'Continuous lithium mining from aqueous resources by an adsorbent filter with a 3D polymeric nanofiber network infused with ion sieves', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 309, pp. 49-62.
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Cu, P.T. & Ball, J.E. 2017, 'The influence of the calibration metric on design flood estimation using continuous simulation', International Journal of River Basin Management, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 9-20.
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Du, G., Huang, X., Li, Y., Ouyang, Q. & Wang, J. 2017, 'Performance of Semi-active/Passive Integrated Isolator based on Magnetorheological Elastomer and Spring', Smart Materials and Structures.

Erkmen, R.E., Gowripalan, N. & Sirivivatnanon, V. 2017, 'Elasto-plastic damage modelling of beams and columns with mechanical degradation', Computers and Concrete, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 315-323.
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Erkmen, R.E., Mohareb, M. & Afnani, A. 2017, 'Multi-Scale Overlapping Domain Decomposition to Consider Elasto-Plastic Local Buckling Effects in the Analysis of Pipes', International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-28.
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© 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company Elevated pipelines are commonly encountered in petro-chemical and industrial applications. Within these applications, pipelines normally span hundreds of meters and are thus analyzed using one-dimensional (1D) beam-type finite elements when the global behavior of the pipeline is sought at a reasonably low computational cost. Standard beam-type elements, while computationaly economic, are based on the assumption of rigid cross-section. Thus, they are unable to capture the effects of cross-sectional localized deformations. Such effects can be captured through shell-type finite element models. For long pipelines, shell models become prohibitively expensive. Within this context, the present study formulates an efficient numerical modeling which effectively combines the efficiency of beam-type solutions while retaining the accuracy of shell-type solutions. An appealing feature of the model is that it is able to split the global analysis based on simple beam-type elements from the local analysis based on shell-type elements. This is achieved through domain-decomposition procedure within the framework of the Bridging multi-scale method of analysis. Solutions based on the present model are compared to those based on full shell-type analysis. The comparison demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Far, H. 2017, 'Development of Synthetic Soil Mixture for Experimental Shaking Table Tests on Building Frames Resting on Soft Soils', Geomechanics and Geoengineering : An International Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 28-35.
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In this study, a synthetic soil mixture has been developed and proposed for experimental soil-structure interaction shaking table tests on building frames with shallow foundations resting on soft soil deposits. To find the most appropriate mixture, different mixes with different proportion of mix components were examined in soils laboratory. Performing bender element tests, shear wave velocity of the soil specimens were acquired at different cure ages and the results were examined and compared. Based on the test results, a synthetic clay mixture consisting of kaolinite clay, bentonite, fly ash, lime and water has been proposed for experimental shaking table tests. The proposed mix provides adequate undrained shear strength to mobilise the required shallow foundation bearing capacity underneath the structural model while meeting both criteria of dynamic similarity between the model and the prototype to model soft soils in shaking table tests.

Far, H. & Flint, D. 2017, 'Significance of Using Isolated Footing Technique for Residential Construction on Expansive Soils', Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, vol. 11, no. 1.
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Expansive soils cause problems with the founding of lightly loaded structures in many parts of the world. Foundation design for expansive soils is one of the most discussed and problematic issues in Australia as expansive soils were responsible for billions of dollars’ worth of damage to man-made structures such as buildings and roads. Several studies and reports indicate that one of the most common and least recognized problems causing severe structural damage to houses lies in expansive soils. In this study, a critical review has been carried out on the current Australian standards for building on expansive soils and they are compared with some techniques that are not included in the current Australian standards for residential slabs and footings. Based on the results of this review, the most effective and economical method has been proposed for construction of footings on all site classifications without restriction to 75mm of characteristic movement. In addition, it has become apparent that as design procedures for footings resting on sites with extreme characteristic movements are not included in the current Australian standards, there is a strong need for well-developed and simplified standard design procedures for characteristic soil movement of greater than 75mm to be included into the Australian Standards.

Gardner, A.P. & Willey, K. 2017, 'Academic identity reconstruction: the transition of engineering academics to engineering education researchers', Studies in Higher Education.
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The field of research (FoR) that an academic participates in is both a manifestation of, and a contributor to the development of their identity. When an academic changes that FoR the question then arises as to how they reconcile this change with their identity. This paper uses the identity-trajectory framework to analyse the discourse of 19 engineering academics in relation to their educational research. The findings reveal insights into the identity changes experienced in the transition from typical engineering academic to engineering education researcher. Participants’ responses illustrate how various aspects of their research activities contribute to the development of the networking and intellectual strands of their academic identity as engineering education researchers, and the effect of their university environment on this development. Conference participation was found to be an important contributor to progression of the intellectual and networking strands of identity-trajectory for researchers at all stages of development, although for different reasons.

Gu, X., Yu, Y., Li, J. & Li, Y. 2017, 'Semi-active control of magnetorheological elastomer base isolation system utilising learning-based inverse model', Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 406, pp. 346-362.
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Ho, L. & Fatahi, B. 2017, 'Axisymmetric consolidation in unsaturated soil deposit subjected to time-dependent loadings', International Journal of Geomechanics, vol. 17, no. 2.
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Hu, Y., Wang, X.C., Sun, Q., Ngo, H.H., Yu, Z., Tang, J. & Zhang, Q. 2017, 'Characterization of a hybrid powdered activated carbon-dynamic membrane bioreactor (PAC-DMBR) process with high flux by gravity flow: Operational performance and sludge properties.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 223, pp. 65-73.
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Three PAC-DMBRs were developed for wastewater treatment under different PAC dosages with biomass concentrations averaged at 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0g/L. The DMBRs could be continuously operated at 40-100L/m(2)h, while higher fluxes were obtained within the PAC-DMBRs with hydraulic retention times varying in 4-10h. A dose of 1g/L PAC brought about obvious improvement in the sludge particle size distribution, settling, flocculating and dewatering properties due to the formation of biological PAC, and the sludge properties were further improved at a higher PAC dose (3g/L). The addition of PAC notably shortened the DM formation time after air backwashing and enhanced pollutant removal. Moreover, under a long solid retention time (approximately 150d), the concentrations of both soluble and bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) decreased substantially because of the adsorption and biodegradation effects of the biological PAC. No obvious impact on biomass activity was observed with PAC addition.

Kabir, M.I., Samali, B. & Shrestha, R. 2017, 'Pull-out Strengths of GFRP-Concrete Bond Exposed to Applied Environmental Conditions', International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 69-84.
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Kalaruban, M., Loganathan, P., Kandasamy, J. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system using four adsorbents to remove nitrate from water.', Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
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Nitrate contamination of ground and surface waters causes environmental pollution and human health problems in many parts of the world. This study tests the nitrate removal efficiencies of two ion exchange resins (Dowex 21K XLT and iron-modified Dowex 21K XLT (Dowex-Fe)) and two chemically modified bio-adsorbents (amine-grafted corn cob (AG corn cob) and amine-grafted coconut copra (AG coconut copra)) using a dynamic adsorption treatment system. A submerged membrane (microfiltration) adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) was used for the continuous removal of nitrate with a minimal amount of adsorbents. The efficiency of membrane filtration flux and replacement rate of adsorbent were studied to determine suitable operating conditions to maintain the effluent nitrate concentration below the WHO drinking standard limit of 11.3 mg N/L. The volume of water treated and the amount of nitrate adsorbed per gramme of adsorbent for all four flux tested were in the order Dowex-Fe > Dowex > AG coconut copra > AG corn cob. The volumes of water treated (L/g adsorbent) were 0.91 and 1.85, and the amount of nitrate removed (mg N/g adsorbent) were 9.8 and 22.2 for AG corn cob and Dowex-Fe, respectively, at a flux of 15 L/(m(2)/h).

Kang, Y., Zhang, J., Xie, H., Guo, Z., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W. & Liang, S. 2017, 'Enhanced nutrient removal and mechanisms study in benthic fauna added surface-flow constructed wetlands: The role of Tubifex tubifex.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 224, pp. 157-165.
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This study designed a combined benthic fauna-T. orientalis-substrate-microbes surface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) through the addition of T. tubifex. Results showed that, the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus in the tested SFCWs achieved 81.14±4.16% and 70.49±7.60%, which were 22.27% and 27.35% higher than that without T. tubifex. Lower nitrate (2.11±0.79mg/L) and ammonium (0.75±0.64mg/L) were also observed in the tested SFCWs, which were 3.46mg/L and 0.52mg/L lower than that without T. tubifex. Microbial study confirmed the increased denitrifiers with T. tubifex. The lower nitrogen in effluent was also attributed to higher contents of nitrogen storage in sediment and T. orientalis due to the bioturbation of T. tubifex. Furthermore, with T. tubifex, higher proportions of particulate (22.66±3.96%) and colloidal phosphorus (20.57±3.39%) observed promoted phosphorus settlement and further absorption by T. orientalis. The outcomes of this study provides an ecological and economical strategy for improving the performance of SFCWs.

Keshavarzi, A. & Ball, J. 2017, 'Enhancing PIV image and fractal descriptor for velocity and shear stresses propagation around a circular pier', Geoscience Frontiers.
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In this study, the fractal dimensions of velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds shear stresses propagation for flow around a circular bridge pier are presented. In the study reported herein, the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations (u′, v′, w′) and the Reynolds shear stresses (u′v′ and u′w′) of flow around a bridge pier were computed using a Fractal Interpolation Function (FIF) algorithm. The velocity fluctuations of flow along a horizontal plane above the bed were measured using Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter (ADV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The PIV is a powerful technique which enables us to attain high resolution spatial and temporal information of turbulent flow using instantaneous time snapshots. In this study, PIV was used for detection of high resolution fractal scaling around a bridge pier. The results showed that the fractal dimension of flow fluctuated significantly in the longitudinal and transverse directions in the vicinity of the pier. It was also found that the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations and shear stresses increased rapidly at vicinity of pier at downstream whereas it remained approximately unchanged far downstream of the pier. The higher value of fractal dimension was found at a distance equal to one times of the pier diameter in the back of the pier. Furthermore, the average fractal dimension for the streamwise and transverse velocity fluctuations decreased from the centreline to the side wall of the flume. Finally, the results from ADV measurement were consistent with the result from PIV, therefore, the ADV enables to detect turbulent characteristics of flow around a circular bridge pier.

Kim, J., Blandin, G., Phuntsho, S., Verliefde, A., Le-Clech, P. & Shon, H. 2017, 'Practical considerations for operability of an 8″ spiral wound forward osmosis module: Hydrodynamics, fouling behaviour and cleaning strategy', Desalination, vol. 404, pp. 249-258.
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Kim, J.E., Phuntsho, S., Chekli, L., Hong, S., Ghaffour, N., Leiknes, T.O., Choi, J.Y. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system', Desalination, vol. 416, pp. 76-85.
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Kim, Y., Li, S., Chekli, L., Phuntsho, S., Ghaffour, N., Leiknes, T. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Influence of fertilizer draw solution properties on the process performance and microbial community structure in a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis - ultrafiltration bioreactor.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 240, pp. 149-156.
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In this study, a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid system was proposed and operated for 55days. The FDFO performance was first investigated in terms of flux decline with various fertilizers draw solution. Flux decline was very severe with all fertilizers due to the absence of aeration and the sticky property of sludge. Flux recovery by physical cleaning varied significantly amongst tested fertilizers which seriously affected biofouling in FDFO via reverse salt flux (RSF). Besides, RSF had a significant impact on nutrient accumulation in the bioreactor. These results indicated that nutrient accumulation negatively influenced the anaerobic activity. To elucidate these phenomena, bacterial and archaeal community structures were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Results showed that bacterial community structure was affected by fertilizer properties with less impact on archaeal community structure, which resulted in a reduction in biogas production and an increase in nitrogen content.

Kim, Y., Li, S., Chekli, L., Woo, Y.C., Wei, C.H., Phuntsho, S., Ghaffour, N., Leiknes, T.O. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Assessing the removal of organic micro-pollutants from anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent by fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 533, pp. 84-95.
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Kim, Y., Woo, Y.C., Phuntsho, S., Nghiem, L.D., Shon, H.K. & Hong, S. 2017, 'Evaluation of fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis for coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine treatment and sustainable agricultural reuse', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 537, pp. 22-31.
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Kook, S., Kim, J., Kim, S.J., Lee, J., Han, D., Phuntsho, S., Shim, W.G., Hwang, M., Shon, H.K. & Kim, I.S. 2017, 'Effect of initial feed and draw flowrates on performance of an 8040 spiral-wound forward osmosis membrane element', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 72, pp. 1-12.
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© 2017, Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.This study investigated the effects of initial feed (20–50 L/min) and draw flowrates (2–5 L/min) on 8040 spiral-wound FO element performances in serial configuration for a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis (FO-RO) hybrid system employing single element-based tests. Average Jw,ave values for varying feed and draw flowrates were found to be 20.93, 19.38 and 18.71 LMH at E1, E2 and E3 (first, second and third elements in a serial configuration), respectively, with averaged diluted draw concentrations of 12.55, 7.88 and 5.77 g/L (initial conc. = 35 g/L). The draw stream dilution was not governed by Jw,ave but by the initial draw flowrates at the inlet that governs the retention time of the draw water body in the element. To sum up the performance results, it was concluded that initial draw flowrate is found to govern the performances of FO elements in series in terms of both production of diluted draw stream, determined by the averaged water flux of the FO element, Jw,ave, and the degree of draw stream dilution. Specific energy consumptions (SECs) of RO were estimated with varying RO feed concentrations (i.e. diluted draw concentration); it was observed the efficiency of SEC reduction by the dilution significantly decays after a critical RO recovery rate. This study successfully provides a valuable insight for feasible application of the FO-RO hybrid system.

Le, T.M., Fatahi, B., Khabbaz, H. & Sun, W. 2017, 'Numerical optimization applying trust-region reflective least squares algorithm with constraints to optimize the non-linear creep parameters of soft soil', Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 41, pp. 236-256.
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Determination of the creep model parameters is a challenging task particularly when a non-linear elastic visco-plastic (EVP) model is adopted, mainly due to the limited test duration as well as the assumption of the reference time. Therefore, this paper presents an innovative numerical solution to find the EVP model parameters applying the trust-region reflective least square optimization algorithm. The developed approach involves several available laboratory consolidation test results in the optimization procedure with the adopted commencing time to creep as a unit of time. In this paper, the laboratory results of Ottawa clay were employed to demonstrate the limitation of the recent method to obtain model parameters. Furthermore, the developed method is verified against Skå-Edeby clay in the laboratory conditions. The EVP model parameters are obtained by applying the developed method to the available laboratory consolidation results of clay samples. The analysis results of vertical strains and excess pore water pressures demonstrate that the developed method can be a feasible tool to estimate the settlement properties of clays.

Lee, E.J., An, A.K., Hadi, P., Lee, S., Woo, Y.C. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Advanced multi-nozzle electrospun functionalized titanium dioxide/polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (TiO2/PVDF-HFP) composite membranes for direct contact membrane distillation', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 524, pp. 712-720.
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Lee, J., Jeong, S., Ye, Y., Chen, V., Vigneswaran, S., Leiknes, T.O. & Liu, Z. 2017, 'Protein fouling in carbon nanotubes enhanced ultrafiltration membrane: Fouling mechanism as a function of pH and ionic strength', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 176, pp. 323-334.
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Li, J., Hao, H. & Wu, C. 2017, 'Numerical study of precast segmental column under blast loads', Engineering Structures, vol. 134, pp. 125-137.
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Li, J., Jiang, B., Liu, Y., Qiu, C., Hu, J., Qian, G., Guo, W. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'Preparation and adsorption properties of magnetic chitosan composite adsorbent for Cu2+ removal', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 158, pp. 51-58.
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Li, J., Wu, C. & Liu, Z.X. 2017, 'Comparative evaluation of steel wire mesh, steel fibre and high performance polyethylene fibre reinforced concrete slabs in blast tests', Thin-Walled Structures.
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Li, J., Wu, C., Hao, H. & Liu, Z. 2017, 'Post-blast capacity of ultra-high performance concrete columns', ENGINEERING STRUCTURES, vol. 134, pp. 289-302.
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Li, J., Wu, C., Hao, H. & Su, Y. 2017, 'Experimental and numerical study on steel wire mesh reinforced concrete slab under contact explosion', Materials and Design, vol. 116, pp. 77-91.
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Li, J., Wu, C., Hao, H., Su, Y. & Li, Z.X. 2017, 'A study of concrete slabs with steel wire mesh reinforcement under close-in explosive loads', International Journal of Impact Engineering.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd.Structural responses and damages under blast loading environments are critical to structural and personnel safety. The blast scenarios involving close-in detonations are attracting increasingly more attentions over the last few decades due to the rising of terrorism. Under close-in detonations, structural elements tend to fail in a brittle mode including shear, concrete crater and spall. In such loading scenarios, the structural designated loading capacity which is usually based on flexural deformation assumption is not fully developed. To provide high-level structural protection, high performance concretes with varying fibre additions are now widely investigated and used in blast resistance designs. In the present study, field blast tests results on reinforced concrete slabs under close-in detonations are presented. Performances of slabs made of normal strength concrete and steel fibre reinforced concrete are compared and discussed. Besides conventional steel rebar reinforcement, new reinforcement scheme i.e. hybrid steel wire mesh-micro steel fibre reinforcement is investigated through the laboratory static tests and field blast tests. Furthermore, a numerical study based on Multi-Material ALE and Lagrangian algorithm is carried out to further investigate the field tests' phenomenon.

Li, M., Wu, H., Zhang, J., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W. & Kong, Q. 2017, 'Nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emission in surface flow constructed wetlands for treating sewage treatment plant effluent: Effect of C/N ratios.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 240, pp. 157-164.
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In order to design treatment wetlands with maximal nitrogen removal and minimal nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, the effect of influent C/N ratios on nitrogen removal and N2O emission in surface flow constructed wetlands (SF CWs) for sewage treatment plant effluent treatment was investigated in this study. The results showed that nitrogen removal and N2O emission in CWs were significantly affected by C/N ratio of influent. Much higher removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N (98%) and TN (90%) was obtained simultaneously in SF CWs at C/N ratios of 12:1, and low N2O emission (8.2mg/m(2)/d) and the percentage of N2O-N emission in TN removal (1.44%) were also observed. These results obtained in this study would be utilized to determine how N2O fluxes respond to variations in C/N ratios and to improve the sustainability of CWs for wastewater treatment.

Li, S., Kim, Y., Chekli, L., Phuntsho, S., Shon, H.K., Leiknes, T.O. & Ghaffour, N. 2017, 'Impact of reverse nutrient diffusion on membrane biofouling in fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 539, pp. 108-115.
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Li, S., Kim, Y., Phuntsho, S., Chekli, L., Shon, H.K., Leiknes, T. & Ghaffour, N. 2017, 'Methane production in an anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor using forward osmosis: Effect of reverse salt flux.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 239, pp. 285-293.
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This study investigated the impact of reverse salt flux (RSF) on microbe community and bio-methane production in a simulated fertilizer driven FO-AnMBR system using KCl, KNO3 and KH2PO4 as draw solutes. Results showed that KH2PO4 exhibited the lowest RSF in terms of molar concentration 19.1mM/(m(2).h), while for KCl and KNO3 it was 32.2 and 120.8mM/(m(2).h), respectively. Interestingly, bio-methane production displayed an opposite order with KH2PO4, followed by KCl and KNO3. Pyrosequencing results revealed the presence of different bacterial communities among the tested fertilizers. Bacterial community of sludge exposed to KH2PO4 was very similar to that of DI-water and KCl. However, results with KNO3 were different since the denitrifying bacteria were found to have a higher percentage than the sludge with other fertilizers. This study demonstrated that RSF has a negative effect on bio-methane production, probably by influencing the sludge bacterial community via environment modification.

Li, W., Huang, Z., Hu, G., Hui Duan, W. & Shah, S.P. 2017, 'Early-age shrinkage development of ultra-high-performance concrete under heat curing treatment', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 131, pp. 767-774.
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© 2016 Elsevier LtdThe effects of a novel heat curing regime and longitudinal reinforcement ratio on early-age shrinkage of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) were experimentally investigated in this study. The microstructure, porosity and calcium hydroxide (CH) content of UHPC after different heat curing durations were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and thermal analysis. The results indicate that slight shrinkage was observed when the heat curing duration was less than 60 min and curing temperature reached 48 °C. However, when the heat curing duration approached 70 min and curing temperature was around 55 °C, the early-age shrinkage increased dramatically. It was found that the early-age shrinkage is approximately 450 με after 48 h of heat curing. The results also show that the early-age shrinkage of UHPC significantly decreased by percentage of 33–60% with the increase of longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio from 2.0 to 4.52%. Meantime, after 10 h of heat curing, the cement hydration and secondary hydration in UHPC tend to finish, which consequently leads to dense microstructure and low CH content in UHPC.

Li, W., Li, X., Chen, S.J., Liu, Y.M., Duan, W.H. & Shah, S.P. 2017, 'Effects of graphene oxide on early-age hydration and electrical resistivity of Portland cement paste', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 136, pp. 506-514.
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Li, W., Li, X., Chen, S.J., Long, G., Liu, Y.M. & Duan, W.H. 2017, 'Effects of nanoalumina and graphene oxide on early-age hydration and mechanical properties of cement paste', Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 29, no. 9.
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© 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers. The effects of nanoalumina (NA) and graphene oxide (GO) on the early-age hydration and mechanical properties of portland cement pastes were investigated in this study. The hydration heat release rate and cumulative heat of cement pastes incorporating different dosages of NA and GO were evaluated using an isothermal calorimeter measurement method. Early-age electrical resistivity development was investigated by a noncontact electrical resistivity technique. The results show that both NA and GO could efficiently accelerate cement hydration. As a physical filler, NA significantly accelerates the hydration of tricalcium aluminate (C 3 A) in cement. On the other hand, GO is able to obviously reduce the dormant period of cement hydration and shift the heat flow peaks to the left by accelerating the hydration of tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) in cement. Compared to plain cement pastes, both the compressive and flexural strengths of cement pastes incorporating NA or GO are significantly increased. However, when NA and GO contents exceed the optimal amounts, improvements in flexural strength tend to decline, which is probably due to particle agglomeration. NA-cement paste exhibited slightly higher electrical resistivity than plain cement paste during hydration acceleration and deceleration stages. But GO-cement paste clearly showed lower electrical resistivity, which might be attributed to iron diffusion caused by GO with large surface areas.

Li, W., Long, C., Tam, V.W.Y., Poon, C.S. & Hui Duan, W. 2017, 'Effects of nano-particles on failure process and microstructural properties of recycled aggregate concrete', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 142, pp. 42-50.
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Li, W., Luo, Z., Tao, Z., Duan, W.H. & Shah, S.P. 2017, 'Mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tube stub columns after exposure to elevated temperatures', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 146, pp. 571-581.
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Li, W., Sun, Z., Luo, Z. & Shah, S.P. 2017, 'Influence of Relative Mechanical Strengths between New and Old Cement Mortars on the Crack Propagation of Recycled Aggregate Concrete', Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 110-125.
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Li, X., Liu, Y.M., Li, W.G., Li, C.Y., Sanjayan, J.G., Duan, W.H. & Li, Z. 2017, 'Effects of graphene oxide agglomerates on workability, hydration, microstructure and compressive strength of cement paste', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 145, pp. 402-410.
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Li, X., Lu, Z., Chuah, S., Li, W., Liu, Y., Duan, W.H. & Li, Z. 2017, 'Effects of graphene oxide aggregates on hydration degree, sorptivity, and tensile splitting strength of cement paste', Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 100, pp. 1-8.
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Li, X., Mo, Y., Li, J., Guo, W. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'In-situ monitoring techniques for membrane fouling and local filtration characteristics in hollow fiber membrane processes: A critical review', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 528, pp. 187-200.
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Li, X., Tao, M., Wu, C., Du, K. & Wu, Q. 2017, 'Spalling strength of rock under different static pre-confining pressures', International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 99, pp. 69-74.
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Li, Y. & Li, J. 2017, 'On rate-dependent mechanical model for adaptive magnetorheological elastomer base isolator', Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 26, no. 4.
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Lim, S., Park, M.J., Phuntsho, S., Tijing, L.D., Nisola, G.M., Shim, W.G., Chung, W.J. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Dual-layered nanocomposite substrate membrane based on polysulfone/graphene oxide for mitigating internal concentration polarization in forward osmosis', Polymer (United Kingdom), vol. 110, pp. 36-48.
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Liu, J., Wu, C. & Chen, X. 2017, 'Numerical study of ultra-high performance concrete under non-deformable projectile penetration', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 135, pp. 447-458.
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Liu, J., Wu, C., Li, J., Su, Y., Shao, R., Liu, Z. & Chen, G. 2017, 'Experimental and numerical study of reactive powder concrete reinforced with steel wire mesh against projectile penetration', International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 109, pp. 131-149.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on impact resistance of reactive powder concrete (RPC) targets reinforced with 44-layer steel wire meshes. Steel ogive-nosed projectiles with an average mass of 330 g and striking velocities ranging from 550 m/s to 800 m/s were launched against the cylindrical RPC targets with 750 mm diameter and 700 mm thickness. The impact responses observed in the tests, including depth of penetration (DOP), crater diameter and volume loss, were investigated and discussed, which indicates an effective impact resistance of steel wire mesh reinforced RPC in comparison with the previous studies on ultra-high performance based cement composites (UHPCC) with additions of fibres and basalt aggregates. Numerical studies based on validated material and element models are also conducted to simulate the impact responses of reinforced RPC targets against high-velocity projectile penetration in explicit hydro-code LS-DYNA. The impact responses, especially for the DOP, are well predicted by using the numerical models. Moreover, further investigation based on the verified numerical model s is discussed in the present paper to explore the influence of mechanical and physical properties of steel wire mesh reinforcement on the resistance of projectile penetration.

Liu, Y., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Sun, J., Wang, D., Peng, L. & Ni, B.-.J. 2017, 'Modeling aerobic biotransformation of vinyl chloride by vinyl chloride-assimilating bacteria, methanotrophs and ethenotrophs.', J Hazard Mater, vol. 332, pp. 97-103.
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Recent studies have investigated the potential of enhanced groundwater Vinyl Chloride (VC) remediation in the presence of methane and ethene through the interactions of VC-assimilating bacteria, methanotrophs and ethenotrophs. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to describe aerobic biotransformation of VC in the presence of methane and ethene for the first time. It examines the metabolism of VC by VC-assimilating bacteria as well as cometabolism of VC by both methanotrophs and ethenotrophs, using methane and ethene respectively, under aerobic conditions. The developed model was successfully calibrated and validated using experimental data from microcosms with different experimental conditions. The model satisfactorily describes VC, methane and ethene dynamics in all microcosms tested. Modeling results describe that methanotrophic cometabolism of ethene promotes ethenotrophic VC cometabolism, which significantly enhances aerobic VC degradation in the presence of methane and ethene. This model is expected to be a useful tool to support effective and efficient processes for groundwater VC remediation.

Liu, Y., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Zhou, J., Peng, L., Wang, D., Chen, X., Sun, J. & Ni, B.J. 2017, 'Optimizing sulfur-driven mixotrophic denitrification process: System performance and nitrous oxide emission', Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 172, pp. 414-422.
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© 2017 Nitrate contamination of groundwater has been recognized as a significant environmental problem world widely. Sulfur-driven mixotrophic denitrification has been demonstrated as a promising groundwater treatment process, which though plays an important role in nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, significantly contributing to the overall carbon footprint of the system. However, the current process optimizations only focus on nitrate removal and excess sulfate control, with the N 2 O emission being ignored. In this work, an integrated mathematical model was proposed to evaluate the N 2 O emission as well as the excess sulfate production and carbon source utilization in sulfur-driven mixotrophic denitrification process. In this model, autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers use their corresponding electron donors (sulfur and organic matter, respectively) to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas, with each modeled as three-step denitrification (NO 3 − to N 2 via NO 2 − and N 2 O) driven by sulfur or organic matter to describe all potential N 2 O accumulation steps. The developed model, employing model parameters previously reported in literature, was successfully validated using N 2 O and sulfate data from two mixotrophic denitrification systems with different initial conditions. Modeling results revealed substantial N 2 O accumulation due to the relatively low autotrophic N 2 O reduction activity as compared to heterotrophic N 2 O reduction activity, explaining the observation that higher carbon source addition resulted in lower N 2 O accumulation in sulfur-driven mixotrophic denitrifying system. Based on the validated model, optimizations of the overall system performance were carried out. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of sulfur-driven mixotrophic denitrification process indicates that longer sludge retention time reduces N 2 O emission due to better retention of active biomass. High-level total nitrogen removal with significant N 2 O ...

Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhao, Z., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Zhou, J., Peng, L. & Ni, B.-.J. 2017, 'A modeling approach to direct interspecies electron transfer process in anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane.', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 855-863.
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Recent studies have shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) plays an important part in contributing to methane production from anaerobic digestion. However, so far anaerobic digestion models that have been proposed only consider two pathways for methane production, namely, acetoclastic methanogenesis and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, via indirect interspecies hydrogen transfer, which lacks an effective way for incorporating DIET into this paradigm. In this work, a new mathematical model is specifically developed to describe DIET process in anaerobic digestion through introducing extracellular electron transfer as a new pathway for methane production, taking anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane as an example. The developed model was able to successfully predict experimental data on methane dynamics under different experimental conditions, supporting the validity of the developed model. Modeling predictions clearly demonstrated that DIET plays an important role in contributing to overall methane production (up to 33 %) and conductive material (i.e., carbon cloth) addition would significantly promote DIET through increasing ethanol conversion rate and methane production rate. The model developed in this work will potentially enhance our current understanding on syntrophic metabolism via DIET.

Liu, Z., Ju, X., Wu, C. & Liang, J. 2017, 'Scattering of plane P1 waves and dynamic stress concentration by a lined tunnel in a fluid-saturated poroelastic half-space', Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 67, pp. 71-84.
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Loganathan, P., Naidu, G. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Mining valuable minerals from seawater: A critical review', Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 37-53.
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Naidu, G., Jeong, S., Choi, Y. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Membrane distillation for wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate treatment with water reuse potential', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 524, pp. 565-575.
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Naidu, G., Shim, W.G., Jeong, S., Choi, Y.K., Ghaffour, N. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 172, pp. 285-295.
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Narottam Saha, M. Safiur Rahman, Ahmed, M., ZHou, Ngo & Guo 2017, 'Industrial metal pollution in water and probabilistic assessment of human health risk', Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 185, pp. 70-78.
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Concentration of eight heavy metals in surface and groundwater around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) industrial area were investigated, and the health risk posed to local children and adult residents via ingestion and dermal contact was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Metal concentrations (except Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in Bangshi River water were above the drinking water quality guidelines, while in groundwater were less than the recommended limits. Concentration of metals in surface water decreased as a function of distance. Estimations of non-carcinogenic health risk for surface water revealed that mean hazard index (HI) values of As, Cr, Cu, and Pb for combined pathways (i.e., ingestion and dermal contact) were >1.0 for both age groups. The estimated risk mainly came from the ingestion pathway. However, the HI values for all the examined metals in groundwater were <1.0, indicating no possible human health hazard. Deterministically estimated total cancer risk (TCR) via Bangshi River water exceeded the acceptable limit of 1 104 for adult and children. Although, probabilistically estimated 95th percentile values of TCR exceeded the benchmark, mean TCR values were less than 1 104 . Simulated results showed that 20.13% and 5.43% values of TCR for surface water were >1 104 for adult and children, respectively. Deterministic and probabilistic estimations of cancer risk through exposure to groundwater were well below the safety limit. Overall, the population exposed to Bangshi River water remained at carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health threat and the risk was higher for adults. Sensitivity analysis identified exposure duration (ED) and ingestion rate (IR) of water as the most relevant variables affecting the probabilistic risk estimation model outcome. ©

Nguyen, D.D., Chang, S.W., Cha, J.H., Jeong, S.Y., Yoon, Y.S., Lee, S.J., Tran, M.C. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'Dry semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in the mesophilic and thermophilic modes: New aspects of sustainable management and energy recovery in South Korea', Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 135, pp. 445-452.
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Nguyen, D.D., Yeop, J.S., Choi, J., Kim, S., Chang, S.W., Jeon, B.-.H., Guo, W. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'A new approach for concurrently improving performance of South Korean food waste valorization and renewable energy recovery via dry anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.', Waste Management, vol. 66, pp. 161-168.
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Dry semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of South Korean food waste (FW) under four solid loading rates (SLRs) (2.30-9.21kg total solids (TS)/m(3)day) and at a fixed TS content was compared between two digesters, one each under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Biogas production and organic matter reduction in both digesters followed similar trends, increasing with rising SLR. Inhibitor (intermediate products of the anaerobic fermentation process) effects on the digesters' performance were not observed under the studied conditions. In all cases tested, the digesters' best performance was achieved at the SLR of 9.21kg TS/m(3)day, with 74.02% and 80.98% reduction of volatile solids (VS), 0.87 and 0.90m(3) biogas/kg VSremoved, and 0.65 (65% CH4) and 0.73 (60.02% CH4) m(3) biogas/kg VSfed, under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Thermophilic dry AD is recommended for FW treatment in South Korea because it is more efficient and has higher energy recovery potential when compared to mesophilic dry AD.

Nguyen, D.D., Yoon, Y.S., Nguyen, N.D., Bach, Q.V., Bui, X.T., Chang, S.W., Le, H.S., Guo, W. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'Enhanced efficiency for better wastewater sludge hydrolysis conversion through ultrasonic hydrolytic pretreatment', Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 71, pp. 244-252.
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© 2016 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers.The major requirements for accelerating the process of anaerobic digestion and energy production are breaking the structure of waste activated sludge (WAS), and transforming it into a soluble form suitable for biodegradation. This work investigated and analysed a novel bench-scale ultrasonic system for WAS disruption and hydrolysis using ultrasonic homogenization. Different commercial sonoreactors were used at low frequencies under a variety of operating conditions (intensity, density, power, sonication time, and total suspended solids) to evaluate the effects of the equipment on sludge hydrolysis and to generate new insights into the empirical models and mechanisms applicable to the real-world processing of wastewater sludge. A relationship was established between the operating parameters and the experimental data. Results indicated an increase in sonication time or ultrasonic intensity correlated with improved sludge hydrolysis rates, sludge temperature, and reduction rate of volatile solids (33.51%). It also emerged that ultrasonication could effectively accelerate WAS hydrolysis to achieve disintegration within 5-10 min, depending on the ultrasonic intensity. This study also determined multiple alternative parameters to increase the efficiency of sludge treatment and organic matter reduction, and establish the practicality of applying ultrasonics to wastewater sludge pretreatment.

Nguyen, L., Fatahi, B. & Khabbaz, H. 2017, 'Development of a Constitutive Model to Predict the Behavior of Cement-Treated Clay during Cementation Degradation: C3 Model', International Journal of Geomechanic.
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Nguyen, N.C., Chen, S.S., Nguyen, H.T., Chen, Y.H., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Ray, S.S., Chang, H.M. & Le, Q.H. 2017, 'Applicability of an integrated moving sponge biocarrier-osmotic membrane bioreactor MD system for saline wastewater treatment using highly salt-tolerant microorganisms', Separation and Purification Technology.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Osmotic membrane bioreactors (OsMBRs) are a recent breakthrough technology designed to treat wastewater. Nevertheless, their application in high-salinity wastewater treatment is not widespread because of the effects of saline conditions on microbial community activity. In response, this study developed an integrated sponge biocarrier-OsMBR system using highly salt-tolerant microorganisms for treating saline wastewater. Results showed that the sponge biocarrier-OsMBR obtained an average water flux of 2L/m2 h during a 92-day operation when 1M MgCl2 was used as the draw solution. The efficiency in removing dissolved organic compounds from the proposed system was more than 99%, and nutrient rejection was close to 100%, indicating excellent performance in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes in the biofilm layer on the carriers. Moreover, salt-tolerant microorganisms in the sponge biocarrier-OsMBR system worked efficiently in salt concentrations of 2.4%. A polytetrafluoroethylene MD membrane (pores=0.45μm) served to regenerate the diluted draw solution in the closed-loop system and produce high-quality water. The moving sponge biocarrier-OsMBR/MD hybrid system demonstrated its potential to treat salinity wastewater treatment, with 100% nutrient removal and 99.9% conductivity rejection.

Nguyen, T.T., Bui, X.T., Luu, V.P., Nguyen, P.D., Guo, W. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'Removal of antibiotics in sponge membrane bioreactors treating hospital wastewater: Comparison between hollow fiber and flat sheet membrane systems', Bioresource Technology.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd.Hollow fiber (HF) and flat sheet (FS) Sponge MBRs were operated at 10-20 LMH flux treating hospital wastewater. Simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) occurred considerably with TN removal rate of 0.011-0.020mg TN mgVSS-1 d-1. Furthermore, there was a remarkable removal of antibiotics in both Sponge MBRs, namely Norfloxacin (93-99% (FS); 62-86% (HF)), Ofloxacin (73-93% (FS); 68-93% (HF)), Ciprofloxacin (76-93% (FS); 54-70% (HF)), Tetracycline (approximately 100% for both FS and HF) and Trimethoprim (60-97% (FS); 47-93% (HF). Whereas there was a quite high removal efficiency of Erythromycin in Sponge MBRs, with 67-78% (FS) and 22-48% (HF). Moreover, a slightly higher removal of antibiotics in FS than in HF achieved, with the removal rate being of 0.67-32.40 and 0.44-30.42μgmgVSS-1 d-1, respectively. In addition, a significant reduction of membrane fouling of 2-50 times was achieved in HF-Sponge MBR for the flux range.

Pathak, N., Chekli, L., Wang, J., Kim, Y., Phuntsho, S., Li, S., Ghaffour, N., Leiknes, T. & Shon, H. 2017, 'Performance of a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system under continuous operation for simultaneous nutrient removal and mitigation of brine discharge.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 240, pp. 50-58.
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The present study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor system for wastewater treatment employing baffles in the reactor. Thus, this reactor design enables both aerobic and anoxic processes in an attempt to reduce the process footprint and energy costs associated with continuous aeration. The process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, salinity build up in the bioreactor, organic and nutrient removal and microbial activity using synthetic reverse osmosis (RO) brine as draw solution (DS). The incorporation of MF membrane was effective in maintaining a reasonable salinity level (612-1434mg/L) in the reactor which resulted in a much lower flux decline (i.e. 11.48-6.98LMH) as compared to previous studies. The stable operation of the osmotic membrane bioreactor-forward osmosis (OMBR-FO) process resulted in an effective removal of both organic matter (97.84%) and nutrient (phosphate 87.36% and total nitrogen 94.28%), respectively.

Phan, T.N., Van Truong, T.T., Ha, N.B., Nguyen, P.D., Bui, X.T., Dang, B.T., Doan, V.T., Park, J., Guo, W. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'High rate nitrogen removal by ANAMMOX internal circulation reactor (IC) for old landfill leachate treatment', Bioresource Technology, vol. 234, pp. 281-288.
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Phuntsho, S., Kim, J.E., Hong, S., Ghaffour, N., Leiknes, T.O., Choi, J.Y. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'A closed-loop forward osmosis-nanofiltration hybrid system: Understanding process implications through full-scale simulation', Desalination.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.This study presents simulation of a closed-loop forward osmosis (FO)-nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system using fertiliser draw solution (DS) based on thermodynamic mass balance in a full-scale system neglecting the non-idealities such as finite membrane area that may exist in a real process. The simulation shows that the DS input parameters such as initial concentrations and its flow rates cannot be arbitrarily selected for a plant with defined volume output. For a fixed FO-NF plant capacity and feed concentration, the required initial DS flow rate varies inversely with the initial DS concentration or vice-versa. The net DS mass flow rate, a parameter constant for a fixed plant capacity but that increases linearly with the plant capacity and feed concentration, is the most important operational parameter of a closed-loop system. Increasing either of them or both increases the mass flow rate to the system directly affecting the final concentration of the diluted DS with direct energy implications to the NF process. Besides, the initial DS concentration and flow rates are also limited by the optimum recovery rates at which NF process can be operated which otherwise also have direct implications to the NF energy. This simulation also presents quantitative analysis of the reverse diffusion of fertiliser nutrients towards feed brine and the gradual accumulation of feed solutes within the closed system.

Plattner, J., Naidu, G., Wintgens, T., Vigneswaran, S. & Kazner, C. 2017, 'Fluoride removal from groundwater using direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and vacuum enhanced DCMD (VEDCMD)', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 180, pp. 125-132.
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Qi, F., Dong, Z., Lamb, D., Naidu, R., Bolan, N.S., Ok, Y.S., Liu, C., Khan, N., Johir, M.A.H. & Semple, K.T. 2017, 'Effects of acidic and neutral biochars on properties and cadmium retention of soils', Chemosphere, vol. 180, pp. 564-573.
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Qu, X., Yi, W., Wang, T., Wang, S., Xiao, L. & Liu, Z. 2017, 'Mixed-Integer Linear Programming Models for Teaching Assistant Assignment and Extensions', Scientific Programming, vol. 2017.
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Ren, F., Yu, Y., Yang, J., Xin, C. & He, Y. 2017, 'A Mathematical Model for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite in Melt Impregnation', Applied Composite Materials, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 675-690.
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Through the combination of Reynolds equation and Darcy’s law, a mathematical model was established to calculate the pressure distribution in wedge area, which contributed to the forecast effect of processing parameters on impregnation degree of the fiber bundle. The experiments were conducted to verify the capacity of the proposed model with satisfactory results, which means that the model is effective in predicting the influence of processing parameters on impregnation. From the mathematical model, it was known that the impregnation degree of the fiber bundle would be improved by increasing the processing temperature, number and radius of pins, or decreasing the pulling speed and the center distance of pins, which provided a possible solution to the difficulty of melt with high viscosity in melt impregnation and optimization of impregnation processing.

Ren, F., Zhang, C., Yu, Y., Xin, C., Tang, K. & He, Y. 2017, 'A Modeling Approach to Fiber Fracture in Melt Impregnation', Applied Composite Materials, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 193-207.
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he effect of process variables such as roving pulling speed, melt temperature and number of pins on the fiber fracture during the processing of thermoplastic based composites was investigated in this study. The melt impregnation was used in this process of continuous glass fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites. Previous investigators have suggested a variety of models for melt impregnation, while comparatively little effort has been spent on modeling the fiber fracture caused by the viscous resin. Herein, a mathematical model was developed for impregnation process to predict the fiber fracture rate and describe the experimental results with the Weibull intensity distribution function. The optimal parameters of this process were obtained by orthogonal experiment. The results suggest that the fiber fracture is caused by viscous shear stress on fiber bundle in melt impregnation mold when pulling the fiber bundle.

Ren, J., Woo, Y.C., Yao, M., Tijing, L.D. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Enhancement of nanoscale zero-valent iron immobilization onto electrospun polymeric nanofiber mats for groundwater remediation', Process Safety and Environmental Protection.
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© 2017 Institution of Chemical Engineers. A new approach that combines nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with electrospinning technology has been put forward to avoid nZVI agglomeration and a secondary pollution. In this study, to enhance the immobilization of nZVI particles onto the polyacrylic acid (PAA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofiber mat, mats (M1, M2 and M3) with different PAA/PVA mass ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1) were tested for the immobilization of nZVI particles and their performance of removing contaminants. The results indicate that M3 immobilized the most nZVI particles (48.4. wt% on the mat, ∼2.5 times the figure for previous study) and had the highest removals to methylene blue and Cu(II) ions at 94% and 83.6% respectively, resulting from more free carboxylic groups available on the cross-linked nanofibers as well as a higher porosity into the mat. Therefore, increasing the PAA/PVA ratio is effective to boost the performance of nZVI-PAA/PVA electrospun nanofiber mat, which has a great potential for the application of nZVI-targeted contaminants remediation.

Roobavannan, M., Kandasamy, J., Pande, S., Vigneswaran, S. & Sivapalan, M. 2017, 'Allocating Environmental Water and Impact on Basin Unemployment: Role of A Diversified Economy', Ecological Economics, vol. 136, pp. 178-188.
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Sahebi, S., Phuntsho, S., Tijing, L., Han, G., Han, D.S., Abdel-Wahab, A. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Thin-film composite membrane on a compacted woven backing fabric for pressure assisted osmosis', Desalination, vol. 406, pp. 98-108.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.The water flux in forward osmosis (FO) process declines substantially when the draw solution (DS) concentration reaches closer to the point of osmotic equilibrium with the feed solution (FS). Using external hydraulic pressure alongside the osmotic driving force in the pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) has been found effective in terms of enhancing water flux and even potentially diluting the DS beyond osmotic equilibrium. The net gain in water flux due to the applied pressure in the PAO process closely depends on the permeability of the FO membrane. The commercial flat sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane has low water permeability and hence the effective gain in water flux in the PAO process is low. In this study, a high performance thin film composite membrane was developed especially for the PAO process through casting polyethersulfone (PES) polymer solution on a compacted woven fabric mesh support followed by interfacial polymerisation for polyamide active layer. This PAO membrane possesses a water flux of 37Lm2 h-1 using 0.5M NaCl as DS and deionised water as the feed at an applied hydraulic pressure of 10bar. Besides, the membrane was able to endure the external hydraulic pressure required for the PAO process owing to the embedded backing fabric support. While the membranes with low structural parameters are essential for higher water flux, this study shows that for PAO process, polymeric membranes with larger structural parameters may not be suitable for PAO. They generally resulted in compaction and poor mechanical strength to withstand hydraulic pressure.

Sakal, A., Ball, J. & van Kalken, T. 2017, 'Concept of the Integrated Hydrological Ensemble Prediction System applied for the Nattai River Catchment, Australia', Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, pp. 1-8.
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Shakor, P., Sanjayan, J., Nazari, A. & Nejadi, S. 2017, 'Modified 3D printed powder to cement-based material and mechanical properties of cement scaffold used in 3D printing', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 138, pp. 398-409.
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Shanmuganathan, S., Loganathan, P., Kazner, C., Johir, M.A.H. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system for the removal of organic micropollutants from a water reclamation plant reverse osmosis concentrate', DESALINATION, vol. 401, pp. 134-141.
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Shi, W., Chen, Q., Nimbalka, S. & Liu, W. 2017, 'A new mixing technique for solidifier and dredged fill in coastal area', Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 52-61.
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2016 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLCOne of the major drawbacks of the conventional method of land reclamation, which involves mixing cement with the dredged soils at the disposal site, is the high cost associated with its manufacturing and transportation. In this study, a new solidified dredged fill (SDF) technique and a new additive are proposed and their practical applications are discussed. Unlike the conventional approach, the dredged marine soils were mixed with the solidifiers using a newly designed mixing technique prior to its transport to site, which would significantly reduce the cost of site machinery and effectively reclaim land with adequate engineering properties necessary for the construction of infrastructure. To evaluate the performance of the reclaimed land using the proposed technique, a series of laboratory and field tests (namely, static and dynamic cone penetration tests, and plate load tests) were conducted on grounds filled with and without solidified dredged marine soils, respectively. The results showed that the engineering behavior of the reclaimed land with dredged marine soils using SDF technique had significantly improved. The SDF technique combined with the newly designed mixing system improved the performance of ground and has thus proved to be both cost-effective and safe.

Sountharajah, D.P., Kus, B., Kandasamy, J. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Quantifying the reduction in water demand due to rainwater tank installations at residential properties in sydney', Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 202-218.
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Sounthararajah, D.P., Loganathan, P., Kandasamy, J. & Vigneswaran, S. 2017, 'Removing heavy metals using permeable pavement system with a titanate nano-fibrous adsorbent column as a post treatment.', Chemosphere, vol. 168, pp. 467-473.
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Permeable pavement systems (PPS) are a widely-used treatment measure in sustainable stormwater management and groundwater recharge. However, PPS are not very efficient in removing heavy metals from stormwater. A pilot scale study using zeolite or basalt as bed material in PPS removed 41-72%, 67-74%, 38-43%, 61-72%, 63-73% of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively, from synthetic stormwater (pH 6.5; Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations of 0.04, 0.6, 0.06, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L(-1), respectively) over a period of 80 h. The total volume of stormwater that passed through the PPS was equivalent to runoff in 10 years of rainfall in Sydney, Australia. The concentrations of metals in the PPS effluent failed fresh and marine water quality trigger values recommended in the Australian and New Zealand guidelines. An addition of a post-treatment of a horizontal filter column containing a titanate nano-fibrous (TNF) material with a weight < 1% of zeolite weight and mixed in with granular activated carbon (GAC) at a GAC:TNF weight ratio of 25:1 removed 77% of Ni and 99-100% of all the other metals. The effluent easily met the required standards of marine waters and just met those concerning fresh waters. Batch adsorption data from solutions of metals mixtures fitted the Langmuir model with adsorption capacities in the following order, TNF ≫ zeolite > basalt; Pb > Cu > Cd, Ni, Zn.

Su, Y., Li, J., Wu, C., Wu, P., Tao, M. & Li, X. 2017, 'Mesoscale study of steel fibre-reinforced ultra-high performance concrete under static and dynamic loads', Materials and Design, vol. 116, pp. 340-351.
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Su, Y., Wu, C., Li, J., Li, Z.X. & Li, W. 2017, 'Development of novel ultra-high performance concrete: From material to structure', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 135, pp. 517-528.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This paper investigates effects of nanoscale materials and steel fibres on properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Different types of steel fibres including twisted steel fibre (TF), waved steel fibre (WF), and micro steel fibre (MF) together with different kinds of nano materials including Nano-CaCO 3 , Nano-SiO 2 , Nano-TiO 2 and Nano-Al 2 O 3 are studied in the present research. Material compressive stress–strain relationships, strain energy absorption, the flexural strength and fracture energy absorption of UHPC with different nanoscale materials and steel fibres were compared and discussed. Laboratory static bending tests and field blast tests on structural components made of selected UHPC material composition were carried out, and the results highlighted the superior material ductility and blast resistant capacity of UHPC material developed in the present study.

Sun, J., Dai, X., Liu, Y., Peng, L. & Ni, B.J. 2017, 'Sulfide removal and sulfur production in a membrane aerated biofilm reactor: Model evaluation', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 309, pp. 454-462.
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Sun, Y., Indraratna, B., Carter, J.P., Marchant, T. & Nimbalkar, S. 2017, 'Application of fractional calculus in modelling ballast deformation under cyclic loading', Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 82, pp. 16-30.
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Surawski, N.C., Bezantakos, S., Barmpounis, K., Dallaston, M.C., Schmidt-Ott, A. & Biskos, G. 2017, 'A tunable high-pass filter for simple and inexpensive size-segregation of sub-10-nm nanoparticles.', Scientific Reports, vol. 7.
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Recent advanced in the fields of nanotechnology and atmospheric sciences underline the increasing need for sizing sub-10-nm aerosol particles in a simple yet efficient way. In this article, we develop, experimentally test and model the performance of a High-Pass Electrical Mobility Filter (HP-EMF) that can be used for sizing nanoparticles suspended in gaseous media. Experimental measurements of the penetration of nanoparticles having diameters down to ca 1nm through the HP-EMF are compared with predictions by an analytic, a semi-empirical and a numerical model. The results show that the HP-EMF effectively filters nanoparticles below a threshold diameter with an extremely high level of sizing performance, while it is easier to use compared to existing nanoparticle sizing techniques through design simplifications. What is more, the HP-EMF is an inexpensive and compact tool, making it an enabling technology for a variety of applications ranging from nanomaterial synthesis to distributed monitoring of atmospheric nanoparticles.

Tran, V.S., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Ton-That, C., Li, J., Li, J. & Liu, Y. 2017, 'Removal of antibiotics (sulfamethazine, tetracycline and chloramphenicol) from aqueous solution by raw and nitrogen plasma modified steel shavings.', Sci Total Environ, vol. 601-602, pp. 845-856.
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The removal of sulfamethazine (SMT), tetracycline (TC) and chloramphenicol (CP) from synthetic wastewater by raw (M3) and nitrogen plasma modified steel shavings (M3-plN2) was investigated using batch experiments. The adsorption kinetics could be expressed by both pseudo-first-order kinetic (PFO) and pseudo-second-order kinetic (PSO) models, where correlation coefficient r(2) values were high. The values of PFO rate constant k1p and PSO rate constant k2p decreased as SMT-M3>SMT-M3-plN2>TC-M3-plN2>TC-M3>CP-M3>CP-M3-plN2 and SMT-M3>SMT-M3-plN2>TC-M3>TC-M3-plN2>CP-M3>CP-M3-plN2, respectively. Solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature exerted great influences on the adsorption process. The plasma modification with nitrogen gas cleaned and enhanced 1.7-fold the surface area and 1.4-fold the pore volume of steel shavings. Consequently, the removal capacity of SMT, TC, CP on the adsorbent rose from 2519.98 to 2702.55, 1720.20 to 2158.36, and 2772.81 to 2920.11μg/g, respectively. Typical chemical states of iron (XPS in Fe2p3 region) in the adsorbents which are mainly responsible for removing antibiotics through hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and non- electrostatic interactions and redox reaction were as follows: Fe3O4/Fe(2+), Fe3O4/Fe(3+), FeO/Fe(2+) and Fe2O3/Fe(3+).

Vahedian, A., Shrestha, R. & Crews, K. 2017, 'Effective bond length and bond behaviour of FRP externally bonded to timber', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 151, pp. 742-742.
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Vakhshouri, B. & Nejadi, S. 2017, 'Instantaneous deflection of light-weight concrete slabs', Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering.

Vu, T.M., Trinh, V.T., Doan, D.P., Van, H.T., Nguyen, T.V., Vigneswaran, S. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'Removing ammonium from water using modified corncob-biochar', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 579, pp. 612-619.
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Ammonium pollution in groundwater and surface water is of major concern in many parts of the world due to the danger it poses to the environment and people's health. This study focuses on the development of a low cost adsorbent, specifically a modified biochar prepared from corncob. Evaluated here is the efficiency of this new material for removing ammonium from synthetic water (ammonium concentration from 10 to 100 mg/L). The characteristics of the modified biochar were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that ammonium adsorption on modified biochar strongly depended on pH. Adsorption kinetics of NH4+-N using modified biochar followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherm models could simulate well the adsorption behavior of ammonium on modificated biochar. The highest adsorption capacity of 22.6 mg NH4+-N/g modified biochar was obtained when the biochar was modified by soaking it in HNO3 6 M and NaOH 0.3 M for 8 h and 24 h, respectively. The high adsorption capacity of the modified biochar suggested that it is a promising adsorbent for NH4+-N remediation from water

Vu, T.M., Trinh, V.T., Doan, D.P., Van, H.T., Nguyen, T.V., Vigneswaran, S. & Ngo, H.H. 2017, 'Removing ammonium from water using modified corncob-biochar', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 579, pp. 612-619.
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Ammonium pollution in groundwater and surface water is of major concern in many parts of the world due to the danger it poses to the environment and people's health. This study focuses on the development of a low cost adsorbent, specifically a modified biochar prepared from corncob. Evaluated here is the efficiency of this new material for removing ammonium from synthetic water (ammonium concentration from 10 to 100 mg/L). The characteristics of the modified biochar were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that ammonium adsorption on modified biochar strongly depended on pH. Adsorption kinetics of NH4+-N using modified biochar followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherm models could simulate well the adsorption behavior of ammonium on modificated biochar. The highest adsorption capacity of 22.6 mg NH4+-N/g modified biochar was obtained when the biochar was modified by soaking it in HNO3 6 M and NaOH 0.3 M for 8 h and 24 h, respectively. The high adsorption capacity of the modified biochar suggested that it is a promising adsorbent for NH4+-N remediation from water

Wang, H., Wu, C., Zhang, F., Fang, Q., Xiang, H., Li, P., Li, Z., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Y. & Li, J. 2017, 'Experimental study of large-sized concrete filled steel tube columns under blast load', Construction and Building Materials, vol. 134, pp. 131-141.
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Wang, J., Pathak, N., Chekli, L., Phuntsho, S., Kim, Y., Li, D. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Performance of a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis aerobic membrane bioreactor (FDFO-MBR): Mitigating salinity build-up by integrating microfiltration', Water (Switzerland), vol. 9, no. 1.
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Wang, J., Yang, G., Liu, H., Shrawan Nimbalkar, S., Tang, X. & Xiao, Y. 2017, 'Seismic response of concrete-rockfill combination dam using large-scale shaking table tests', Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 99, pp. 9-19.
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Wang, S., Liu, Z. & Qu, X. 2017, 'Weekly container delivery patterns in liner shipping planning models', Maritime Policy and Management, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 442-457.
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Wang, S., Qu, X., Wang, T. & Yi, W. 2017, 'Optimal container routing in liner shipping networks considering repacking 20 ft containers into 40 ft containers', Journal of Advanced Transportation, vol. 2017.
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Wang, X. & Wang, J.G. 2017, 'Detecting glass in Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping', Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 88, pp. 97-103.
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Wei, D., Zhang, K., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Wang, S., Li, J., Han, F., Du, B. & Wei, Q. 2017, 'Nitrogen removal via nitrite in a partial nitrification sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high strength ammonia wastewater and its greenhouse gas emission.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 230, pp. 49-55.
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In present study, the feasibility of partial nitrification (PN) process achievement and its greenhouse gas emission were evaluated in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). After 90days' operation, the average effluent NH4(+)-N removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate of PN-SBBR were high of 98.2% and 87.6%, respectively. Both polysaccharide and protein contents were reduced in loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) during the achievement of PN-biofilm. Excitation-emission matrix spectra implied that aromatic protein-like, tryptophan protein-like and humic acid-like substances were the main compositions of both kinds of EPS in seed sludge and PN-biofilm. According to typical cycle, the emission rate of CO2 had a much higher value than that of N2O, and their total amounts per cycle were 67.7 and 16.5mg, respectively. Free ammonia (FA) played a significant role on the inhibition activity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and the occurrence of nitrite accumulation.

Woo, Y.C., Chen, Y., Tijing, L.D., Phuntsho, S., He, T., Choi, J.S., Kim, S.H. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'CF4 plasma-modified omniphobic electrospun nanofiber membrane for produced water brine treatment by membrane distillation', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 529, pp. 234-242.
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Woo, Y.C., Tijing, L.D., Park, M.J., Yao, M., Choi, J.S., Lee, S., Kim, S.H., An, K.J. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Electrospun dual-layer nonwoven membrane for desalination by air gap membrane distillation', Desalination, vol. 403, pp. 187-198.
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© 2015 Elsevier B.V. In the present study, dual-layer nanofiber nonwoven membranes were prepared by a facile electrospinning technique and applied for desalination by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD). Neat single and dual-layer nanofiber membranes composed of a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PH) top layer with different supporting hydrophilic layer made of either polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), nylon-6 (N6), or polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were fabricated with and without heat-press post-treatment. Surface characterization showed that the active layer (i.e., PH) of all electrospun nanofiber membranes (ENMs) exhibited a rough, highly porous (>80% porosity), and hydrophobic surface (CA>140°), while the other side was hydrophilic (CA<90°) with varying porosity. Heat-pressing the membrane resulted to thinner thickness (from >129μm to <100μm) and smaller pore sizes (<0.27μm). The AGMD experiments in a co-current flow set-up were carried out with constant inlet temperatures at the feed and permeate streams of 60±1.5 and 20±1.5°C, respectively. The AGMD module had a membrane area of 21cm<sup>2</sup> and the thickness of the air gap was 3mm. The neat single and dual-layer ENMs showed a water permeate flux of about 10.9-15.5L/m<sup>2</sup> h (LMH) using 3.5wt.% NaCl solution as feed, which was much higher than that of a commercial PVDF membrane (~5LMH). The provision of a hydrophilic layer at the bottom layer enhanced the AGMD performance depending on the wettability and characteristics of the support layer. The PH/N6 dual-layer nanofiber membrane prepared under the optimum condition showed flux and salt rejection of 15.5LMH and 99.2%, respectively, which has good potential for AGMD application.

Wu, H., Zhang, J., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W. & Liang, S. 2017, 'Evaluating the sustainability of free water surface flow constructed wetlands: Methane and nitrous oxide emissions', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 147, pp. 152-156.
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Wu, Y., Yang, Q., Zeng, Q., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W. & Zhang, H. 2017, 'Enhanced low C/N nitrogen removal in an innovative microbial fuel cell (MFC) with electroconductivity aerated membrane (EAM) as biocathode', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 316, pp. 315-322.
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Yang, S., Phan, H.V., Bustamante, H., Guo, W., Ngo, H.H. & Nghiem, L.D. 2017, 'Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 234, pp. 439-447.
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Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening.

Yao, M., Woo, Y.C., Tijing, L.D., Cesarini, C. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Improving nanofiber membrane characteristics and membrane distillation performance of heat-pressed membranes via annealing post-treatment', Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol. 7, no. 1.
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Ye, Y., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Liu, Y., Li, J., Liu, Y., Zhang, X. & Jia, H. 2017, 'Insight into chemical phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater.', Sci Total Environ, vol. 576, pp. 159-171.
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Phosphate plays an irreplaceable role in the production of fertilizers. However, its finite availability may not be enough to satisfy increasing demands for the fertilizer production worldwide. In this scenario, phosphate recovery can effectively alleviate this problem. Municipal wastewater has received high priority to recover phosphate because its quantity is considerable. Therefore, phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater can bring many benefits such as relieving the burden of increasing production of fertilizers and reduction in occurrence of eutrophication caused by the excessive concentration of phosphate in the released effluent. The chemical processes are the most widely applied in phosphate recovery in municipal wastewater treatment because they are highly stable and efficient, and simple to operate. This paper compares chemical technologies for phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater. As phosphate in the influent is transferred to the liquid and sludge phases, a technical overview of chemical phosphate recovery in both phases is presented with reference to mechanism, efficiency and the main governing parameters. Moreover, an analysis on their applications at plant-scale is also presented. The properties of recovered phosphate and its impact on crops and plants are also assessed with a discussion on the economic feasibility of the technologies.

Zhang, F., Wu, C., Zhao, X.L. & Li, Z.X. 2017, 'Numerical derivation of pressure-impulse diagrams for square UHPCFDST columns', Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 115, pp. 188-195.
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Zhang, F., Wu, C., Zhao, X.L., Heidarpour, A. & Li, Z. 2017, 'Experimental and numerical study of blast resistance of square CFDST columns with steel-fibre reinforced concrete', Engineering Structures.
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.In recent years, a large number of studies have been carried out to investigate behaviours of concrete filled double skin steel tube (CFDST) members due to its increasing popularity in the construction industry. This paper firstly presents an experimental study on ultra-high performance concrete filled double-skin tubes subjected to close-range blast loading with cross section being square for both inner and outer steel tubes. It is evident that the proposed CFDST column was able to withstand a large blast load without failure so that it has the potential to be used in high-value buildings as well as critical infrastructures. Then, to further investigate the behaviours of the proposed CFDST column, a number of parametric studies were carried out by using a numerical model which was developed and calibrated based on the data acquired from the blast test along with some laboratory tests. Parameters that affect the behaviours of concrete filled double skin steel tube (CFDST) members against blasts are characterised.

Zhang, J., Sun, H., Wang, W., Hu, Z., Yin, X., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W. & Fan, J. 2017, 'Enhancement of surface flow constructed wetlands performance at low temperature through seasonal plant collocation.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 224, pp. 222-228.
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In the present study, a novel seasonal plant collocation system (SPCS), specifically the Potamogeton crispus and Phragmites australis series system, was investigated to enhance the performance of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) at low temperature. Results of a year-round experiment showed that SPCS conquered the adverse effect of low temperature and achieved sustainable nutrients removal. In addition, during winter, removal efficiencies of NH4-N, TP, COD, and TN in SPCS were 18.1%, 17.6%, 10.1% and 5.2% higher than that in the control, respectively. P. crispus and P. australis complemented each other in terms of plant growth and plant uptake during the experiment period. Furthermore, it emerged that P. crispus could increase the quantity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria by 10.2%, due to its high oxygen enrichment ability. It is suggested that seasonal plant collocation has a promising future in SFCWs of areas being affected by climate change, e.g. northern China.

Zhao, Y., Phuntsho, S., Gao, B. & Shon, H. 2017, 'Polytitanium sulfate (PTS): Coagulation application and Ti species detection', Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), vol. 52, pp. 250-258.
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© 2016.Interest in the development of inorganic polymerized coagulants is growing; however, there are only limited studies on the synthesis of polytitanium coagulants, which are expected to exhibit improved coagulation efficiency with better floc properties. This study presents the synthesis of polytitanium sulfate (PTS) for potential application in water purification, followed by characterization of PTS flocs and titanium species detection. Stable PTS solutions were successfully synthesized and standard jar tests were conducted to evaluate their coagulation efficiency. Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) speciation analysis revealed that a variety of mononuclear and polynuclear complexes were formed in PTS solution, indicating the polymeric nature of the synthesized coagulant. Floc characteristics were studied through on-line monitoring of floc size using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer. Results showed that PTS had a comparable or in some cases even higher organic matter and particulate removal efficiency than Ti(SO4)2. The effluent pH after PTS coagulation significantly improved toward desirable values closer to neutral pH. Properties of flocs formed by PTS were significantly improved in terms of floc size, growth rate and structure. This study showed that PTS could be an efficient and promising coagulant for water purification, with the additional benefit that its coagulated sludge can be used to recover valuable TiO2 nanoparticles for various commercial applications.

Zhao, Y., Sun, Y., Tian, C., Gao, B., Wang, Y., Shon, H. & Yang, Y. 2017, 'Titanium tetrachloride for silver nanoparticle-humic acid composite contaminant removal in coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process: floc property and membrane fouling.', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1757-1768.
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Titanium-based coagulation is expected to achieve both efficient water purification and sludge recycling. This study is the first attempt to use titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) for silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-humic acid composite contaminant removal in a coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process, where characterization of flocs and membrane fouling under varied coagulant dose, initial solution pH, and AgNP concentration conditions are the main contents. Results suggested that the TiCl4 achieved high AgNP removal in the form of silver nanoparticle through adsorption and sweep flocculation and simultaneously exerted additional 68.2 % higher dissolved organic carbon removal than Al2(SO4)3. The TiCl4 produced larger and stronger flocs but with weaker recoverability and less compact degree than did Al2(SO4)3. Floc properties were independent of AgNP concentration except floc fractal dimension, which was negatively correlated with AgNP concentration. The TiCl4 precoagulation caused less membrane fouling within wider pH range than Al2(SO4)3 did in the C-UF process. Incorporation of AgNPs during the TiCl4 pretreatment process facilitated the mitigation of membrane fouling, which was, however, negligibly influenced by AgNP concentration in the case of Al2(SO4)3.

Zheng, J., Li, Y. & Wang, J. 2017, 'Design and multi-physics optimization of a novel magnetorheological damper with a variable resistance gap', Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science.
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This paper presents the design and multi-physics optimization of a novel multi-coil magnetorheological (MR) damper with a variable resistance gap (VRG-MMD). Enabling four electromagnetic coils (EMs) with individual exciting currents, a simplified magnetic equivalent circuit was presented and the magnetic flux generated by each voltage source passing through each active gap was calculated as vector operations. To design the optimal geometry of the VRG-MMD, the multi-physics optimization problem including electromagnetics and fluid dynamics has been formulated as a multi-objective function with weighting ratios among total damping force, dynamic range, and inductive time constant. Based on the selected design variables (DVs), six cases with different weighting ratios were optimized using Bound Optimization BY Quadratic Approximation (BOBYQA) technique. Finally, the vibration performance of the optimal VRG-MMD subjected to sinusoidal and triangle displacement excitations was compared to that of the typical multi-coil MR damper.

Zhou, M., Qu, X. & Jin, S. 2017, 'On the Impact of Cooperative Autonomous Vehicles in Improving Freeway Merging: A Modified Intelligent Driver Model-Based Approach', IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp. 1-7.
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Zuthi, M.F.R., Guo, W., Ngo, H.H., Nghiem, D.L., Hai, F.I., Xia, S., Li, J., Li, J. & Liu, Y. 2017, 'New and practical mathematical model of membrane fouling in an aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor.', Bioresour Technol, vol. 238, pp. 86-94.
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This study aimed to develop a practical semi-empirical mathematical model of membrane fouling that accounts for cake formation on the membrane and its pore blocking as the major processes of membrane fouling. In the developed model, the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid is used as a lumped parameter to describe the formation of cake layer including the biofilm. The new model considers the combined effect of aeration and backwash on the foulants' detachment from the membrane. New exponential coefficients are also included in the model to describe the exponential increase of transmembrane pressure that typically occurs after the initial stage of an MBR operation. The model was validated using experimental data obtained from a lab-scale aerobic sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR), and the simulation of the model agreed well with the experimental findings.

Conferences

Bishop, D., Situ, R., Brown, R. & Surawski, N. 2016, 'Numerical Modelling of Biodiesel Blends in a Diesel Engine', Energy Procedia, 1st International Conference on Energy and Power, Elsevier, RMIT University, pp. 402-407.

Dang, L.C., Dang, C.C. & Khabbaz, H. 2017, 'Numerical Analysis on the Performance of Fibre Reinforced Load Transfer Platform and Deep Mixing Columns Supported Embankments', Ground Improvement and Earth Structures: GeoMEast 2017 on Sustainable Civil Infrastructures, GeoMEast 2017, Springer International Publishing, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, pp. 157-169.
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Far, H. & Far, C. 2017, 'Long-Term Structural Behaviour of Composite Sandwich Panels', 2nd World Congress on Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering (CSEE’17), Barcelona, Spain.
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New materials are great additions to the structural world dominated by concrete and steel creating sustainable products and low impact materials that can go head to head with concrete and steel. The new materials being discovered can often outperform traditional materials and have added benefits that improve the in-life performance such as thermal capabilities and sound insulation. One of these construction materials are sandwich panels made of two materials that are relatively weak in their separated state, but are improved when they are constructed together in a sandwich panel. Sandwich panels can be used for almost any section of a building. Polystyrene/cement mixed core and thin cement sheet facings sandwich panels are Australian products made of cement-polystyrene beaded mixture encapsulated between two thick cement board sheets. Long-term structural behaviour of these sandwich panels are relatively unknown. Therefore, in this study, in order to understand the creep and creep recovery behaviour and properties of those sandwich panels, a series of experimental tests have been performed and the outcomes have been explained and discussed. Based on the results of this study, values for immediate recovery, creep recovery and irrecoverable creep strain are determined and proposed. In addition, typical creep and creep recovery design charts have been developed and presented for practical applications in structural engineering.

Shakor, P. & Nejadi, S. 2017, '3D Printed Concrete Evaluations by Using Different Concrete Mix Designs', ISBN 978-81-933894-3-0, Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.
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Shakor, P., Renneberg, J., Nejadi, S. & Paul, G. 2017, 'Optimisation of Different Concrete Mix Designs for 3D Printing by Utilising 6DOF Industrial Robot', 34th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Taipei, Taiwan.
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Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are becoming increasingly viable for commercial and research implementation into various applications. AM refers to the process of forming structures layer upon layer and finds application in prototyping and manufacturing for building construction. It has recently begun to be considered as a viable and attractive alternative in certain circumstances in the construction industry. This paper focuses on the utilisation of different concrete mixtures paired with extrusion techniques facilitated by a six Degree of Freedom (DOF) industrial robot. Using methods of Damp Least Squares (DLS) in conjunction with Resolved Motion Rate Control (RMRC), it is possible to plan stable transitions between several waypoints representing the various print cross-sections. Calculated paths are projected via ‘spline’ interpolation into the manipulator controlled by custom software. This article demonstrates the properties of different concrete mixture designs, showing their performance when used as a filament in 3D Printing and representing a comparison of the results that were found. In this study, the prepared materials consist of ordinary Portland cement, fine sand between (425~150) micron, coarse aggregate ranges (3) mm and chemical admixtures which have been used to accelerate setting times and reduce water content. Numerous tests were performed to check the buildability, flowability, extrudability and moldability of the concrete mixtures. The horizontal test was used to determine the flowability and consistency, while the vertical and squeeze-flow tests were used to determine the buildability of the layers. The extrudability and moldability of the concrete mixtures were controlled by the robot and associated extruder speeds.

Wu, C. & Li, J. 2017, 'Structural Protective Design with Innovative Concrete Material and Retrofitting Technology', Procedia Engineering, pp. 49-56.
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