Search Google Appliance

Publications

| 1963 | 1965 | 1968 | 1969 | 1970 | 1971 | 1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1975 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1986 | 1987 | 1988 | 1989 | 1990 | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017

Chapters

Bottomley, A.L., Turnbull, L., Whitchurch, C.B. & Harry, E.J. 2017, 'Immobilization Techniques of Bacteria for Live Super-resolution Imaging Using Structured Illumination Microscopy.' in Pontus Nordenfelt and Mattias Collin (ed), Bacterial Pathogenesis, pp. 197-209.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-quality microscopy is good sample preparation to avoid bacterial cell movement that can result in motion blur during image acquisition. Here, we describe two techniques of sample preparation that reduce unwanted cell movement and are suitable for application to a number of bacterial species and imaging methods.

Journal articles

Abu Saleh, D., Shimoni, O. & Sosnik, A. 2017, 'Novel core-corona hybrid nanomaterials based on the conjugation of amphiphilic polymeric diblocks to the surface of multifunctional nanodiamond anchors', Materials Today Chemistry, vol. 3, pp. 15-26.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Aili, S.R., Touchard, A., Petitclerc, F., Dejean, A., Orivel, J., Padula, M.P., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2017, 'Combined Peptidomic and Proteomic Analysis of Electrically Stimulated and Manually Dissected Venom from the South American Bullet Ant Paraponera clavata.', J Proteome Res.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Ants have evolved venoms rich in peptides and proteins used for predation, defense, and communication. However, they remain extremely understudied due to the minimal amount of venom secreted by each ant. The present study investigated the differences in the proteome and peptidome of the venom from the bullet ant, Paraponera clavata. Venom samples were collected from a single colony either by manual venom gland dissection or by electrical stimulation and were compared using proteomic methods. Venom proteins were separated by 2D-PAGE and identified by nanoLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS. Venom peptides were initially separated using C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, then analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteomic analysis revealed numerous proteins that could be assigned a biological function (total 94), mainly as toxins, or roles in cell regulation and transport. This investigation found that ca. 73% of the proteins were common to venoms collected by the two methods. The peptidomic analysis revealed a large number of peptides (total 309) but with <20% shared by the two collection methods. There was also a marked difference between venoms obtained by venom gland dissection from different ant colonies. These findings demonstrate the rich composition and variability of P. clavata venom.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters', Marine Drugs, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1-20.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal waters in recent years. The most concerning of these toxins are ciguatoxin, paralytic shellfish toxins, okadaic acid and domoic acid, with palytoxin and karlotoxin increasing in significance. The potential for tetrodotoxin, maitotoxin and palytoxin to contaminate seafood is also of concern, warranting future investigation. The largest and most significant toxic bloom in Tasmania in 2012 resulted in an estimated total economic loss of ~AUD$23M, indicating that there is an imperative to improve toxin and organism detection methods, clarify the toxin profiles of species of phytoplankton and carry out both intra- and inter-species toxicity comparisons. Future work also includes the application of rapid, real-time molecular assays for the detection of harmful species and toxin genes. This information, in conjunction with a better understanding of the life histories and ecology of harmful bloom species, may lead to more appropriate management of environmental, health and economic resources.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters', Marine Drugs.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters'.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters', Marine Drugs.

Alvarado, R., To, J., Lund, M.E., Pinar, A., Mansell, A., Robinson, M.W., O'Brien, B.A., Dalton, J.P. & Donnelly, S. 2017, 'The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages.', FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85-95.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that controls the production of IL-1β, a cytokine that influences the development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Helminth parasites secrete molecules that interact with innate immune cells, modulating their activity to ultimately determine the phenotype of differentiated T cells, thus creating an immune environment that is conducive to sustaining chronic infection. We show that one of these molecules, FhHDM-1, a cathelicidin-like peptide secreted by the helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica, inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β by macrophages. FhHDM-1 had no effect on the synthesis of pro-IL-1β. Rather, the inhibitory effect was associated with the capacity of the peptide to prevent acidification of the endolysosome. The activation of cathepsin B protease by lysosomal destabilization was prevented in FhHDM-1-treated macrophages. By contrast, peptide derivatives of FhHDM-1 that did not alter the lysosomal pH did not inhibit secretion of IL-1β. We propose a novel immune modulatory strategy used by F. hepatica, whereby secretion of the FhHDM-1 peptide impairs the activation of NLRP3 by lysosomal cathepsin B protease, which prevents the downstream production of IL-1β and the development of protective T helper 1 type immune responses that are detrimental to parasite survival.-Alvarado, R., To, J., Lund, M. E., Pinar, A., Mansell, A., Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, B. A., Dalton, J. P., Donnelly, S. The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages.

Anderson, C. & Ryan, L.M. 2017, 'A Comparison of Spatio-Temporal Disease Mapping Approaches Including an Application to Ischaemic Heart Disease in New South Wales, Australia.', Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 14, no. 2.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The field of spatio-temporal modelling has witnessed a recent surge as a result of developments in computational power and increased data collection. These developments allow analysts to model the evolution of health outcomes in both space and time simultaneously. This paper models the trends in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in New South Wales, Australia over an eight-year period between 2006 and 2013. A number of spatio-temporal models are considered, and we propose a novel method for determining the goodness-of-fit for these models by outlining a spatio-temporal extension of the Moran's I statistic. We identify an overall decrease in the rates of IHD, but note that the extent of this health improvement varies across the state. In particular, we identified a number of remote areas in the north and west of the state where the risk stayed constant or even increased slightly.

Anderson, C., Lee, D. & Dean, N. 2017, 'Spatial clustering of average risks and risk trends in Bayesian disease mapping', Biometrical Journal, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 41-56.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimSpatiotemporal disease mapping focuses on estimating the spatial pattern in disease risk across a set of nonoverlapping areal units over a fixed period of time. The key aim of such research is to identify areas that have a high average level of disease risk or where disease risk is increasing over time, thus allowing public health interventions to be focused on these areas. Such aims are well suited to the statistical approach of clustering, and while much research has been done in this area in a purely spatial setting, only a handful of approaches have focused on spatiotemporal clustering of disease risk. Therefore, this paper outlines a new modeling approach for clustering spatiotemporal disease risk data, by clustering areas based on both their mean risk levels and the behavior of their temporal trends. The efficacy of the methodology is established by a simulation study, and is illustrated by a study of respiratory disease risk in Glasgow, Scotland.

Arnold, M.D. 2017, 'Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays.', J Phys Condens Matter, vol. 29, no. 11, p. 115701.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The Maxwell-Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

Austin, C., Tuft, K., Ramp, D., Cremona, T. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Bait preference for remote camera trap studies of the endangered northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus)', Australian Mammalogy, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 72-77.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Estimating population size is crucial for managing populations of threatened species. In the Top End of northern Australia, populations of northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus), already affected by livestock grazing, inappropriate burning regimes and predation, have collapsed following the spread of the toxic cane toad (Rhinella marina). Cane toads are currently invading the Kimberley, where they pose a threat to quoll populations. To manage these populations, we need reliable methods for detecting and estimating quoll abundance. We deployed camera traps with lures containing tuna, peanut butter or no bait and found that baited cameras performed better than the unbaited control. Cameras with a tuna lure detected more individuals than cameras baited with peanut butter or no bait. Cameras with a tuna lure yielded more photographs per quoll than those baited with peanut butter or no bait. We identified individual quolls from unique spot patterns and found multiple photographs improved the accuracy of identification. We also found that population estimates for the sample area derived from camera trapping were consistent with those from live trapping using mark–recapture techniques.

Barratt, J., Kaufer, A., Peters, B., Craig, D., Lawrence, A., Roberts, T., Lee, R., McAuliffe, G., Stark, D. & Ellis, J. 2017, 'Isolation of Novel Trypanosomatid, Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) Provides Support for a Gondwanan Origin of Dixenous Parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.', PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol. 11, no. 1, p. e0005215.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The genus Leishmania includes approximately 53 species, 20 of which cause human leishmaniais; a significant albeit neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis has afflicted humans for millennia, but how ancient is Leishmania and where did it arise? These questions have been hotly debated for decades and several theories have been proposed. One theory suggests Leishmania originated in the Palearctic, and dispersed to the New World via the Bering land bridge. Others propose that Leishmania evolved in the Neotropics. The Multiple Origins theory suggests that separation of certain Old World and New World species occurred due to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Some suggest that the ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia evolved on Gondwana between 90 and 140 million years ago. In the present study a detailed molecular and morphological characterisation was performed on a novel Australian trypanosomatid following its isolation in Australia's tropics from the native black fly, Simulium (Morops) dycei Colbo, 1976. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted and confirmed this parasite as a sibling to Zelonia costaricensis, a close relative of Leishmania previously isolated from a reduviid bug in Costa Rica. Consequently, this parasite was assigned the name Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. Assuming Z. costaricensis and Z. australiensis diverged when Australia and South America became completely separated, their divergence occurred between 36 and 41 million years ago at least. Using this vicariance event as a calibration point for a phylogenetic time tree, the common ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia appeared in Gondwana approximately 91 million years ago. Ultimately, this study contributes to our understanding of trypanosomatid diversity, and of Leishmania origins by providing support for a Gondwanan origin of dixenous parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.

Barraza, V., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Huete, A., Grings, F., Beringer, J., Cleverly, J.R. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Estimation of latent heat flux over savannah vegetation across the North Australian Tropical Transect from multiple sensors and global meteorological data', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 232, pp. 689-703.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Latent heat flux (LE) and corresponding water loss in non-moisture-limited ecosystems are well corre-lated to radiation and temperature. By contrast, in savannahs and arid and semi-arid lands LE is mostlydriven by available water and the vegetation exerts a strong control over the rate of transpiration.Therefore, LE models that use optical vegetation indices (VIs) to represent the vegetation component(transpiration as a function of surface conductance, Gs) generally overestimate water fluxes in water-limited ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated and compared optical and passive microwave indexbased retrievals of Gsand LE derived using the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation over the North Aus-tralian Tropical Transect (NATT). The methodology was evaluated at six eddy covariance (EC) sites fromthe OzFlux network. To parameterize the PM equation for retrievals of LE (PM-Gs), a subset of Gsvalueswas derived from meteorological and EC flux observations and regressed against individual and com-bined satellite indices, from (1) MODIS AQUA: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and theEnhanced Vegetation Index (EVI); and from (2) AMSR-E passive microwave: frequency index (FI), polar-ization index (PI), vegetation optical depth (VOD) and soil moisture (SM) products. Similarly, we combinedoptical and passive microwave indices (multi-sensor model) to estimate weekly Gsvalues, and evaluatedtheir spatial and temporal synergies. The multi-sensor approach explained 40–80% of LE variance at somesites, with root mean square errors (RMSE) lower than 20 W/m2and demonstrated better performanceto other satellite-based estimates of LE. The optical indices represented potential Gsassociated with thephenological status of the vegetation (e.g. leaf area index, chlorophyll content) at finer spatial resolution.The microwave indices provided information about water availability and moisture stress (e.g. watercontent in leaves and shallow soil depths, atmospheric demand) at a high tem...

Barraza, V., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Huete, A., Grings, F., Beringer, J., Cleverly, J.R. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Estimation of latent heat flux over savannah vegetation across the North Australian Tropical Transect from multiple sensors and global meteorological data', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 232, pp. 689-703.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Latent heat flux (LE) and corresponding water loss in non-moisture-limited ecosystems are well corre-lated to radiation and temperature. By contrast, in savannahs and arid and semi-arid lands LE is mostlydriven by available water and the vegetation exerts a strong control over the rate of transpiration.Therefore, LE models that use optical vegetation indices (VIs) to represent the vegetation component(transpiration as a function of surface conductance, Gs) generally overestimate water fluxes in water-limited ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated and compared optical and passive microwave indexbased retrievals of Gsand LE derived using the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation over the North Aus-tralian Tropical Transect (NATT). The methodology was evaluated at six eddy covariance (EC) sites fromthe OzFlux network. To parameterize the PM equation for retrievals of LE (PM-Gs), a subset of Gsvalueswas derived from meteorological and EC flux observations and regressed against individual and com-bined satellite indices, from (1) MODIS AQUA: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and theEnhanced Vegetation Index (EVI); and from (2) AMSR-E passive microwave: frequency index (FI), polar-ization index (PI), vegetation optical depth (VOD) and soil moisture (SM) products. Similarly, we combinedoptical and passive microwave indices (multi-sensor model) to estimate weekly Gsvalues, and evaluatedtheir spatial and temporal synergies. The multi-sensor approach explained 40–80% of LE variance at somesites, with root mean square errors (RMSE) lower than 20 W/m2and demonstrated better performanceto other satellite-based estimates of LE. The optical indices represented potential Gsassociated with thephenological status of the vegetation (e.g. leaf area index, chlorophyll content) at finer spatial resolution.The microwave indices provided information about water availability and moisture stress (e.g. watercontent in leaves and shallow soil depths, atmospheric demand) at a high tem...

Beck, H.J., Feary, D.A., Nakamura, Y. & Booth, D.J. 2017, 'Temperate macroalgae impacts tropical fish recruitment at forefronts of range expansion', Coral Reefs, pp. 1-13.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergWarming waters and changing ocean currents are increasing the supply of tropical fish larvae to temperature regions where they are exposed to novel habitats, namely temperate macroalgae and barren reefs. Here, we use underwater surveys on the temperate reefs of south-eastern (SE) Australia and western Japan (~33.5°N and S, respectively) to investigate how temperate macroalgal and non-macroalgal habitats influence recruitment success of a range of tropical fishes. We show that temperate macroalgae strongly affected recruitment of many tropical fish species in both regions and across three recruitment seasons in SE Australia. Densities and richness of recruiting tropical fishes, primarily planktivores and herbivores, were over seven times greater in non-macroalgal than macroalgal reef habitat. Species and trophic diversity (K-dominance) were also greater in non-macroalgal habitat. Temperate macroalgal cover was a stronger predictor of tropical fish assemblages than temperate fish assemblages, reef rugosities or wave exposure. Tropical fish richness, diversity and density were greater on barren reef than on reef dominated by turfing algae. One common species, the neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis), chose non-macroalgal habitat over temperate macroalgae for settlement in an aquarium experiment. This study highlights that temperate macroalgae may partly account for spatial variation in recruitment success of many tropical fishes into higher latitudes. Hence, habitat composition of temperate reefs may need to be considered to accurately predict the geographic responses of many tropical fishes to climate change.

Benson, N., Dos Santos, R.O., Griffiths, K., Cole, N., Doble, P., Roux, C. & Blanes, L. 2017, 'The development of a stabbing machine for forensic textile damage analysis.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 132-139.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

This article describes the development of a horizontal stabbing machine with an interchangeable knife holder to simulate stab events. The machine consists of a motorised arm with a pneumatic system designed to deliver 60 unique stabbing positions. The mechanics were robust and the positioning system highly reproducible with standard deviations of less than 1.0mm in the x-axis and 2.3mm in the y-axis for a given stab position. The force of the instrument may be varied by the operator to a maximum of approximately 221N. The suitability of the instrument for simulating stab events was evaluated by measuring the severance length and textile damage from stab delivered from four different knives and nine penetrating angles.

Berhane, A.M., Jeong, K.-.Y., Bodrog, Z., Fiedler, S., Schröder, T., Triviño, N.V., Palacios, T., Gali, A., Toth, M., Englund, D. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride.', Adv Mater.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Room-temperature quantum emitters in gallium nitride (GaN) are reported. The emitters originate from cubic inclusions in hexagonal lattice and exhibit narrowband luminescence in the red spectral range. The sources are found in different GaN substrates, and therefore are promising for scalable quantum technologies.

Bo, R., Nasiri, N., Chen, H., Caputo, D., Fu, L. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Low-voltage high-performance UV photodetectors: An interplay between grain boundaries and debye length', ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2606-2615.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 American Chemical Society.Accurate detection of UV light by wearable low-power devices has many important applications including environmental monitoring, space to space communication, and defense. Here, we report the structural engineering of ultraporous ZnO nanoparticle networks for fabrication of very low-voltage high-performance UV photodetectors. A record high photo-to dark-current ratio of 3.3 × 105 and detectivity of 3.2 × 1012 Jones at an ultralow operation bias of 2 mV and low UV-light intensity of 86 μW•cm-2 are achieved by controlling the interplay between grain boundaries and surface depletion depth of ZnO nanoscale semiconductors. An optimal window of structural properties is determined by varying the particle size of ultraporous nanoparticle networks from 10 to 42 nm. We find that small electron-depleted nanoparticles (≤40 nm) are necessary to minimize the dark-current; however, the rise in photocurrent is tampered with decreasing particle size due to the increasing density of grain boundaries. These findings reveal that nanoparticles with a size close to twice their Debye length are required for high photo-to dark-current ratio and detectivity, while further decreasing their size decreases the photodetector performance.

Borovkov, K., Mishura, Y., Novikov, A. & Zhitlukhin, M. 2017, 'Bounds for expected maxima of Gaussian processes and their discrete approximations', Stochastics, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 21-37.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2015 Taylor & Francis The paper deals with the expected maxima of continuous Gaussian processes (Formula presented.) that are Hölder continuous in (Formula presented.)-norm and/or satisfy the opposite inequality for the (Formula presented.)-norms of their increments. Examples of such processes include the fractional Brownian motion and some of its “relatives” (of which several examples are given in the paper). We establish upper and lower bounds for (Formula presented.) and investigate the rate of convergence to that quantity of its discrete approximation (Formula presented.). Some further properties of these two maxima are established in the special case of the fractional Brownian motion.

Chadwick, S., Neskoski, M., Spindler, X., Lennard, C. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 153-160.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

Chai, A.B., Ammit, A.J. & Gelissen, I.C. 2017, 'Examining the role of ABC lipid transporters in pulmonary lipid homeostasis and inflammation.', Respir Res, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 41.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by excessive and persistent inflammation. Current treatments are often inadequate for symptom and disease control, and hence new therapies are warranted. Recent emerging research has implicated dyslipidaemia in pulmonary inflammation. Three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are found in the mammalian lung - ABCA1, ABCG1 and ABCA3 - that are involved in movement of cholesterol and phospholipids from lung cells. The aim of this review is to corroborate the current evidence for the role of ABC lipid transporters in pulmonary lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we summarise results from murine knockout studies, human diseases associated with ABC transporter mutations, and in vitro studies. Disruption to ABC transporter activity results in lipid accumulation and elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue. Furthermore, these ABC-knockout mice exhibit signs of respiratory distress. ABC lipid transporters appear to have a crucial and protective role in the lung. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms for these benefits requires further attention. Understanding the relationship between cholesterol and inflammation in the lung, and the role that ABC transporters play in this may illuminate new pathways to target for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

Chan, Y.L., Saad, S., Al-Odat, I., Oliver, B.G., Pollock, C., Jones, N.M. & Chen, H. 2017, 'Maternal L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves Brain Health in Offspring from Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mothers.', Front Mol Neurosci, vol. 10, p. 33.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) causes detrimental changes associated with the development of chronic neurological diseases in the offspring as a result of oxidative mitochondrial damage. Maternal L-Carnitine administration has been shown to reduce renal oxidative stress in SE offspring, but its effect in the brain is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal L-Carnitine supplementation on brain markers of oxidative stress, autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial energy producing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in SE offspring. Female Balb/c mice (8 weeks) were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation with or without L-Carnitine supplementation (1.5 mM in drinking water). In 1 day old male SE offspring, brain mitochondrial damage was suggested by increased mitochondrial fusion and reduced autophagosome markers; whereas at 13 weeks, enhanced brain cell damage was suggested by reduced fission and autophagosome markers, as well as increased apoptosis and DNA fragmentation markers, which were partially reversed by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. In female SE offspring, enhanced mitochondrial regeneration was suggested by decreased fission and increased fusion markers at day 1. At 13 weeks, there was an increase in brain energy demand, oxidative stress and mitochondrial turnover, reflected by the protein changes of OXPHOS complex, fission and autophagosome markers, as well as the endogenous antioxidant, which were also partially normalized by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. However, markers of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were not significantly changed. Thus L-Carnitine supplementation may benefit the brain health of the offspring from smoking mothers.

Chekli, L., Eripret, C., Park, S.H., Tabatabai, S.A.A., Vronska, O., Tamburic, B., Kim, J.H. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 175, pp. 99-106.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

Chipperfield, J., Brown, J. & Bell, P. 2017, 'Estimating the count error in the Australian census', Journal of Official Statistics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 43-59.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© Statistics Sweden.In many countries, counts of people are a key factor in the allocation of government resources. However, it is well known that errors arise in Census counting of people (e.g., undercoverage due to missing people). Therefore, it is common for national statistical agencies to conduct one or more “audit” surveys that are designed to estimate and remove systematic errors in Census counting. For example, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) conducts a single audit sample, called the Post Enumeration Survey (PES), shortly after each Australian Population Census. This article describes the estimator used by the ABS to estimate the count of people in Australia. Key features of this estimator are that it is unbiased when there is systematic measurement error in Census counting and when nonresponse to the PES is nonignorable.

Chipperfield, J., Brown, J.J. & Watson, N. 2017, 'The Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset: Using record linkage to create a longitudinal sample from a series of cross-sections', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.The Australian Bureau of Statistics is creating a longitudinal sample, called the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (ACLD), by linking person records across its five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. This paper proposes a Multi-Panel framework for selecting and weighting records in the ACLD. This framework can be applied more generally to selecting longitudinal samples from a series of cross-sectional administrative files. The proposed framework avoids some significant limitations of the popular 'Top-Up' sampling approach to maintaining the cross-sectional and longitudinal representativeness of a sample over time.

Dayananda, B., Ibargüengoytía, N., Whiting, M.J. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Effects of pregnancy on body temperature and locomotor performance of velvet geckos', Journal of Thermal Biology, vol. 65, pp. 64-68.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 Elsevier LtdPregnancy is a challenging period for egg laying squamates. Carrying eggs can encumber females and decrease their locomotor performance, potentially increasing their risk of predation. Pregnant females can potentially reduce this handicap by selecting higher temperatures to increase their sprint speed and ability to escape from predators, or to speed up embryonic development and reduce the period during which they are burdened with eggs (‘selfish mother’ hypothesis). Alternatively, females might select more stable body temperatures during pregnancy to enhance offspring fitness (‘maternal manipulation hypothesis’), even if the maintenance of such temperatures compromises a female's locomotor performance. We investigated whether pregnancy affects the preferred body temperatures and locomotor performance of female velvet geckos Amalosia lesueurii. We measured running speed of females during late pregnancy, and one week after they laid eggs at four temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35 °C). Preferred body temperatures of females were measured in a cost-free thermal gradient during late pregnancy and one week after egg-laying. Females selected higher and more stable set-point temperatures when they were pregnant (mean =29.0 °C, Tset =27.8–30.5 °C) than when they were non-pregnant (mean =26.2 °C, Tset =23.7–28.7 °C). Pregnancy was also associated with impaired performance; females sprinted more slowly at all four test temperatures when burdened with eggs. Although females selected higher body temperatures during late pregnancy, this increase in temperature did not compensate for their impaired running performance. Hence, our results suggest that females select higher temperatures during pregnancy to speed up embryogenesis and reduce the period during which they have reduced performance. This strategy may decrease a female's probability of encountering predatory snakes that use the same microhabitats for thermoregulation. Selection of stable temperatures...

Dayananda, B... & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards', Biology Letters, vol. 13.

De Silva, K.S.B., Keast, V.J., Gentle, A. & Cortie, M.B. 2017, 'Optical properties and oxidation of α-phase Ag-Al thin films.', Nanotechnology, vol. 28, no. 9, p. 095202.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

We investigate a series of Ag-Al thin films containing up to 12 at% Al with the purpose of discovering whether these alloys would be a better choice for nanophotonic applications than pure Ag. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, AFM, x-ray diffraction and density functional theory are applied to explore and characterize the materials. Electromagnetic simulations of optical properties are used to place the results into a theoretical framework. We find that the increase in electron-to-atom ratio associated with the Al additions changes the optical properties: additions of the order of 1-2 at% Al are beneficial as they are associated with favorable changes in the dielectric function, but for greater additions of Al there is a flattening of the absorption edge and an increase in optical loss. In addition, contents of more than about 2 at% Al are associated with the onset of time-dependent intergranular oxidation, which causes a pronounced dip in the reflectance spectrum at about 2.3-2.4 eV (∼500-540 nm).

Dean, S.J., Foureur, M., Zaslawski, C., Newton-John, T., Yu, N. & Pappas, E. 2017, 'The effects of a structured mindfulness program on the development of empathy in healthcare students', NursingPlus Open, vol. 3, pp. 1-5.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site

Devièse, T., Ribechini, E., Castex, D., Stuart, B., Regert, M. & Colombini, M.P. 2017, 'A multi-analytical approach using FTIR, GC/MS and Py-GC/MS revealed early evidence of embalming practices in Roman catacombs', Microchemical Journal, vol. 133, pp. 49-59.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Dorantes-Aranda, J.J., Campbell, K., Bradbury, A., Elliott, C.T., Harwood, D.T., Murray, S.A., Ugalde, S.C., Wilson, K., Burgoyne, M. & Hallegraeff, G.M. 2017, 'Comparative performance of four immunological test kits for the detection of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Tasmanian shellfish.', Toxicon, vol. 125, pp. 110-119.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Group 1) seriously impacted the Tasmanian shellfish industry during 2012 and 2015, necessitating product recalls and intensive paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) product testing. The performance of four commercial PST test kits, Abraxis™, Europroxima™, Scotia™ and Neogen™, was compared with the official AOAC LC-FLD method for contaminated mussels and oysters. Abraxis and Europroxima kits underestimated PST in 35-100% of samples when using standard protocols but quantification improved when concentrated extracts were further diluted (underestimation ≤18%). The Scotia kit (cut off 0.2-0.7 mg STX-diHCl eq/kg) delivered 0% false negatives, but 27% false positives. Neogen produced 5% false negatives and 13% false positives when the cut off was altered to 0.5-0.6 mg STX-diHCl eq/kg, the introduction of a conversion step eliminated false negatives. Based on their sensitivity, ease of use and performance, the Neogen kit proved the most suitable kit for use with Tasmanian mussels and oysters. Once formally validated for regulatory purposes, the Neogen kit could provide shellfish growers with a rapid tool for harvesting decisions at the farm gate. Effective rapid screening preventing compliant samples undergoing testing using the more expensive and time consuming LC-FLD method will result in significant savings in analytical costs.

Dowse, R., Palmer, C.G., Hills, K., Torpy, F. & Kefford, B.J. 2017, 'The mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus harker defies common osmoregulatory assumptions', Royal Society Open Science, vol. 4, no. 1.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 The Authors.Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l−1 added synthetic marine salt (SMS), respectively. They were strong osmoregulators. At aquarium water osmolality of 256±3.12 mmol kg−1 (±s.e.; equivalent to 10 g l−1 added SMS), the haemolymph osmolality of A. pusillus was a much higher 401±4.18 mmol kg−1 (±s.e.). The osmoregulatory capacity of A. pusillus did not break down, even at the salinity corresponding to their LC99, thus their mortality at this concentration is due to factors other than increased internal osmotic pressure. No freshwater invertebrate has been previously reported as suffering mortality from rises in salinity that are well below the iso-osmotic point. Recently, studies have reported reduced abundance/richness of Ephemeroptera with slightly elevated salinity. Given that salinization is an increasing global threat to freshwaters, there is an urgent need for studies into the osmophysiology of the Ephemeroptera to determine if their loss at locations with slightly elevated salinity is a direct result of external salinity or other, possibly physiological, causes.

Dubios, S., Fenwick, N., Ryan, E.A., Baker, L., Baker, S.E., Beausoleil, N.J., Carter, S., Cartwright, B., Costa, F., Draper, C., Griffin, J., Grogan, A., Howald, G., Jones, B., Littin, K.E., Lombard, A.T., Mellor, D.J., Ramp, D., Schuppli, C.A. & Fraser, D. 2017, 'International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control', Conservation Biology.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Human–wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human–wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human–wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation.

Elsdon, D.S., Spanswick, S., Zaslawski, C. & Meier, P.C. 2017, 'Protocol: Testing the Relevance of Acupuncture Theory in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain in the Upper Trapezius Muscle.', J Acupunct Meridian Stud, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 67-74.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

A protocol for a prospective single-blind parallel four-arm randomized placebo-controlled trial with repeated measures was designed to test the effects of various acupuncture methods compared with sham. Eighty self-selected participants with myofascial pain in the upper trapezius muscle were randomized into four groups. Group 1 received acupuncture to a myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in the upper trapezius. Group 2 received acupuncture to the MTrP in addition to relevant distal points. Group 3 received acupuncture to the relevant distal points only. Group 4 received a sham treatment to both the MTrP and distal points using a deactivated acupuncture laser device. Treatment was applied four times within 2 weeks with outcomes measured throughout the trial and at 2 weeks and 4 weeks posttreatment. Outcome measurements were a 100-mm visual analog pain scale, SF-36, pressure pain threshold, Neck Disability Index, the Upper Extremity Functional Index, lateral flexion in the neck, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale, Working Alliance Inventory (short form), and the Credibility Expectance Questionnaire. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to assess the differences between groups.

Faiz, A., Donovan, C., Nieuwenhuis, M.A.E., van den Berge, M., Postma, D.S., Yao, S., Park, C.Y., Hirsch, R., Fredberg, J.J., Tjin, G., Halayko, A.J., Rempel, K.L., Ward, J.P.T., Lee, T., Bossé, Y., Nickle, D.C., Obeidat, M., Vonk, J.M., Black, J.L., Oliver, B.G., Krishnan, R., McParland, B., Bourke, J.E. & Burgess, J.K. 2017, 'Latrophilin receptors: Novel bronchodilator targets in asthma', Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 74-82.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society.Background Asthma affects 300 million people worldwide. In asthma, the major cause of morbidity and mortality is acute airway narrowing, due to airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypercontraction, associated with airway remodelling. However, little is known about the transcriptional differences between healthy and asthmatic ASM cells. Objectives To investigate the transcriptional differences between asthmatic and healthy airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) in culture and investigate the identified targets using in vitro and ex vivo techniques. Methods Human asthmatic and healthy ASMC grown in culture were run on Affymetrix_Hugene_1.0_ST microarrays. Identified candidates were confirmed by PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Functional analysis was conducted using in vitro ASMC proliferation, attachment and contraction assays and ex vivo contraction of mouse airways. Results We suggest a novel role for latrophilin (LPHN) receptors, finding increased expression on ASMC from asthmatics, compared with non-asthmatics in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a role in mediating airway function. A single nucleotide polymorphism in LPHN1 was associated with asthma and with increased LPHN1 expression in lung tissue. When activated, LPHNs regulated ASMC adhesion and proliferation in vitro, and promoted contraction of mouse airways and ASMC. Conclusions Given the need for novel inhibitors of airway remodelling and bronchodilators in asthma, the LPHN family may represent promising novel targets for future dual therapeutic intervention.

Feng, G., Gao, J., Peng, B. & Zhang, X. 2017, 'A Varying-Coefficient Panel Data Model with Fixed Effects: Theory and an Application to US commercial banks', Journal of Econometrics, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 68-82.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

In this paper, we propose a semiparametric varying-coefficient categorical panel data model in which covariates (variables affecting the coefficients) are purely categorical. This model has two features: first, fixed effects are included to allow for correlation between individual unobserved heterogeneity and the regressors; second, it allows for cross-sectional dependence through a general spatial error dependence structure. We derive a semiparametric estimator for our model by using a modified within transformation, and then show the asymptotic and finite properties for this estimator under large N and T. The Monte Carlo study shows that our methodology works well for both large N and T, and large N and small T cases. Finally, we illustrate our model by analyzing the effects of state-level banking regulations on the returns to scale of commercial banks in the US. Our empirical results suggest that returns to scale is higher in more regulated states than in less regulated states.

Feng, G., Gao, J., Peng, B. & Zhang, X. 2017, 'A Varying-Coefficient Panel Data Model with Fixed Effects: Theory and an Application to US commercial banks', Journal of Econometrics, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 68-82.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

In this paper, we propose a semiparametric varying-coefficient categorical panel data model in which covariates (variables affecting the coefficients) are purely categorical. This model has two features: first, fixed effects are included to allow for correlation between individual unobserved heterogeneity and the regressors; second, it allows for cross-sectional dependence through a general spatial error dependence structure. We derive a semiparametric estimator for our model by using a modified within transformation, and then show the asymptotic and finite properties for this estimator under large N and T. The Monte Carlo study shows that our methodology works well for both large N and T, and large N and small T cases. Finally, we illustrate our model by analyzing the effects of state-level banking regulations on the returns to scale of commercial banks in the US. Our empirical results suggest that returns to scale is higher in more regulated states than in less regulated states.

Gao, J., Djaidi, D., Marjo, C.E., Bhadbhade, M.M., Ung, A.T. & Bishop, R. 2017, 'Weak Intermolecular Forces, but High Melting Points*', Australian Journal of Chemistry.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Gardner, S.G., Raina, J.-.B., Ralph, P.J. & Petrou, K. 2017, 'Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dimethylated sulphur compounds in coral explants under acute thermal stress.', J Exp Biol.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Coral bleaching is intensifying with global climate change. While the causes for these catastrophic events are well understood, the cellular mechanism that triggers bleaching is not well established. Our understanding of coral bleaching processes is hindered by the lack of robust methods for studying interactions between host and symbiont at the single-cell level. Here we exposed coral explants to acute thermal stress and measured oxidative stress, more specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), in individual symbiont cells. Furthermore, we measured concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to elucidate the role of these compounds in coral antioxidant function. This work demonstrates the application of coral explants for investigating coral physiology and biochemistry under thermal stress and delivers a new approach to study host-symbiont interactions at the microscale, allowing us to directly link intracellular ROS with DMSP and DMSO dynamics.

Gazzola, M., Lortie, K., Henry, C., Mailhot-Larouche, S., Chapman, D.G., Couture, C., Seow, C.Y., Paré, P.D., King, G.G., Boulet, L.-.P. & Bossé, Y. 2017, 'Airway smooth muscle tone increases airway responsiveness in healthy young adults.', Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, vol. 312, no. 3, pp. L348-L357.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Force adaptation, a process whereby sustained spasmogenic activation (viz., tone) of airway smooth muscle (ASM) increases its contractile capacity, has been reported in isolated ASM tissues in vitro, as well as in mice in vivo. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of tone on airway responsiveness in humans. Ten healthy volunteers underwent methacholine challenge on two occasions. One challenge consisted of six serial doses of saline followed by a single high dose of methacholine. The other consisted of six low doses of methacholine 5 min apart followed by a higher dose. The cumulative dose was identical for both challenges. After both methacholine challenges, subjects took a deep inspiration (DI) to total lung capacity as another way to probe ASM mechanics. Responses to methacholine and the DI were measured using a multifrequency forced oscillation technique. Compared with a single high dose, the challenge preceded by tone led to an elevated response measured by respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance at 5 Hz. However, there was no difference in the increase in Rrs at 19 Hz, suggesting a predominant effect on smaller airways. Increased tone also reduced the efficacy of DI, measured by an attenuated maximal dilation during the DI and an increased renarrowing post-DI. We conclude that ASM tone increases small airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine and reduces the effectiveness of DI in healthy humans. This suggests that force adaptation may contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and the reduced bronchodilatory effect of DI in asthma.

Gerace, D., Martiniello-Wilks, R., Nassif, N.T., Lal, S., Steptoe, R. & Simpson, A.M. 2017, 'CRISPR-targeted genome editing of mesenchymal stem cell-derived therapies for type 1 diabetes: a path to clinical success?', Stem Cell Res Ther, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 62.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Due to their ease of isolation, differentiation capabilities, and immunomodulatory properties, the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been assessed in numerous pre-clinical and clinical settings. Currently, whole pancreas or islet transplantation is the only cure for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and, due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, MSCs have been utilised either natively or transdifferentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) as an alternative treatment. However, the initial success in pre-clinical animal models has not translated into successful clinical outcomes. Thus, this review will summarise the current state of MSC-derived therapies for the treatment of T1D in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, in particular their use as an immunomodulatory therapy and targets for the generation of IPCs via gene modification. In this review, we highlight the limitations of current clinical trials of MSCs for the treatment of T1D, and suggest the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene-editing technology and improved clinical trial design as strategies to translate pre-clinical success to the clinical setting.

Glastras, S.J., Chen, H., Tsang, M., Teh, R., McGrath, R.T., Zaky, A., Chen, J., Wong, M.G., Pollock, C.A. & Saad, S. 2017, 'The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet.', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 2, p. e0172644.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32. RESULTS: HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity.

Gorle, A.K., Bottomley, A.L., Harry, E.J., Collins, J.G., Keene, F.R. & Woodward, C.E. 2017, 'DNA condensation in live E. coli provides evidence for transertion.', Mol Biosyst.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Condensation studies of chromosomal DNA in E. coli with a tetranuclear ruthenium complex are carried out and images obtained with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Remarkably different condensate morphologies resulted, depending upon the treatment protocol. The occurrence of condensed nucleoid spirals in live bacteria provides evidence for the transertion hypothesis.

Goyen, S., Pernice, M., Szabó, M., Warner, M.E., Ralph, P.J. & Suggett, D.J. 2017, 'A molecular physiology basis for functional diversity of hydrogen peroxide production amongst Symbiodinium spp. (Dinophyceae)', Marine Biology, vol. 164, no. 3.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the photosynthetic stability of higher plants, corals and algae, and considered a primary reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with the thermal susceptibility of Symbiodinium spp. Here, we simultaneously subjected a large number of Symbiodinium isolates (n = 16) covering broad phylogenetic diversity (clades A, B, D, F) to heat stress and characterized their photosynthetic response via fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRf) and parallel measurements of H2O2 emissions. Based on their physiological response, isolates clustered into three novel functional groups: (1) thermally tolerant (unchanged photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), electron turnover (τQA) or H2O2 emission), or (2) thermally susceptible via decreased Fv/Fm, unchanged τQA, but increased H2O2, indicating energetically uncoupled PSII (thylakoid membrane instability), versus (3) thermally responsive via decreased Fv/Fm, increased τQA and H2O2, indicative of energetically coupled (but downregulated) PSII. There was no correlation between the algal phylogenetic groups and the distribution of isolates amongst these novel functional groups. Two model Symbiodinium isolates for functional groups (1) and (2) (ITS2 type A1, Symbiodinium microadriaticum, and type D1–5, Symbiodinium spp., respectively) were selected to further examine how their different thermal responses corresponded with the expression levels of two genes coding for different metalloforms of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and NiSOD) that potentially regulate production of H2O2. S. microadriaticum demonstrated the greatest upregulation of MnSOD gene confirming recent suggestions of a role for this metalloform in the antioxidant network associated with thermal stress protection. Assigning Symbiodinium isolates into such functional groups based on coupled molecular-physiological assessment is an important step needed to impro...

Gramaglia, I., Velez, J., Combes, V., Grau, G.E.R., Wree, M. & van der Heyde, H.C. 2017, 'Platelets activate a pathogenic response to blood-stage Plasmodium infection but not a protective immune response.', Blood.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Clinical studies indicate that thrombocytopenia correlates with the development of severe falciparum malaria, suggesting that platelets either contribute to control of parasite replication possibly as innate parasite killer cells or function in eliciting pathogenesis. Removal of platelets by anti-CD41 mAb treatment, platelet inhibition by aspirin, and adoptive transfer of WT platelets to CD40-KO mice, which do not control parasite replication, resulted in similar parasitemia compared with control mice. Human platelets at a physiological ratio of 1 platelet to 9 RBCs did not inhibit the in vitro development or replication of blood-stage P. falciparum The percentage of iRBCs with bound platelets during the ascending parasitemia in P. chabaudi and P. berghei infected mice and the 48 hour in vitro cycle of P. falciparum was <10%. P. chabaudi and P. berghei iRBCs with apoptotic parasites (TdT+) exhibited minimal platelet binding (<5%), which was similar to non-apoptotic iRBCs. These findings collectively indicate platelets do not kill bloodstage Plasmodium at physiologically relevant effector to target ratios. P. chabaudi primary and secondary parasitemia was similar in mice depleted of platelets by mAb-injection just prior to infection, indicating that activation of the protective immune response does not require platelets. In contrast to the lack of an effect on parasite replication, adoptive transfer of WT platelets to CD40-KO mice, which are resistant to experimental cerebral malaria, partially restored experimental cerebral malaria mortality and symptoms in CD40-KO recipients, indicating platelets elicit pathogenesis and platelet CD40 is a key molecule.

Green, D.W., Ben-Nissan, B., Yoon, K.S., Milthorpe, B. & Jung, H.-.S. 2017, 'Natural and Synthetic Coral Biomineralization for Human Bone Revitalization.', Trends Biotechnol, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 43-54.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Coral skeletons can regenerate replacement human bone in nonload-bearing excavated skeletal locations. A combination of multiscale, interconnected pores and channels and highly bioactive surface chemistry has established corals as an important alternative to using healthy host bone replacements. Here, we highlight how coral skeletal systems are being remolded into new calcified structures or synthetic corals by biomimetic processes, as places for the organized permeation of bone tissue cells and blood vessels. Progressive technologies in coral aquaculture and self-organization inorganic chemistry are helping to modify natural corals and create synthetic coral architectures able to accelerate bone regeneration with proper host integration at more skeletal locations, adapted to recent surgical techniques and used to treat intrinsic skeletal deformities and metabolic conditions.

Green, P.J. & Mortera, J. 2017, 'Paternity testing and other inference about relationships from DNA mixtures', Forensic Science International: Genetics.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site

Guo, X., Sun, B., Su, D., Liu, X., Liu, H., Wang, Y. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Recent developments of aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries: functional materials determine the electrochemical performance', Science Bulletin.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Hare, D.J., Kysenius, K., Paul, B., Knauer, B., Hutchinson, R.W., O'Connor, C., Fryer, F., Hennessey, T.P., Bush, A.I., Crouch, P.J. & Doble, P.A. 2017, 'Imaging Metals in Brain Tissue by Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).', J Vis Exp, no. 119.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Metals are found ubiquitously throughout an organism, with their biological role dictated by both their chemical reactivity and abundance within a specific anatomical region. Within the brain, metals have a highly compartmentalized distribution, depending on the primary function they play within the central nervous system. Imaging the spatial distribution of metals has provided unique insight into the biochemical architecture of the brain, allowing direct correlation between neuroanatomical regions and their known function with regard to metal-dependent processes. In addition, several age-related neurological disorders feature disrupted metal homeostasis, which is often confined to small regions of the brain that are otherwise difficult to analyze. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for quantitatively imaging metals in the mouse brain, using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and specially designed image processing software. Focusing on iron, copper and zinc, which are three of the most abundant and disease-relevant metals within the brain, we describe the essential steps in sample preparation, analysis, quantitative measurements and image processing to produce maps of metal distribution within the low micrometer resolution range. This technique, applicable to any cut tissue section, is capable of demonstrating the highly variable distribution of metals within an organ or system, and can be used to identify changes in metal homeostasis and absolute levels within fine anatomical structures.

Hatoum, D., Yagoub, D., Ahadi, A., Nassif, N.T. & McGowan, E.M. 2017, 'Annexin/S100A protein family regulation through p14ARF-p53 activation: A role in cell survival and predicting treatment outcomes in breast cancer', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 1.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 Hatoum et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.The annexin family and S100A associated proteins are important regulators of diverse calcium- dependent cellular processes including cell division, growth regulation and apoptosis. Dysfunction of individual annexin and S100A proteins is associated with cancer progression, metastasis and cancer drug resistance. This manuscript describes the novel finding of differential regulation of the annexin and S100A family of proteins by activation of p53 in breast cancer cells. Additionally, the observed differential regulation is found to be beneficial to the survival of breast cancer cells and to influence treatment efficacy. We have used unbiased, quantitative proteomics to determine the proteomic changes occurring post p14ARF-p53 activation in estrogen receptor (ER) breast cancer cells. In this report we identified differential regulation of the annexin/S100A family, through unique peptide recognition at the N-terminal regions, demonstrating p14ARF-p53 is a central orchestrator of the annexin/S100A family of calcium regulators in favor of pro-survival functions in the breast cancer cell. This regulation was found to be cell-type specific. Retrospective human breast cancer studies have demonstrated that tumors with functional wild type p53 (p53wt) respond poorly to some chemotherapy agents compared to tumors with a non-functional p53. Given that modulation of calcium signaling has been demonstrated to change sensitivity of chemotherapeutic agents to apoptotic signals, in principle, we explored the paradigm of how p53 modulation of calcium regulators in ER+ breast cancer patients impacts and influences therapeutic outcomes.

Hernandez-Fernaud, J.R., Ruengeler, E., Casazza, A., Neilson, L.J., Pulleine, E., Santi, A., Ismail, S., Lilla, S., Dhayade, S., MacPherson, I.R., McNeish, I., Ennis, D., Ali, H., Kugeratski, F.G., Al Khamici, H., van den Biggelaar, M., van den Berghe, P.V.E., Cloix, C., McDonald, L., Millan, D., Hoyle, A., Kuchnio, A., Carmeliet, P., Valenzuela, S.M., Blyth, K., Yin, H., Mazzone, M., Norman, J.C. & Zanivan, S. 2017, 'Secreted CLIC3 drives cancer progression through its glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase activity.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14206.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The secretome of cancer and stromal cells generates a microenvironment that contributes to tumour cell invasion and angiogenesis. Here we compare the secretome of human mammary normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We discover that the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3) is an abundant component of the CAF secretome. Secreted CLIC3 promotes invasive behaviour of endothelial cells to drive angiogenesis and increases invasiveness of cancer cells both in vivo and in 3D cell culture models, and this requires active transglutaminase-2 (TGM2). CLIC3 acts as a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that reduces TGM2 and regulates TGM2 binding to its cofactors. Finally, CLIC3 is also secreted by cancer cells, is abundant in the stromal and tumour compartments of aggressive ovarian cancers and its levels correlate with poor clinical outcome. This work reveals a previously undescribed invasive mechanism whereby the secretion of a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase drives angiogenesis and cancer progression by promoting TGM2-dependent invasion.

Horgan, F.G., Palenzuela, A.N., Stuart, A.M., Naredo, A.I., Ramal, A.F., Bernal, C.C. & Almazan, M.-.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of silicon soil amendments and nitrogen fertilizer on apple snail (Ampullariidae) damage to rice seedlings', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 91, pp. 123-131.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Villegas, J.M., Jamoralin, A., Bernal, C.C., Perez, M.O., Pasang, J.M., Naredo, A.I. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of bund crops and insecticide treatments on arthropod diversity and herbivore regulation in tropical rice fields', Journal of Applied Entomology.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Ecological engineering using vegetable or flower strips is promoted as a potential pest management strategy in irrigated rice. Farmers in the Philippines often plant rice levees (bunds) with vegetables, particularly string beans (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walpers) to supplement income, but without considering the potential for pest management. This study examines the effects of planted bunds on rice herbivores and their natural enemies. We compared arthropods in (a) rice fields that had string beans planted on bunds, (b) fields without string beans and without any insecticide applications and (c) fields without string beans but with insecticide treatments (standard practice). Rice yield was similar across all treatments; however, the vegetation strips produced an extra 3.6 kg of fresh string bean pods per metre of bund. There were no apparent increases in major natural enemy groups in fields with string beans compared to fields with conventional bunds. Fields with insecticide treatments had higher damage from leaffolders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The sprayed fields also had lower parasitism of planthopper eggs and fewer predatory dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata). Furthermore, the mortality of planthopper (Delphacidae: Hemiptera) and stemborer (Pyralidae) eggs by parasitoids and predators was density dependent only in the unsprayed fields (with and without string beans). Our results demonstrate that planting string beans on rice bunds improves the productivity of rice farms, but our ecological engineering system did not appreciably affect natural enemy or herbivore abundance; however, chemical insecticides adversely affected pest regulatory ecosystem functions leading to higher pest damage.

Hudson, L.N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S.L.L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., Phillips, H.R.P., Alhusseini, T.I., Bedford, F.E., Bennett, D.J., Booth, H., Burton, V.J., Chng, C.W.T., Choimes, A., Correia, D.L.P., Day, J., Echeverría-Londoño, S., Emerson, S.R., Gao, D., Garon, M., Harrison, M.L.K., Ingram, D.J., Jung, M., Kemp, V., Kirkpatrick, L., Martin, C.D., Pan, Y., Pask-Hale, G.D., Pynegar, E.L., Robinson, A.N., Sanchez-Ortiz, K., Senior, R.A., Simmons, B.I., White, H.J., Zhang, H., Aben, J., Abrahamczyk, S., Adum, G.B., Aguilar-Barquero, V., Aizen, M.A., Albertos, B., Alcala, E.L., Del Mar Alguacil, M., Alignier, A., Ancrenaz, M., Andersen, A.N., Arbeláez-Cortés, E., Armbrecht, I., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Aumann, T., Axmacher, J.C., Azhar, B., Azpiroz, A.B., Baeten, L., Bakayoko, A., Báldi, A., Banks, J.E., Baral, S.K., Barlow, J., Barratt, B.I.P., Barrico, L., Bartolommei, P., Barton, D.M., Basset, Y., Batáry, P., Bates, A.J., Baur, B., Bayne, E.M., Beja, P., Benedick, S., Berg, Å., Bernard, H., Berry, N.J., Bhatt, D., Bicknell, J.E., Bihn, J.H., Blake, R.J., Bobo, K.S., Bóçon, R., Boekhout, T., Böhning-Gaese, K., Bonham, K.J., Borges, P.A.V., Borges, S.H., Boutin, C., Bouyer, J., Bragagnolo, C., Brandt, J.S., Brearley, F.Q., Brito, I., Bros, V., Brunet, J., Buczkowski, G., Buddle, C.M., Bugter, R., Buscardo, E., Buse, J., Cabra-García, J., Cáceres, N.C., Cagle, N.L., Calviño-Cancela, M., Cameron, S.A., Cancello, E.M., Caparrós, R., Cardoso, P., Carpenter, D., Carrijo, T.F., Carvalho, A.L., Cassano, C.R., Castro, H., Castro-Luna, A.A., Rolando, C.B., Cerezo, A., Chapman, K.A., Chauvat, M., Christensen, M., Clarke, F.M., Cleary, D.F.R., Colombo, G., Connop, S.P., Craig, M.D., Cruz-López, L., Cunningham, S.A., D'Aniello, B., D'Cruze, N., da Silva, P.G., Dallimer, M., Danquah, E., Darvill, B., Dauber, J., Davis, A.L.V., Dawson, J., de Sassi, C., de Thoisy, B., Deheuvels, O., Dejean, A., Devineau, J.-.L., Diekötter, T., Dolia, J.V., Domínguez, E., Dominguez-Haydar, Y., Dorn, S., Draper, I., Dreber, N., Dumont, B., Dures, S.G., Dynesius, M., Edenius, L., Eggleton, P., Eigenbrod, F., Elek, Z., Entling, M.H., Esler, K.J., de Lima, R.F., Faruk, A., Farwig, N., Fayle, T.M., Felicioli, A., Felton, A.M., Fensham, R.J., Fernandez, I.C., Ferreira, C.C., Ficetola, G.F., Fiera, C., Filgueiras, B.K.C., Fırıncıoğlu, H.K., Flaspohler, D., Floren, A., Fonte, S.J., Fournier, A., Fowler, R.E., Franzén, M., Fraser, L.H., Fredriksson, G.M., Freire, G.B., Frizzo, T.L.M., Fukuda, D., Furlani, D., Gaigher, R., Ganzhorn, J.U., García, K.P., Garcia-R, J.C., Garden, J.G., Garilleti, R., Ge, B.-.M., Gendreau-Berthiaume, B. & et al. 2017, 'The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project.', Ecol Evol, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 145-188.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

Irga, P.J., Abdo, P., Zavattaro, M. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'An assessment of the potential fungal bioaerosol production from an active living wall', Building and Environment, vol. 111, pp. 140-146.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016Active living walls, or indoor air biofilters, have been proposed as a sustainable and aesthetic means of improving indoor air quality. However these systems have yet to be adequately assessed for their potential contribution to airborne fungal proliferation in indoor spaces. The current work represents a simulation study to determine, under realistic office conditions, whether a typical active living wall makes a quantifiable contribution to the airborne aeromycota. We found that the living wall studied made no significant contribution to the density or diversity of airborne culturable fungi in a test room. Few organisms of concern to public health were identified. We conclude that active biofilters are unlikely to make hazardous contributions to indoor fungi; however, further work that documents the bioaerosol generation rate with variations in temperature, airflow, plant varieties, planting densities, maintenance schedule, age of plants, plant growth substrates and substrate moisture content need further elucidation.

Irga, P.J., Paull, N.J., Abdo, P. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'An assessment of the atmospheric particle removal efficiency of an in-room botanical biofilter system', Building and Environment, vol. 115, pp. 281-290.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 Elsevier LtdIn addition to the growing requirement to reduce building energy needs, demand has arisen to find sustainable methods of improving indoor air quality. Recent advances in green wall technology have led to the development of activated systems, termed botanical biofilters, that move air through the plant growth substrate to increase the rate at which the interior atmospheric environment is exposed to the components of the plant-substrate system that are active in air pollutant removal. Development of this technology is moving towards green wall integration within building air conditioning and ventilation systems. The work presented here describes an evaluation of several parameters essential for determining the functionality of a modular botanical biofilter, as well as experiments to systematically determine the filtration performance of the device, specifically the single-pass particulate rem filtration efficiency was evaluated and defined. The maximum filtration efficiency for total suspended particulate matter peaked at an air flow rate of 11.25 L s−1 through the 0.25 m2 filter, with any increases in air flow rate met with a reduction in efficiency. The system recorded removal efficiencies were 53.35 ± 9.73% for total suspend particles, 53.51 ± 15.99% for PM10, and 48.21 ± 14.71% for PM2.5. Comparisons were made against the single pass efficiency of the system without the botanical component, as well as a common in-duct pleated panel air filter, indicating that further development is required to enhance the filtration capacity of the system if it is match current air filtration standards.

Jaiswal, R., Johnson, M.S., Pokharel, D., Krishnan, S.R. & Bebawy, M. 2017, 'Microparticles shed from multidrug resistant breast cancer cells provide a parallel survival pathway through immune evasion.', BMC Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 104.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined. Breast tumors, typical of many tumor types, shed membrane vesicles called microparticles (MPs), ranging in size from 0.1-1 μm in diameter. MPs serve as vectors in the intercellular transfer of functional proteins and nucleic acids and in drug sequestration. In addition, MPs are also emerging to be important players in the evasion of cancer cell immune surveillance. METHODS: A comparative analysis of effects of MPs isolated from human breast cancer cells and non-malignant human brain endothelial cells were examined on THP-1 derived macrophages in vitro. MP-mediated effects on cell phenotype and functionality was assessed by cytokine analysis, cell chemotaxis and phagocytosis, immunolabelling, flow cytometry and confocal imaging. Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In this paper we report on the discovery of a new cellular basis for immune evasion, which is mediated by breast cancer derived MPs. MPs shed from multidrug resistant (MDR) cells were shown to selectively polarize macrophage cells to a functionally incapacitated state and facilitate their engulfment by foreign cells. CONCLUSIONS: We propose this mechanism may serve to physically disrupt the inherent immune response prior to cancer cell colonization whilst releasing mediators required for the recruitment...

Kardaras, C., Oblłój, J. & Platen, E. 2017, 'The numéraire property and long-term growth optimality for drawdown-constrained investments', Mathematical Finance, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 68-95.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

We consider the portfolio choice problem for a long-run investor in a general continuous semimartingale model. We combine the decision criterion of pathwise growth optimality with a flexible specification of attitude toward risk, encoded by a linear drawdown constraint imposed on admissible wealth processes. We define the constrained numéraire property through the notion of expected relative return and prove that drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio exists and is unique, but may depend on the investment horizon. However, when sampled at the times of its maximum and asymptotically as the time-horizon becomes distant, the drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio is given explicitly through a model-independent transformation of the unconstrained numéraire portfolio. The asymptotically growth-optimal strategy is obtained as limit of numéraire strategies on finite horizons.

Kerr, M.C., Gomez, G.A., Ferguson, C., Tanzer, M.C., Murphy, J.M., Yap, A.S., Parton, R.G., Huston, W.M. & Teasdale, R.D. 2017, 'Laser-mediated rupture of chlamydial inclusions triggers pathogen egress and host cell necrosis.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14729.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Remarkably little is known about how intracellular pathogens exit the host cell in order to infect new hosts. Pathogenic chlamydiae egress by first rupturing their replicative niche (the inclusion) before rapidly lysing the host cell. Here we apply a laser ablation strategy to specifically disrupt the chlamydial inclusion, thereby uncoupling inclusion rupture from the subsequent cell lysis and allowing us to dissect the molecular events involved in each step. Pharmacological inhibition of host cell calpains inhibits inclusion rupture, but not subsequent cell lysis. Further, we demonstrate that inclusion rupture triggers a rapid necrotic cell death pathway independent of BAK, BAX, RIP1 and caspases. Both processes work sequentially to efficiently liberate the pathogen from the host cytoplasm, promoting secondary infection. These results reconcile the pathogen's known capacity to promote host cell survival and induce cell death.

Knauer, B., Majka, P., Watkins, K.J., Taylor, A.W.R., Malamanova, D., Paul, B., Yu, H.-.H., Bush, A.I., Hare, D.J. & Reser, D.H. 2017, 'Whole-brain metallomic analysis of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).', Metallomics.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Despite the importance of transition metals for normal brain function, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elemental species across the different tissue compartments of the primate brain. In this study, we employed laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry on PFA-fixed brain sections obtained from two adult common marmosets. Concurrent cytoarchitectonic, myeloarchitectonic, and chemoarchitectonic measurements allowed for identification of the major neocortical, archaecortical, and subcortical divisions of the brain, and precise localisation of iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations within each division. Major findings across tissue compartments included: (1) differentiation of white matter tracts from grey matter based on manganese and zinc distribution; (2) high iron concentrations in the basal ganglia, cortex, and substantia nigra; (3) co-localization of high concentrations of iron and manganese in the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex; and (4) high manganese in the hippocampus. The marmoset has become a model species of choice for connectomic, aging, and transgenic studies in primates, and the application of metallomics to these disciplines has the potential to yield high translational and basic science value.

Kohli, G.S., Campbell, K., John, U., Smith, K.F., Fraga, S., Rhodes, L.L. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Role of Modular Polyketide Synthases in the Production of Polyether Ladder Compounds in Ciguatoxin-producing Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and G.excentricus (Dinophyceae).', J Eukaryot Microbiol.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of G. excentricus and G. polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates. Additionally, 24 contigs (G. excentricus: 3, G. polynesiensis: 21) encoding multiple PKS domains (forming typical type I PKSs modules) were found. The proposed structure produced by one of these megasynthases resembles a partial carbon backbone of a polyether ladder compound. Seventeen contigs encoding single domain KS, KR, s-malonyltransacylase, dehydratase and enoyl-reductase with sequence similarity to type II fatty acid synthases (FAS) in plants were found. Type I PKS and type II FAS genes were distinguished based on the arrangement of domains on the contigs and their sequence similarity and phylogenetic clustering with known PKS/FAS genes in other organisms. This differentiation of PKS and FAS pathways in Gambierdiscus is important, as it will facilitate approaches to investigating toxin biosynthesis pathways in dinoflagellates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Lapine, M. 2017, 'New degrees of freedom in nonlinear metamaterials', Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.This is an overview of the recent achievements in exploiting novel degrees of freedom in metamaterial design, which enable sophisticated nonlinear coupling mechanisms and bring enhancement to nonlinear behavior. One of the novel paradigms makes use of mechanical feedback, achieved by embedding electromagnetic resonators within elastic medium or engineering explicit elastic links between them, such as rotational feedback. These designs provide broad-band self-adjustable resonances, self-oscillations, chaotic regimes, nonlinear chirality and, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. With this respect, a range of implementations has been analyzed, from flexible helices for microwaves to artificial electrostriction in optics. Another concept benefits from multi-frequency operation, where the properties in completely distinct frequency ranges become entangled through specific metamaterial design -for example, direct optical coupling can be introduced between microwave resonators, providing an independent interaction channel. It was also found that hyperbolic metamaterials can bring notable benefits to classical nonlinear processes by imposing unusual phase matching solutions, with a rich choice of matching combinations. Finally, the boundary structure of metamaterials add yet another possibility to control their properties. Overall, the recent progress in these topics suggests a very positive outlook into the future of nonlinear metamaterials.

Larsson, M., Ajani, P.A., Rubio, A.M., Guise, K., MacPherson, R.G., Brett, S.J., Davies, K.P. & Doblin, M. 2017, 'Long-term perspective on the relationship between phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations in a southeastern Australian estuary', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 227-238.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site

Leake, J., Zinn, R., Corbit, L. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'Dissociation between complete hippocampal context memory formation and context fear acquisition.', Learn Mem, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 153-157.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related activity. We found that hippocampal Arc expression continued to increase well past the minimal time required for plateau-level fear. This raises the possibility that context fear conditioning occurs more rapidly than complete memory formation. Thus, animals may be able to condition robustly to both complete and incomplete contextual representations.

Lee, R., Comber, B., Abraham, J., Wagner, M., Lennard, C., Spindler, X. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Supporting fingerprint identification assessments using a skin stretch model - A preliminary study.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 272, pp. 41-49.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

To support fingerprint expert opinion, this research proposes an approach that combines subjective human analysis (as currently applied by fingerprint practitioners) with a statistical test of the result. This approach relies on the hypothesis that there are limits to the distortion caused by skin stretch. Such limits can be modelled by applying a multivariate normal probability density function to the distances and angle formed by a marked ridge characteristic and the two closest neighbouring minutiae. This study presents a model tested on 5 donors in total. The "expected range" of distortion in a within-source comparison using 10 minutiae was determined and compared to between-source comparisons. The expected range of log probability densities for within-source comparisons marked with 10 minutiae was determined to be from -33.4 to -60.0, with all between-source data falling outside this range, between -83 and -305. These results suggest that the proposed generated metric could be a powerful tool for the assessment of fingerprint expert opinion in operational casework.

Lees, T., Nassif, N., Simpson, A., Shad-Kaneez, F., Martiniello-Wilks, R., Lin, Y., Jones, A., Qu, X. & Lal, S. 2017, 'Recent advances in molecular biomarkers for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.', Biomarkers, pp. 1-13.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

CONTEXT: Diabetes is a growing global metabolic epidemic. Current research is focussing on exploring how the biological processes and clinical outcomes of diabetes are related and developing novel biomarkers to measure these relationships, as this can subsequently improve diagnostic, therapeutic and management capacity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify the most recent advances in molecular biomarkers of diabetes and directions that warrant further research. METHODS: Using a systematic search strategy, the MEDLINE, CINAHL and OVID MEDLINE databases were canvassed for articles that investigated molecular biomarkers for diabetes. Initial selections were made based on article title, whilst final inclusion was informed by a critical appraisal of the full text of each article. RESULTS: The systematic search returned 246 records, of which 113 were unique. Following screening, 29 records were included in the final review. Three main research strategies (the development of novel technologies, broad biomarker panels, and targeted approaches) identified a number of potential biomarkers for diabetes including miR-126, C-reactive protein, 2-aminoadipic acid and betatrophin. CONCLUSION: The most promising research avenue identified is the detection and quantification of micro RNA. Further, the utilisation of functionalised electrodes as a means to detect biomarker compounds also warrants attention.

Leigh, A., Sevanto, S., Close, J.D. & Nicotra, A.B. 2017, 'The influence of leaf size and shape on leaf thermal dynamics: does theory hold up under natural conditions?', Plant Cell Environ, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 237-248.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Laboratory studies on artificial leaves suggest that leaf thermal dynamics are strongly influenced by the two-dimensional size and shape of leaves and associated boundary layer thickness. Hot environments are therefore said to favour selection for small, narrow or dissected leaves. Empirical evidence from real leaves under field conditions is scant and traditionally based on point measurements that do not capture spatial variation in heat load. We used thermal imagery under field conditions to measure the leaf thermal time constant (τ) in summer and the leaf-to-air temperature difference (∆T) and temperature range across laminae (Trange ) during winter, autumn and summer for 68 Proteaceae species. We investigated the influence of leaf area and margin complexity relative to effective leaf width (we ), the latter being a more direct indicator of boundary layer thickness. Normalized difference of margin complexity had no or weak effects on thermal dynamics, but we strongly predicted τ and ∆T, whereas leaf area influenced Trange . Unlike artificial leaves, however, spatial temperature distribution in large leaves appeared to be governed largely by structural variation. Therefore, we agree that small size, specifically we , has adaptive value in hot environments but not with the idea that thermal regulation is the primary evolutionary driver of leaf dissection.

Levin, R.A., Suggett, D.J., Nitschke, M.R., van Oppen, M.J.H. & Steinberg, P.D. 2017, 'Expanding the Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae, Suessiales) Toolkit Through Protoplast Technology.', J Eukaryot Microbiol.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium are photosymbionts of many tropical reef invertebrates, including corals, making them central to the health of coral reefs. Symbiodinium have therefore gained significant research attention, though studies have been constrained by technical limitations. In particular, the generation of viable cells with their cell walls removed (termed protoplasts) has enabled a wide range of experimental techniques for bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae such as ultrastructure studies, virus infection studies, patch clamping, genetic transformation, and protoplast fusion. However, previous studies have struggled to remove the cell walls from armored dinoflagellates, potentially due to the internal placement of their cell walls. Here we produce the first Symbiodinium protoplasts from three genetically and physiologically distinct strains via incubation with cellulase and osmotic agents. Digestion of the cell walls was verified by a lack of Calcofluor White fluorescence signal and by cell swelling in hypotonic culture medium. Fused protoplasts were also observed, motivating future investigation into intra- and inter-specific somatic hybridization of Symbiodinium. Following digestion and transfer to regeneration medium, protoplasts remained photosynthetically active, regrew cell walls, regained motility, and entered exponential growth. Generation of Symbiodinium protoplasts opens exciting, new avenues for researching these crucial symbiotic dinoflagellates, including genetic modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Liana, A.E., Marquis, C.P., Gunawan, C., Gooding, J.J. & Amal, R. 2017, 'T4 Bacteriophage Conjugated Magnetic Particles for E. coli Capturing: Influence of Bacteriophage Loading, Temperature and Tryptone', Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 151, pp. 47-57.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS
View description>>

This work demonstrates the use of bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles (Fe3O4) for the rapid capturing and isolation of Escherichia coli. The investigation of T4 bacteriophage adsorption to silane functionalised Fe3O4 with amine (single bondNH2), carboxylic (single bondCOOH) and methyl (single bondCH3) surface functional groups reveals the domination of net electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in governing bacteriophage adsorption. The bare Fe3O4 and Fe3O4-NH2 with high T4 loading captured 3-fold more E. coli (∼70% capturing efficiency) compared to the low loading T4 on Fe3O4-COOH, suggesting the significance of T4 loading in E. coli capturing efficiency. Importantly, it is further revealed that E. coli capture is highly dependent on the incubation temperature and the presence of tryptone in the media. Effective E. coli capturing only occurs at 37 °C in tryptone-containing media with the absence of either conditions resulted in poor bacteria capture. The incubation temperature dictates the capturing ability of Fe3O4/T4, whereby T4 and E. coli need to establish an irreversible binding that occurred at 37 °C. The presence of tryptophan-rich tryptone in the suspending media was also critical, as shown by a 3-fold increase in E. coli capture efficiency of Fe3O4/T4 in tryptone-containing media compared to that in tryptone-free media. This highlights for the first time that successful bacteria capturing requires not only an optimum tailoring of the particle’s surface physicochemical properties for favourable bacteriophage loading, but also an in-depth understanding of how factors, such as temperature and solution chemistry influence the subsequent bacteriophage-bacteria interactions.

Lin, B.M.T., Hwang, F.J. & Gupta, J.N.D. 2017, 'Two-machine flowshop scheduling with three-operation jobs subject to a fixed job sequence', Journal of Scheduling.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site

Liu, Y., Lu, Y., Yang, X., Zheng, X., Wen, S., Wang, F., Vidal, X., Zhao, J., Liu, D., Zhou, Z., Ma, C., Zhou, J., Piper, J.A., Xi, P. & Jin, D. 2017, 'Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy.', Nature.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Lanthanide-doped glasses and crystals are attractive for laser applications because the metastable energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide ions facilitate the establishment of population inversion and amplified stimulated emission at relatively low pump power. At the nanometre scale, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can now be made with precisely controlled phase, dimension and doping level. When excited in the near-infrared, these UCNPs emit stable, bright visible luminescence at a variety of selectable wavelengths, with single-nanoparticle sensitivity, which makes them suitable for advanced luminescence microscopy applications. Here we show that UCNPs doped with high concentrations of thulium ions (Tm(3+)), excited at a wavelength of 980 nanometres, can readily establish a population inversion on their intermediate metastable (3)H4 level: the reduced inter-emitter distance at high Tm(3+) doping concentration leads to intense cross-relaxation, inducing a photon-avalanche-like effect that rapidly populates the metastable (3)H4 level, resulting in population inversion relative to the (3)H6 ground level within a single nanoparticle. As a result, illumination by a laser at 808 nanometres, matching the upconversion band of the (3)H4 → (3)H6 transition, can trigger amplified stimulated emission to discharge the (3)H4 intermediate level, so that the upconversion pathway to generate blue luminescence can be optically inhibited. We harness these properties to realize low-power super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and achieve nanometre-scale optical resolution (nanoscopy), imaging single UCNPs; the resolution is 28 nanometres, that is, 1/36th of the wavelength. These engineered nanocrystals offer saturation intensity two orders of magnitude lower than those of fluorescent probes currently employed in stimulated emission depletion microscopy, suggesting a new way of alleviating the square-root law that typically limits the r...

Luo, L., Bokil, N.J., Wall, A.A., Kapetanovic, R., Lansdaal, N.M., Marceline, F., Burgess, B.J., Tong, S.J., Guo, Z., Alexandrov, K., Ross, I.L., Hibbs, M.L., Stow, J.L. & Sweet, M.J. 2017, 'SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14133.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation.

Macha, I.J., Ben-Nissan, B., Santos, J., Cazalbou, S., Stamboulis, A., Grossin, D. & Giordano, G. 2017, 'Biocompatibility of a new biodegradable polymer-hydroxyapatite composite for biomedical applications', Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, vol. 38, pp. 72-77.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 Elsevier B.V.The rise in the number of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to an increasingly aging population has led to a growing demand for medication to prevent and treat these diseases. An increased interest in the development of new drugs to allow treatment of these diseases in their very early stages is currently observed. The current approach on local direct delivery of medication and key minerals to support bone repair and regeneration at the defect site, from flexible degradable devices, seems to be an effective strategy. Polylactic acid (PLA) and microspheres of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (cHAp) were used to develop PLA thin film composites as drug delivery systems. The PLA provided flexibility and biodegradability of the systems, while coralline hydroxyapatite provided the required calcium and phosphate ions for bone regeneration. These coralline hydroxyapatite microspheres have a unique architecture of interconnected porosity, are bioactive in nature and suitable for drug loading and controlled slow drug release. The cell attachment and morphology of the PLA thin film composites were evaluated in vitro using cell cultures of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSC). It was shown that hADSC cells exhibited a strong attachment and proliferation on PLA thin film-cHAp composites, signifying high biocompatibility and a potential for osteointegration due to the presence of HAp.

Maeda, E., Ma, X., Wagner, F., Kim, H., Oki, T., Eamus, D. & Huete, A. 2017, 'Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon basin', Earth System Dynamics Discussions.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon basin. We used in-situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (~ 1497 mm year−1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (~ 986 mm year−1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

Mahbub, K.R., Bahar, M.M., Labbate, M., Krishnan, K., Andrews, S., Naidu, R. & Mallavarapu, M. 2017, 'Bioremediation of mercury: not properly exploited in contaminated soils!', Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Mahbub, K.R., Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Stuart Andrews & Mallavarapu Megharaj 2017, 'Mercury toxicity to terrestrial biota', Ecological Indicators, vol. 74, pp. 451-462.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The heavy metal mercury is a non-essential hazardous element which concentrates up the food chain. It is necessary to assess the ecological risk of mercury to establish proper regulatory guideline levels. Most of the toxicological assessment of mercury has been focused on aquatic organisms, however in terrestrial bodies the information is limited. Hence this review critically discusses the toxicity of inorganic mercury to key terrestrial biota from recent literature and evaluate whether these information are adequate to establish safe regulatory limits or precautionary values which is invaluable for risk assessment of mercury in soil. Till date soil microorganisms, plants and invertebrates have been utilized for assessing mercury toxicity; among them, microorganisms have been observed to be the most sensitive indicators to mercury stress. Large inconsistency among the measured toxic concentrations indicates that measuring mercury toxicity in soil may be influenced by soil characteristics and ageing period of contamination. This review warrants more studies to obtain widely acceptable safe limit of soil mercury.

Mahbub, K.R., Krishnan, K., Andrews, S., Venter, H., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Bio-augmentation and nutrient amendment decrease concentration of mercury in contaminated soil', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 576, pp. 303-309.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Four mercury (Hg) contaminated soils with different pH (7.6, 8.5, 4.2 and 7.02) and total organic carbon contents (2.1, 2.2, 4 and 0.9%) were subjected to bioremediation utilizing a Hg volatilizing bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 and nutrient amendment. In a field with ~ 280 mg/kg Hg, 60% of Hg was removed by bio-augmentation in 7 days, and the removal was improved when nutrients were added. Whereas in artificially spiked soils, with ~ 100 mg/kg Hg, removal due to bio-augmentation was 33 to 48% in 14 days. In the field contaminated soil, nutrient amendment alone without bio-augmentation removed 50% of Hg in 28 days. Nutrient amendment also had an impact on Hg remediation in the spiked soils, but the best results were obtained when the strain and nutrients both were applied. The development of longer root lengths from lettuce and cucumber seeds grown in the remediated soils confirmed that the soil quality improved after bioremediation. This study clearly demonstrates the potential of Hg-reducing bacteria in remediation of Hg-contaminated soils. However, it is desirable to trap the volatilized Hg for enhanced bioremediation.

Maitre, M., Kirkbride, K.P., Horder, M., Roux, C. & Beavis, A. 2017, 'Current perspectives in the interpretation of gunshot residues in forensic science: A review.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 270, pp. 1-11.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The traces produced when a firearm is discharged can provide important information in cases when questions regarding a possible association of the firearm with a person of interest (POI), time since discharge or shooting distance are raised. With advances in technology, the forensic challenges presented by these traces, known as gunshot residues (GSR), are moving from the analytical domain to the interpretation of the analytical results. Different interpretation frameworks are currently competing. Formal classification of particles, using standards such as that produced by ASTM, focusses only on evaluation of evidence at the sub-source level. Another approach, based on the application of Bayesian reasoning - namely the case-by-case approach - has been proposed that allows evaluation of evidence in regards to activity-related questions. This alternative approach allows an evaluation of the evidence that is more closely aligned to judicial and investigative aims. This paper critically presents the state of the art in regards to GSR interpretation in a holistic manner.

Marquez-Ortiz, R.A., Haggerty, L., Sim, E.M., Duarte, C., Castro-Cardozo, B.E., Beltran, M., Saavedra, S., Vanegas, N., Escobar-Perez, J. & Petty, N.K. 2017, 'First Complete Providencia rettgeri Genome Sequence, the NDM-1-Producing Clinical Strain RB151.', Genome Announc, vol. 5, no. 3.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Providencia rettgeri is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of clinical significance due to its association with urinary tract infections and multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of P. rettgeri The genome of strain RB151 consists of a 4.8-Mbp chromosome and a 108-kbp blaNDM-1-positive plasmid.

Michelot, H., Fu, S., Stuart, B., Shimmon, R., Raymond, T., Crandell, T. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 106-112.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

Mittra, R., Pavy, M., Subramanian, N., George, A.M., O'Mara, M.L., Kerr, I.D. & Callaghan, R. 2017, 'Location of contact residues in pharmacologically distinct drug binding sites on P-glycoprotein.', Biochem Pharmacol, vol. 123, pp. 19-28.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is characterised by the ability to bind and/or transport an astonishing array of drugs. This poly-specificity is imparted by at least four pharmacologically distinct binding sites within the transmembrane domain. Whether or not these sites are spatially distinct has remained unclear. Biochemical and structural investigations have implicated a central cavity as the likely location for the binding sites. In the present investigation, a number of contact residues that are involved in drug binding were identified through biochemical assays using purified, reconstituted P-gp. Drugs were selected to represent each of the four pharmacologically distinct sites. Contact residues important in rhodamine123 binding were identified in the central cavity of P-gp. However, contact residues for the binding of vinblastine, paclitaxel and nicardipine were located at the lipid-protein interface rather than the central cavity. A key residue (F978) within the central cavity is believed to be involved in coupling drug binding to nucleotide hydrolysis. Data observed in this investigation suggest the presence of spatially distinct drug binding sites connecting through to a single translocation pore in the central cavity.

Murray, B.R., Martin, L.J., Phillips, M.L. & Pyšek, P. 2017, 'Taxonomic perils and pitfalls of dataset assembly in ecology: a case study of the naturalized Asteraceae in Australia', NeoBiota, vol. 34, pp. 1-20.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The value of plant ecological datasets with hundreds or thousands of species is principally determined by the taxonomic accuracy of their plant names. However, combining existing lists of species to assemble a harmonized dataset that is clean of taxonomic errors can be a difficult task for non-taxonomists. Here, we describe the range of taxonomic difficulties likely to be encountered during dataset assembly and present an easy-to-use taxonomic cleaning protocol aimed at assisting researchers not familiar with the finer details of taxonomic cleaning. The protocol produces a final dataset (FD) linked to a companion dataset (CD), providing clear details of the path from existing lists to the FD taken by each cleaned taxon. Taxa are checked off against ten categories in the CD that succinctly summarize all taxonomic modifications required. Two older, publicly-available lists of naturalized Asteraceae in Australia were merged into a harmonized dataset as a case study to quantify the impacts of ignoring the critical process of taxonomic cleaning in invasion ecology. Our FD of naturalized Asteraceae contained 257 species and infra-species. Without implementation of the full cleaning protocol, the dataset would have contained 328 taxa, a 28% overestimate of taxon richness by 71 taxa. Our naturalized Asteraceae CD described the exclusion of 88 names due to nomenclatural issues (e.g. synonymy), the inclusion of 26 updated currently accepted names and four taxa newly naturalized since the production of the source datasets, and the exclusion of 13 taxa that were either found not to be in Australia or were in fact doubtfully naturalized. This study also supports the notion that automated processes alone will not be enough to ensure taxonomically clean datasets, and that manual scrutiny of data is essential. In the long term, this will best be supported by increased investment in taxonomy and botany in university curricula.

Najafpour, M.M., Heidari, S., Balaghi, S.E., Hołyńska, M., Sadr, M.H., Soltani, B., Khatamian, M., Larkum, A.W. & Allakhverdiev, S.I. 2017, 'Proposed mechanisms for water oxidation by Photosystem II and nanosized manganese oxides.', Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1858, no. 2, pp. 156-174.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Plants, algae and cyanobacteria capture sunlight, extracting electrons from H2O to reduce CO2 into sugars while releasing O2 in the oxygenic photosynthetic process. Because of the important role of water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis and many solar fuel systems, understanding the structure and function of this unique biological catalyst forms a requisite research field. Herein the structure of the water-oxidizing complex and its ligand environment are described with reference to the 1.9Å resolution X-ray-derived crystallographic model of the water-oxidizing complex from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Proposed mechanisms for water oxidation by Photosystem II and nanosized manganese oxides are also reviewed and discussed in the paper.

Nasiri, N., Bo, R., Fu, L. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Three-dimensional nano-heterojunction networks: A highly performing structure for fast visible-blind UV photodetectors', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 2059-2067.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.Visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors are a promising emerging technology for the development of wide bandgap optoelectronic devices with greatly reduced power consumption and size requirements. A standing challenge is to improve the slow response time of these nanostructured devices. Here, we present a three-dimensional nanoscale heterojunction architecture for fast-responsive visible-blind UV photodetectors. The device layout consists of p-type NiO clusters densely packed on the surface of an ultraporous network of electron-depleted n-type ZnO nanoparticles. This 3D structure can detect very low UV light densities while operating with a near-zero power consumption of ca. 4 × 10-11 watts and a low bias of 0.2 mV. Most notably, heterojunction formation decreases the device rise and decay times by 26 and 20 times, respectively. These drastic enhancements in photoresponse dynamics are attributed to the stronger surface band bending and improved electron-hole separation of the nanoscale NiO/ZnO interface. These findings demonstrate a superior structural design and a simple, low-cost CMOS-compatible process for the engineering of high-performance wearable photodetectors.

Nguyen, L.T., Chen, H., Pollock, C.A. & Saad, S. 2017, 'Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?', FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1383-1390.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS
View description>>

Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, attributed to diverse and interactive genetic and environmental factors. The associated health consequences of obesity are pleiotropic, with individuals being more susceptible to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and lipotoxicity-related chronic diseases. The contribution of maternal obesity to the offspring's predisposition to both obesity and its complications is increasingly recognized. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these "transmissible" effects is critical to develop therapeutic interventions to reduce the risk for "programmed" obesity. Sirtuins (SIRTs), particularly SIRT1 and SIRT3, are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate metabolic balance and stress responses in both central and peripheral tissues, of which dysregulation is a well-established mediator for the development and effects of obesity. Nevertheless, their implication in the transmissible effects of maternal obesity across generations remains largely elusive. In this review, we examine multiple pathways and systems that are likely to mediate such effects, with particular emphasis on the role of SIRTs.-Nguyen, L. T., Chen, H., Pollock, C. A., Saad, S. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?

Nizalapur, S., Kimyon, O., Yee, E., Ho, K., Berry, T., Manefield, M., Cranfield, C.G., Willcox, M., Black, D.S. & Kumar, N. 2017, 'Amphipathic guanidine-embedded glyoxamide-based peptidomimetics as novel antibacterial agents and biofilm disruptors.', Org Biomol Chem.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is becoming increasingly prevalent, posing a critical challenge to global health. Bacterial biofilm formation is a common resistance mechanism that reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. Thus, the development of compounds that can disrupt bacterial biofilms is a potential strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. We report herein the synthesis of amphipathic guanidine-embedded glyoxamide-based peptidomimetics via ring-opening reactions of N-naphthoylisatins with amines and amino acids. These compounds were investigated for their antibacterial activity by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus and E. coli. Compounds 35, 36, and 66 exhibited MIC values of 6, 8 and 10 μg mL(-1) against S. aureus, respectively, while compounds 55 and 56 showed MIC values of 17 and 19 μg mL(-1) against E. coli, respectively. Biofilm disruption and inhibition activities were also evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most active compound 65 exhibited the greatest disruption of established biofilms by 65% in S. aureus, 61% in P. aeruginosa, and 60% in S. marcescens respectively, at 250 μM concentration, while compound 52 inhibited the formation of biofilms by 72% in S. marcescens at 250 μM. We also report here the in vitro toxicity against MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells. Finally, the pore forming capability of the three most potent compounds were tested using tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM) technology.

Nolan, T.H. & Wand, M.P. 2017, 'Accurate logistic variational message passing: algebraic and numerical details', Stat, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 102-112.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

O'Rourke, M.B. & Padula, M.P. 2017, 'A new standard of visual data representation for imaging mass spectrometry.', Proteomics Clin Appl, vol. 11, no. 3-4.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

PURPOSE: MALDI imaging MS (IMS) is principally used for cancer diagnostics. In our own experience with publishing IMS data, we have been requested to modify our protocols with respect to the areas of the tissue that are imaged in order to comply with the wider literature. In light of this, we have determined that current methodologies lack effective controls and can potentially introduce bias by only imaging specific areas of the targeted tissue EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A previously imaged sample was selected and then cropped in different ways to show the potential effect of only imaging targeted areas. RESULTS: By using a model sample, we were able to effectively show how selective imaging of samples can misinterpret tissue features and by changing the areas that are acquired, according to our new standard, an effective internal control can be introduced. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current IMS sampling convention relies on the assumption that sample preparation has been performed correctly. This prevents users from checking whether molecules have moved beyond borders of the tissue due to delocalization and consequentially products of improper sample preparation could be interpreted as biological features that are of critical importance when encountered in a visual diagnostic.

Pandey, A.K., Mishra, A.K., Kumar, R., Berwal, S., Devadas, R., Huete, A. & Kumar, K. 2017, 'CO variability and its association with household cooking fuels consumption over the Indo-Gangetic Plains.', Environ Pollut, vol. 222, pp. 83-93.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

This study examines the spatio-temporal trends obtained from decade long (Jan 2003-Dec 2014) satellite observational data of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) on carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region. The time sequence plots of columnar CO levels over the western, central and eastern IGP regions reveal marked seasonal behaviour, with lowest CO levels occurring during the monsoon months and the highest CO levels occurring during the pre-monsoon period. A negative correlation between CO levels and rainfall is observed. CO vertical profiles show relatively high values in the upper troposphere at ∼200 hPa level during the monsoon months, thus suggesting the role of convective transport and advection in addition to washout behind the decreased CO levels during this period. MOPITT and AIRS observations show a decreasing trend of 9.6 × 10(15) and 1.5 × 10(16) molecules cm(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in columnar CO levels over the IGP region. The results show the existence of a spatial gradient in CO from the eastern (higher levels) to western IGP region (lower levels). Data from the Census of India on the number of households using various cooking fuels in the IGP region shows the prevalence of biomass-fuel (i.e. firewood, crop residue, cowdung etc.) use over the eastern and central IGP regions and that of liquefied petroleum gas over the western IGP region. CO emission estimates from cooking activity over the three IGP regions are found to be in the order east > central > west, which support the existence of the spatial gradient in CO from eastern to the western IGP region. Our results support the intervention of present Indian government on limiting the use of biomass-fuels in domestic cooking to achieve the benefits in terms of the better air quality, household health and regional/global climate change mitigation.

Pasin, D., Cawley, A., Bidny, S. & Fu, S. 2017, 'Characterisation of hallucinogenic phenethylamines using high-resolution mass spectrometry for non-targeted screening purposes.', Drug Test Anal.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Hallucinogenic phenethylamines such as 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C-X) and their N-(2-methoxybenzyl) derivatives (25X-NBOMe) has seen an increase in novel analogues in recent years. These rapidly changing analogues make it difficult for laboratories to rely on traditional targeted screening methods to detect unknown new psychoactive substances (NPS). In this study, twelve 2C-X, six 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines (DOX) and fourteen 25X-NBOMe derivatives, including two deuterated derivatives (2C-B-d6 and 25I-NBOMe-d9 ), were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed using collision energies set at 10, 20 and 40 eV. For 2C-X and DOX derivatives, common losses were observed including neutral and radical losses such as NH3 (17.0265 Da), CH6 N (32.0500 Da), C2 H7 N (45.0578 Da) and C2 H9 N (47.0735 Da). 2C-X derivatives displayed common product ions at m/z 164.0837 ([C10 H12 O2 ](+) ), 149.0603 ([C9 H9 O2 ](+) ) and 134.0732 ([C9 H10 O](+) ) while DOX derivatives had common product ions at m/z 178.0994 ([C11 H14 O2 ](+) ), 163.0754 ([C10 H11 O2 ](+) ), 147.0804 ([C10 H11 O](+) ) and 135.0810 ([C9 H11 O](+) ). 25X-NBOMe had characteristic product ions at m/z 121.0654 ([C8 H9 O](+) ) and 91.0548 ([C7 H7 ](+) ) with minor common losses corresponding to 2-methylanisole (C8 H10 O, 122.0732 Da), 2-methoxybenzylamine (C8 H11 NO, 137.0847 Da) and C9 H14 NO (152.1074 Da). Novel analogues of the selected classes can be detected by applying neutral loss filters (NLFs) and extracting the common product ions.

Paul, B., Kim, H.S., Kerr, M.C., Huston, W.M., Teasdale, R.D. & Collins, B.M. 2017, 'Structural basis for the hijacking of endosomal sorting nexin proteins by Chlamydia trachomatis.', Elife, vol. 6.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

During infection chlamydial pathogens form an intracellular membrane-bound replicative niche termed the inclusion, which is enriched with bacterial transmembrane proteins called Incs. Incs bind and manipulate host cell proteins to promote inclusion expansion and provide camouflage against innate immune responses. Sorting nexin (SNX) proteins that normally function in endosomal membrane trafficking are a major class of inclusion-associated host proteins, and are recruited by IncE/CT116. Crystal structures of the SNX5 phox-homology (PX) domain in complex with IncE define the precise molecular basis for these interactions. The binding site is unique to SNX5 and related family members SNX6 and SNX32. Intriguingly the site is also conserved in SNX5 homologues throughout evolution, suggesting that IncE captures SNX5-related proteins by mimicking a native host protein interaction. These findings thus provide the first mechanistic insights both into how chlamydial Incs hijack host proteins, and how SNX5-related PX domains function as scaffolds in protein complex assembly.

Penfold, S., Dayananda, B. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Chemical cues influence retreat-site selection by flat rock spiders', Behaviour, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 149-161.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 Copyright 2017 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.Many animals use chemical cues to detect conspecifics and predators. On sandstone outcrops, flat rock spiders Morebilus plagusius and Polyrachis ants use sun-exposed rocks as nest sites, and defend rocks from intruders. We investigated whether chemical cues influenced retreat-site selection by spiders. In the field, spiders showed significant avoidance of rocks used by ants. In laboratory trials, we gave spiders the choice between conspecific-scented and unscented refuges, and ant-scented and unscented refuges. In conspecific scent trials, spiders showed no avoidance of spider scented refuges during the night, but significantly more spiders chose unscented refuges as their diurnal retreat-site. In ant scent trials, spiders made more visits to unscented refuges than ant-scented refuges during the night, and significantly more spiders chose unscented refuges as their diurnal retreat site. Our results demonstrate that spiders can detect chemical cues from ants and conspecifics, and that such cues influence retreat-site selection.

Peng, D., Zhang, B., Wu, C., Huete, A.R., Gonsamo, A., Lei, L., Ponce-Campos, G.E., Liu, X. & Wu, Y. 2017, 'Country-level net primary production distribution and response to drought and land cover change', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 574, pp. 65-77.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can offset emissions and thereby offers an alternative way of achieving the target of reducing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Net primary production (NPP) is the first step in the sequestration of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems. This study quantifies moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP from 2000 to 2014 at the country level along with its response to drought and land cover change. Our results indicate that the combined NPP for 53 countries represents > 90% of global NPP. From 2000 to 2014, 29 of these 53 countries had increasing NPP trends, most notably the Central African Republic (23 g C/m2/y). The top three and top 12 countries accounted for 30% and 60% of total global NPP, respectively, whereas the mean national NPP per unit area in the countries with the 12 lowest values was only around ~ 300 g C/m2/y - the exception to this was Brazil, which had an NPP of 850 g C/m2/y. Large areas of Russia, Argentina, Peru and several countries in southeast Asia showed a marked decrease in NPP (~ 15 g C/m2/y). About 37% of the NPP decrease was caused by drought while ~ 55% of NPP variability was attributed to changes in water availability. Land cover change explained about 20% of the NPP variability. Our findings support the idea that government policies should aim primarily to improve water management in drought-afflicted countries; land use/land cover change policy could also be used as an alternative method of increasing NPP.

Peng, K., Parkinson, P., Gao, Q., Boland, J.L., Li, Z., Wang, F., Mokkapati, S., Fu, L., Johnston, M.B., Tan, H.H. & Jagadish, C. 2017, 'Single n+-i-n+ InP nanowires for highly sensitive terahertz detection', Nanotechnology, vol. 28, no. 12.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.Developing single-nanowire terahertz (THz) electronics and employing them as sub-wavelength components for highly-integrated THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) applications is a promising approach to achieve future low-cost, highly integrable and high-resolution THz tools, which are desirable in many areas spanning from security, industry, environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics to fundamental science. In this work, we present the design and growth of n+-i-n+ InP nanowires. The axial doping profile of the n+-i-n+ InP nanowires has been calibrated and characterized using combined optical and electrical approaches to achieve nanowire devices with low contact resistances, on which the highly-sensitive InP single-nanowire photoconductive THz detectors have been demonstrated. While the n+-i-n+ InP nanowire detector has a only pA-level response current, it has a 2.5 times improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with the undoped InP nanowire detector and is comparable to traditional bulk THz detectors. This performance indicates a promising path to nanowire-based THz electronics for future commercial applications.

Petrou, K., Ralph, P.J. & Nielsen, D.A. 2017, 'A novel mechanism for host-mediated photoprotection in endosymbiotic foraminifera.', ISME J, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 453-462.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Light underpins the health and function of coral reef ecosystems, where symbiotic partnerships with photosynthetic algae constitute the life support system of the reef. Decades of research have given us detailed knowledge of the photoprotective capacity of phototrophic organisms, yet little is known about the role of the host in providing photoprotection in symbiotic systems. Here we show that the intracellular symbionts within the large photosymbiotic foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis exhibit phototactic behaviour, and that the phototactic movement of the symbionts is accomplished by the host, through rapid actin-mediated relocation of the symbionts deeper into the cavities within the calcium carbonate test. Using a photosynthetic inhibitor, we identified that the infochemical signalling for host regulation is photosynthetically derived, highlighting the presence of an intimate communication between the symbiont and the host. Our results emphasise the central importance of the host in photosymbiotic photoprotection via a new mechanism in foraminifera that can serve as a platform for exploring host-symbiont communication in other photosymbiotic organisms.

Portbury, S.D., Hare, D.J., Sgambelloni, C.J., Bishop, D.P., Finkelstein, D.I., Doble, P.A. & Adlard, P.A. 2017, 'Age modulates the injury-induced metallomic profile in the brain.', Metallomics.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The biological transition metals iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are thought to contribute to the neuronal pathologies that occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and indeed our previously published work in young (3 month-old) mice clearly demonstrates a significant spatiotemporal modulation of metals following TBI. Of note, however, is the literature observation that there is both an apparent detrimental effect of aging on TBI outcomes and an alteration in metals and their various transporters with normal advancing age. Therefore, to determine whether there was an interaction between aging, metals and TBI, we have utilised laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of Fe, Zn and Cu following an acute controlled cortical impact brain injury in aged (24 months) rodents. The relative abundance of metals in corresponding regions within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres as well as the hippocampus was assessed. Substantial region and time point specific alterations in Fe, Zn and Cu were identified immediately and up to 28 days post-TBI. The data from this follow-up study has also been compared to our previous data from young animals, and aged mice exhibit an appreciably enhanced and persistent elevation of all metals in every region surveyed, with individual metal disparities at various time points observed post-injury. This may potentially contribute to the acceleration in the onset of cognitive decline and neurological disease that has been observed in the aged population following head trauma.

Prakash, Y.S., Halayko, A.J., Gosens, R., Panettieri, R.A., Camoretti-Mercado, B., Penn, R.B., Aiyar, R., Ammit, A., Berkman, N., Bond, R., Brown, R., Boulet, L., Burgess, J., Chung, K.F., Debley, J., Deshpande, D., Freemer, M., Glass, M., Haczku, A., Holgate, S., Irvin, C., Jacoby, D., Johnson, J., Meurs, H., Murphy, T., Murthy, M., Noel, P., O'Byrne, P., Pabelick, C., Pera, T., Poynter, M., Robinson, G., Saglani, S., Solway, J., Stewart, A., Tliba, O., Togias, A. & Woodruff, P. 2017, 'An official American thoracic society research statement: Current challenges facing research and therapeutic advances in airway remodeling', American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 195, no. 2, pp. e4-e19.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© Copyright 2017 by the American Thoracic Society.Background: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulatory issues that deter progress of AR research and development of therapeutics targeting AR and to propose approaches and solutions to these specific problems. This Statement is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on any disease in which AR is observed and/or plays a role. Methods: An international multidisciplinary group from within academia, industry, and the National Institutes of Health, with expertise in multimodal approaches to the study of airway structure and function, pulmonary research and clinical practice in obstructive lung disease, and drug discovery platforms was invited to participate in one internet-based and one face-to-face meeting to address the above-stated goals. Although the majority of the analysis related to AR was in asthma, AR in other diseases was also discussed and considered in the recommendations. A literature search of PubMed was performed to support conclusions. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Results: Multiple conceptual, logistical, economic, and regulatory deterrents were identified that limit the performance of AR research and impede accelerated, intensive development of AR-focused therapeutics. Complementary solutions that leverage expertise of academia and industry were proposed to address them. Conclusions: To date, numerous factors related to the intrinsic difficulty in performing AR research, and economic forces that are disincentives for the pursuit of AR treatments, have thwarted the ability to understandARpathology and mechanisms and to address it clinically. This ATS Research Statement identifies potential solutions for each of the...

Rahman, M.A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Efficient multi-coloured Li-doped ZnO thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis', JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, vol. 691, pp. 339-342.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Ren, J., Song, J., Ellis, J. & Li, J. 2017, 'Staged heterogeneity learning to identify conformational B-cell epitopes from antigen sequences', BMC Genomics, vol. 18.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 The Author(s).Background: The broad heterogeneity of antigen-antibody interactions brings tremendous challenges to the design of a widely applicable learning algorithm to identify conformational B-cell epitopes. Besides the intrinsic heterogeneity introduced by diverse species, extra heterogeneity can also be introduced by various data sources, adding another layer of complexity and further confounding the research. Results: This work proposed a staged heterogeneity learning method, which learns both characteristics and heterogeneity of data in a phased manner. The method was applied to identify antigenic residues of heterogenous conformational B-cell epitopes based on antigen sequences. In the first stage, the model learns the general epitope patterns of each kind of propensity from a large data set containing computationally defined epitopes. In the second stage, the model learns the heterogenous complementarity of these propensities from a relatively small guided data set containing experimentally determined epitopes. Moreover, we designed an algorithm to cluster the predicted individual antigenic residues into conformational B-cell epitopes so as to provide strong potential for real-world applications, such as vaccine development. With heterogeneity well learnt, the transferability of the prediction model was remarkably improved to handle new data with a high level of heterogeneity. The model has been tested on two data sets with experimentally determined epitopes, and on a data set with computationally defined epitopes. This proposed sequence-based method achieved outstanding performance - about twice that of existing methods, including the sequence-based predictor CBTOPE and three other structure-based predictors. Conclusions: The proposed method uses only antigen sequence information, and thus has much broader applications.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Ovarian Follicular Waves in Alpacas and Implications for Embryo Transfer Programs', Alpaca Culture Magazine, vol. 6, no. 1 (March).
View description>>

Alpaca female reproductive physiology, in comparison with other domestic species (cattle and sheep), is still considered to be under-researched and in its infancy. Nevertheless, there are commercial embryo transfer protocols available, but the ovarian response is characterised by being extremely variable and unpredictable. Embryo transfer in alpacas has not been critically and systematically studied. The reason behind is attributed to a lack funding and promotion of investigations in Peru and internationally. The aim of this article is to present a simple explanation on how ovarian follicular waves occur in alpacas. Understanding reproductive physiology is crucial for any reproductive program such as embryo transfer and artificial insemination.

Saffari, M., Pakpour, A.H. & Chen, H. 2017, 'Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study.', Health Promot Perspect, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 34-41.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status.

Scott, P.D., Coleman, H.M., Colville, A., Lim, R., Matthews, B., McDonald, J.A., Miranda, A., Neale, P.A., Nugegoda, D., Tremblay, L.A. & Leusch, F.D.L. 2017, 'Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).', Aquat Toxicol, vol. 185, pp. 105-120.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p<0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p=0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a low risk to fish in most Australian rivers monitored to-date except for some species of fish at the most polluted sites.

Seo, D.H., Pineda, S., Fang, J., Gozukara, Y., Yick, S., Bendavid, A., Lam, S.K.H., Murdock, A.T., Murphy, A.B., Han, Z.J. & Ostrikov, K.K. 2017, 'Single-step ambient-air synthesis of graphene from renewable precursors as electrochemical genosensor.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14217.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Thermal chemical vapour deposition techniques for graphene fabrication, while promising, are thus far limited by resource-consuming and energy-intensive principles. In particular, purified gases and extensive vacuum processing are necessary for creating a highly controlled environment, isolated from ambient air, to enable the growth of graphene films. Here we exploit the ambient-air environment to enable the growth of graphene films, without the need for compressed gases. A renewable natural precursor, soybean oil, is transformed into continuous graphene films, composed of single-to-few layers, in a single step. The enabling parameters for controlled synthesis and tailored properties of the graphene film are discussed, and a mechanism for the ambient-air growth is proposed. Furthermore, the functionality of the graphene is demonstrated through direct utilization as an electrode to realize an effective electrochemical genosensor. Our method is applicable to other types of renewable precursors and may open a new avenue for low-cost synthesis of graphene films.

Shi, H., Li, L., Eamus, D., Huete, A., Cleverly, J., Tian, X., Yu, Q., Wang, S., Montagnani, L., Magliulo, V., Rotenberg, E., Pavelka, M. & Carrara, A. 2017, 'Assessing the ability of MODIS EVI to estimate terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production of multiple land cover types', Ecological Indicators, vol. 72, pp. 153-164.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

tTerrestrial ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) is the largest component in the global carbon cycle.The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) has been proven to be strongly correlated with annual GPP withinseveral biomes. However, the annual GPP-EVI relationship and associated environmental regulationshave not yet been comprehensively investigated across biomes at the global scale. Here we exploredrelationships between annual integrated EVI (iEVI) and annual GPP observed at 155 flux sites, whereGPP was predicted with a log-log model: ln(GPP) = a × ln(iEVI) + b. iEVI was computed from MODISmonthly EVI products following removal of values affected by snow or cold temperature and withoutcalculating growing season duration. Through categorisation of flux sites into 12 land cover types, theability of iEVI to estimate GPP was considerably improved (R2from 0.62 to 0.74, RMSE from 454.7 to368.2 g C m−2yr−1). The biome-specific GPP-iEVI formulae generally showed a consistent performancein comparison to a global benchmarking dataset (R2= 0.79, RMSE = 387.8 g C m−2yr−1). Specifically, iEVIperformed better in cropland regions with high productivity but poorer in forests. The ability of iEVI inestimating GPP was better in deciduous biomes (except deciduous broadleaf forest) than in evergreendue to the large seasonal signal in iEVI in deciduous biomes. Likewise, GPP estimated from iEVI was ina closer agreement to global benchmarks at mid and high-latitudes, where deciduous biomes are morecommon and cloud cover has a smaller effect on remote sensing retrievals. Across biomes, a significant andnegative correlation (R2= 0.37, p < 0.05) was observed between the strength (R2) of GPP-iEVI relationshipsand mean annual maximum leaf area index (LAImax), and the relationship between the strength andmean annual precipitation followed a similar trend. LAImaxalso revealed a scaling effect on GPP-iEVIrelationships. Our results suggest that iEVI provides a very simple but robust approach to ...

Stayte, S., Rentsch, P., Tröscher, A.R., Bamberger, M., Li, K.M. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo.', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 1, p. e0167211.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta region and a subsequent loss of dopamine within the striatum. A promising avenue of research has been the administration of growth factors to promote the survival of remaining midbrain neurons, although the mechanism by which they provide neuroprotection is not understood. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory following acute brain injury and has been demonstrated to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against MPP+-induced degeneration in vitro. We hypothesized that activin A may offer similar anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vivo mouse models of Parkinson's disease. We found that activin A significantly attenuated the inflammatory response induced by both MPTP and intranigral administration of lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6 mice. We found that administration of activin A promoted survival of dopaminergic and total neuron populations in the pars compacta region both 8 days and 8 weeks after MPTP-induced degeneration. Surprisingly, no corresponding protection of striatal dopamine levels was found. Furthermore, activin A failed to protect against loss of striatal dopamine transporter expression in the striatum, suggesting the neuroprotective action of activin A may be localized to the substantia nigra. Together, these results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects in the MPTP and lipopolysaccharide mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

Stuart, B.H. & Thomas, P.S. 2017, 'Pigment characterisation in Australian rock art: a review of modern instrumental methods of analysis', Heritage Science, vol. 5, no. 1.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Su, D., McDonagh, A., Qiao, S.-.Z. & Wang, G. 2017, 'High-Capacity Aqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries for Large-Scale Energy Storage.', Adv Mater, vol. 29, no. 1.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

A potassium iron (II) hexacyanoferrate nanocube cathode material is reported, which operates with an aqueous electrolyte to deliver exceptionally high capacities (up to 120 mA h g(-1) ). The cathode material exhibits excellent structural integrity, leading to fast kinetics and highly reversible properties. All of the battery materials are safe, inexpensive, and provide superior high-rate, long-cycle-life electrochemical performance.

Tam, R., Heather, E., Shimmon, R., Lam, B. & McDonagh, A.M. 2017, 'Synthesis and organic impurity profiling of 4-methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride and its precursors.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 272, pp. 184-189.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

4-Methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) was synthesised from star anise and from 4-methoxytoluene and the organic impurity profiles examined. These two starting materials are unrestricted chemicals in many jurisdictions and contain the requisite functional groups and are thus well suited for clandestine manufacturers. trans-Anethole was extracted from star anise and oxidised to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-propanone (PMP2P). 4-Methoxytoluene was oxidised to anisaldehyde, converted to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-nitropropene, and then reduced to PMP2P. The PMP2P obtained by both methods was then converted to PMMA via the Leuckart reaction. 4-Methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (PMMA·HCl) was synthesised from PMMA using hydrogen chloride gas. Both of the examined synthetic methods were found to be feasible routes into PMMA·HCl. The products of each step were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). Impurities were examined in an attempt to identify route specific compounds, which may provide valuable information about the synthetic pathway and precursors.

Taudte, R.V., Roux, C. & Beavis, A. 2017, 'Stability of smokeless powder compounds on collection devices.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 270, pp. 55-60.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The current trend towards the implementation of organic gunshot residue (OGSR) analysis into gunshot residue (GSR) investigation protocols typically involves the sequential analysis of inorganic and organic GSR. However, to allow for the consecutive analysis of inorganic and organic GSR, specimens will often be stored for different lengths of time which may result in compounds of interest degrading. In order to optimise storage conditions, it is important to consider compound degradation on collection devices during storage. This study investigated the degradation over time of compounds potentially present in smokeless powders and OGSR on two collection devices, alcohol swabs and GSR stubs. Over a period of 63 days, the highest degree of degradation was found in the first four days. Interestingly, energetic compounds were generally found to be more stable than smokeless powder additives such as stabilisers including diphenylamine and ethyl centralite, which might be problematic considering that these compounds are common targets for OGSR. The findings can provide valuable information to operational forensic laboratories to optimise their storage durations.

Teng, B., Ma, P., Yu, C., Zhang, X., Feng, Q., Wen, L., Li, C., Cheng, Z., Jin, D. & Lin, J. 2017, 'Upconversion nanoparticles loaded with eIF4E siRNA and platinum(IV) prodrug to sensitize platinum based chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer and bioimaging', Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 307-317.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© The Royal Society of Chemistry.Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E is a valuable marker in cancer prognostics in many human cancers. Silencing eIF4E via delivery of siRNA may be able to overcome chemoresistance. Cisplatin, used as a first-line anti-cancer reagent, has been widely accepted for its great success in clinical applications but it is restricted due to severe side effects such as nephrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, and hearing loss. Moreover, platinum drug resistance is a major obstacle to its use. Platinum(iv) prodrugs (denoted as Pt(iv)) which could be reduced to Pt(ii) by various reductants, including mercaptan and glutathione, within cancer cells have very limited toxicity and might overcome platinum resistance because of their chemical inertness. Moreover, combinational therapies that could sensitize the cancer cells to Pt drugs have received great attention nowadays around the world. Here we report a simple and effective upconversion nanoparticle carrier system loaded with both eIF4E siRNA and Pt(iv). We find that this theranostic system could sensitize laryngeal cancer cells to cisplatin based chemotherapy and allow bioimaging both in vitro and in vivo.

Teng, Z., Lv, H., Wang, C., Xue, H., Pang, H. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Bandgap engineering of ultrathin graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets with controllable oxygenous functionalization', Carbon, vol. 113, pp. 63-75.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 Elsevier LtdSeeking effective approaches of bandgap engineering with increased carrier lifetime is critical for designing semiconductor photoelectronic devices and photocatalysis systems. Ultrathin graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets have shown promising prospect in photocatalysis, whereas no preparation strategy for adjusting their bandgap in a wide range has ever been reported. Here in, high yield-rate synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional carbon nitride nanosheets with controllable oxygenous functionalization (the relative mass ratio of oxygen ranges from 0.523% to 19.9%) was firstly achieved by an improved hummer's method combining concentrated sulfuric acid protonation and potassium permanganate assisted exfoliation, and reduction employing hydrazine hydrate. Protonation and intercalation behavior of different acids in the treatment of bulk-g-C3N4 was elaborated at molecule level for the first time. Introduced oxygenous groups are firstly found to have the capability for adjusting the bandgap of graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets from 2.54 eV to 3.07 eV and significantly increased the lifetime of the photo carriers. Our strategy may open a new vista for design and construction of various carbon nitride nanocomposites and give detailed instructions in bandgap engineering of other two-dimensional functional materials for wider applications.

Tran, T.T., Choi, S., Scott, J.A., Xu, Z.Q., Zheng, C., Seniutinas, G., Bendavid, A., Fuhrer, M.S., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Oxidized Tungsten Disulfide Multilayers', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 5, no. 5.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Tricoli, A., Nasiri, N. & De, S. 2017, 'Wearable and Miniaturized Sensor Technologies for Personalized and Preventive Medicine', Advanced Functional Materials.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.The unprecedented medical achievements of the last century have dramatically improved our quality of life. Today, the high cost of many healthcare approaches challenges their long-term financial sustainability and translation to a global scale. The convergence of wearable electronics, miniaturized sensor technologies, and big data analysis provides novel opportunities to improve the quality of healthcare while decreasing costs by the very early stage detection and prevention of fatal and chronic diseases. Here, some exciting achievements, emerging technologies, and standing challenges for the development of non-invasive personalized and preventive medicine devices are discussed. The engineering of wire- and power-less ultra-thin sensors on wearable biocompatible materials that can be placed on the skin, pupil, and teeth is reviewed, focusing on common solutions and current limitations. The integration and development of sophisticated sensing nanomaterials are presented with respect to their performance, showing exemplary implementations for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of biomarkers in complex mixtures such as the human sweat and breath. This review is concluded by summarizing achievements and standing challenges with the aim to provide directions for future research in miniaturized medical sensor technologies.

Trussart, M., Yus, E., Martinez, S., Baù, D., Tahara, Y.O., Pengo, T., Widjaja, M., Kretschmer, S., Swoger, J., Djordjevic, S., Turnbull, L., Whitchurch, C., Miyata, M., Marti-Renom, M.A., Lluch-Senar, M. & Serrano, L. 2017, 'Defined chromosome structure in the genome-reduced bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14665.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

DNA-binding proteins are central regulators of chromosome organization; however, in genome-reduced bacteria their diversity is largely diminished. Whether the chromosomes of such bacteria adopt defined three-dimensional structures remains unexplored. Here we combine Hi-C and super-resolution microscopy to determine the structure of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae chromosome at a 10 kb resolution. We find a defined structure, with a global symmetry between two arms that connect opposite poles, one bearing the chromosomal Ori and the other the midpoint. Analysis of local structures at a 3 kb resolution indicates that the chromosome is organized into domains ranging from 15 to 33 kb. We provide evidence that genes within the same domain tend to be co-regulated, suggesting that chromosome organization influences transcriptional regulation, and that supercoiling regulates local organization. This study extends the current understanding of bacterial genome organization and demonstrates that a defined chromosomal structure is a universal feature of living systems.

Wallach, A., Ramp, D. & O'Neill, A.J. 2017, 'Cattle mortality on a predator-friendly station in central Australia', Journal of Mammology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 45-52.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Large predators are declining worldwide primarily due to hunting and persecution by humans, driven in large part by the livestock industry. Some ranchers are transitioning to “predator-friendly” farming by adopting nonlethal predator deterrents. On very large rangeland properties, such as the vast stations of the Australian arid zone, ending lethal control may in itself reduce livestock losses by enabling the predator’s social structure to stabilize. The dingo (Canis dingo), Australia’s apex predator, is commonly subjected to eradication campaigns to protect livestock. We analyzed causes of cattle (Bos taurus) deaths on Evelyn Downs, a 2,300-km2 predator-friendly station in central Australia, for 2 years after dingo protection was established. Husbandry-related challenges, associated with deteriorating environmental conditions, were the leading causes of deaths of cattle. Predation by dingoes was minor and declined as the indices of dingo abundance stabilized and social stability increased. Shifting from killing predators to improving husbandry standards is likely to improve livestock survival and welfare.

Wang, J., Wang, M., Guan, J., Wang, C. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Construction of a non-enzymatic sensor based on the poly(o-phenylenediamine)/Ag-NPs composites for detecting glucose in blood.', Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, vol. 71, pp. 844-851.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

A non-enzymatic glucose sensor, based on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs)/poly (o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) composites, is developed by the electrochemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine and electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on an indium tin oxide electrode. The Ag-NPs/PoPD composites are characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed glucose sensor demonstrates a wide linear range from 0.15 to 13mmolL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The proposed glucose sensor can be used to detect glucose in blood sample with a satisfactory result. In addition, the proposed sensor presents the advantages, such as facile preparation, low cost, high sensitivity and fast response time. It also exhibits good anti-interference performance and stability.

Wangpraseurt, D., Holm, J.B., Larkum, A.W.D., Pernice, M., Ralph, P.J., Suggett, D.J. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'In vivo Microscale Measurements of Light and Photosynthesis during Coral Bleaching: Evidence for the Optical Feedback Loop?', Front Microbiol, vol. 8, p. 59.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
View description>>

Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of Symbiodinium cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached Pocillopora damicornis corals, Symbiodinium light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of Symbiodinium gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached P. damicornis compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. Symbiodinium light exposure in Favites sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of in vivo light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching.

Watson, D.M., Milner, K.V. & Leigh, A. 2017, 'Novel application of species richness estimators to predict the host range of parasites.', Int J Parasitol, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 31-39.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges. We selected three mistletoe species (hemiparasitic plants in the Loranthaceae) to evaluate our approach: a strict host specialist (Amyema lucasii, dependent on a single host species), an intermediate species (Amyema quandang, dependent on hosts in one genus) and a generalist (Lysiana exocarpi, dependent on many genera across multiple families), comparing results from geographically-stratified surveys against known host lists derived from herbarium specimens. The results-based stopping rule (stop sampling bioregion once observed host richness exceeds 80% of the host richness predicted using the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator) worked well for most bioregions studied, being satisfied after three to six sampling plots (each representing 25 host trees) but was unreliable in those bioregions with high host richness or high proportions of rare hosts. Although generating stable predictions of host range with minimal variation among six estimators trialled, distribution-wide estimates fell well short of the number of hosts known from herbarium records. This mismatch, coupled with the discovery of nine previously unrecorded mistletoe-host combinations, further demonstrates the limited ecological relevance of simple host-parasite lists. By collecting estimates of host range of constrained completeness, our approach maximises sampling efficiency while generating comparable estimates of the number of primar...

Williams, S.G., Bhadbhade, M., Bishop, R. & Ung, A.T. 2017, 'An alkaloid-like 3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-ene library obtained from the bridged Ritter reaction', Tetrahedron, pp. 116-128.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site

Williams, T.J., Liao, Y., Ye, J., Kuchel, R.P., Poljak, A., Raftery, M.J. & Cavicchioli, R. 2017, 'Cold adaptation of the Antarctic haloarchaea Halohasta litchfieldiae and Halorubrum lacusprofundi', Environmental Microbiology.
View/Download from: Publisher's site

Wolff, C., Stiller, B., Eggleton, B.J., Steel, M.J. & Poulton, C.G. 2017, 'Cascaded forward Brillouin scattering to all Stokes orders', New Journal of Physics, vol. 19, no. 2.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.Inelastic scattering processes such as Brillouin scattering can often function in cascaded regimes and this is likely to occur in certain integrated opto-acoustic devices. We develop a Hamiltonian formalism for cascaded Brillouin scattering valid for both quantum and classical regimes. By regarding Brillouin scattering as the interaction of a single acoustic envelope and a single optical envelope that covers all Stokes and anti-Stokes orders, we obtain a compact model that is well suited for numerical implementation, extension to include other optical nonlinearities or short pulses, and application in the quantum-optics domain. We then theoretically analyze intra-mode forward Brillouin scattering (FBS) for arbitrary waveguides with and without optical dispersion. In the absence of optical dispersion, we find an exact analytical solution. With a perturbative approach, we furthermore solve the case of weak optical dispersion. Our work leads to several key results on intra-mode FBS. For negligible dispersion, we show that cascaded intra-mode FBS results in a pure phase modulation and discuss how this necessitates specific experimental methods for the observation of fiber-based and integrated FBS. Further, we discuss how the descriptions that have been established in these two classes of waveguides connect to each other and to the broader context of cavity opto-mechanics and Raman scattering. Finally, we draw an unexpected striking similarity between FBS and discrete diffraction phenomena in waveguide arrays, which makes FBS an interesting candidate for future research in quantum-optics.

Wong, W.S.Y., Liu, G., Nasiri, N., Hao, C., Wang, Z. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Omnidirectional Self-Assembly of Transparent Superoleophobic Nanotextures.', ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 587-596.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Engineering surface textures that are highly transparent and repel water, oil, and other low surface energy fluids can transform our interaction with wet environments. Despite extensive progress, current top-down methods are based on directional line-of-sight fabrication mechanisms that are limited by scale and cannot be applied to highly uneven, curved, and enclosed surfaces, while bottom-up techniques often suffer from poor optical transparency. Here, we present an approach that enables the rapid, omnidirectional synthesis of flexible and up to 99.97% transparent superhydrophobic and -oleophobic textures on many variable surface types. These features are obtained by the spontaneous formation of a multi re-entrant morphology during the controlled self-assembly of nanoparticle aerosols. We also develop a mathematical model to explain and control the self-assembly dynamics, providing important insights for the rational engineering of functional materials. We envision that our findings represent a significant advance in imparting superoleophobicity and superamphiphobicity to a so-far inapplicable family of materials and geometries for multifunctional applications.

Yu, B., Min, H., Wu, H., Wang, S., Ding, Y. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Production of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids and their performance as oxygen reduction reaction catalysts', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 52, pp. 3188-3198.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New YorkA series of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids with different weight ratios of MoS2 and CoSe2 were prepared by two different hydrothermal methods. The synthesized MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical activity and durability of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids towards oxygen reduction reaction were studied in 0.5 M H2SO4 using rotating disk electrode. The results showed that all of them demonstrated catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction. Furthermore, loading 30% MoS2 on CoSe2 by the first method (CoSe2-30a) displayed the best electrocatalytic activity. The onset potential (0.741 V vs. RHE) and half-wave potential (0.570 V vs. RHE) were higher than those of loading 20% MoS2 on CoSe2 by the second method (CoSe2-20b, 0.737 and 0.565 V vs. RHE), CoSe2 (0.708 and 0.560 V vs. RHE), and MoS2 (0.698 and 0.429 V vs. RHE). Most important, CoSe2-30a showed superior stability and better methanol tolerance than CoSe2-20b, CoSe2, and MoS2.

Zachreson, C., Wolff, C., Whitchurch, C.B. & Toth, M. 2017, 'Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm.', Phys Rev E, vol. 95, no. 1-1, p. 012408.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

Zhang, J., Sun, B., McDonagh, A.M., Zhao, Y., Kretschmer, K., Guo, X. & Wang, G. 2017, 'A multi-functional gel co-polymer bridging liquid electrolyte and solid cathode nanoparticles: An efficient route to Li–O2 batteries with improved performance', Energy Storage Materials, vol. 7, pp. 1-7.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016Lithium-oxygen (Li–O2) batteries have the highest theoretical energy density amongst all rechargeable batteries and have attracted significant attention. However, large over-potentials originating from sluggish reaction kinetics often lead to low round-trip energy efficiency and short cycle life. We report here a novel multi-functional gel co-polymer that efficiently enhances the discharge and charge performances in Li–O2 batteries by intimately connecting the liquid electrolyte and solid cathode nanoparticles. On one hand, the co-polymer material, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(TMA-MMA)), functions as a binder during the fabrication of the cathode and forms a gel polymer membrane to retain liquid electrolyte and to increase ionic conductivity. On the other hand, the TMA units, containing N–O radical groups that catalyse Li2O2 formation and decomposition during charge and discharge cycles, are distributed throughout the polymer membrane. This allows more effective formation and decomposition of Li2O2 than surface bound catalytic units. The combination of gelable MMA and catalytic TMA moieties enhances the interface between liquid electrolyte and solid cathode by functioning as a medium both to transport Li+ (enhancing discharge process) and to carry electrons (reducing charge over-potential). Consequently, the optimized P(TMA-MMA) co-polymers provide exceptional electrochemical performance in Li–O2 batteries.

Zheng, M., Reimers, J.R., Waller, M.P. & Afonine, P.V. 2017, 'Q', Acta Crystallographica Section D: Structural Biology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 45-52.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© International Union of Crystallography, 2017.Quantum-based refinement utilizes chemical restraints derived from quantum-chemical methods instead of the standard parameterized library-based restraints used in refinement packages. The motivation is twofold: firstly, the restraints have the potential to be more accurate, and secondly, the restraints can be more easily applied to new molecules such as drugs or novel cofactors. Here, a new project called Q|R aimed at developing quantum-based refinement of biomacromolecules is under active development by researchers at Shanghai University together with PHENIX developers. The central focus of this long-term project is to develop software that is built on top of open-source components. A development version of Q|R was used to compare quantum-based refinements with standard refinement using a small model system.Quantum-based refinement software is being developed to refine biomacromolecules against crystallographic or cryo-electron microscopy data.

Zhou, Y., Rasmita, A., Li, K., Xiong, Q., Aharonovich, I. & Gao, W.-.B. 2017, 'Coherent control of a strongly driven silicon vacancy optical transition in diamond.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14451.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

The ability to prepare, optically read out and coherently control single quantum states is a key requirement for quantum information processing. Optically active solid-state emitters have emerged as promising candidates with their prospects for on-chip integration as quantum nodes and sources of coherent photons connecting these nodes. Under a strongly driving resonant laser field, such quantum emitters can exhibit quantum behaviour such as Autler-Townes splitting and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Here we demonstrate coherent control of a strongly driven optical transition in silicon vacancy centre in diamond. Rapid optical detection of photons enabled the observation of time-resolved coherent Rabi oscillations and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Detection with a probing transition further confirmed Autler-Townes splitting generated by a strong laser field. The coherence time of the emitted photons is comparable to its lifetime and robust under a very strong driving field, which is promising for the generation of indistinguishable photons.

Zhu, L., Lem, L.L.C., Nguyen, T.P., Fair, K., Ali, S., Ford, M.J., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Indirect excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 11.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.We present a correlative experimental and theoretical study of bound excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO, with a particular focus on the dynamics of their metastable state confined in the sub-surface region, using a combination of surface-sensitive characterisation techniques and density functional theory calculations. A metastable sub-surface emission at 3.31 eV found in H-doped ZnO is attributed to the radiative recombination of indirect excitons localised at basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) where the excitonic transition involves electrons bound to bond-centre hydrogen donors in the potential well of the BSF. Additionally, our work shows the electrical transport of ZnO Schottky junctions is dominated by electrons confined at BSFs in the near-surface region.

Zou, R., Huang, J., Shi, J., Huang, L., Zhang, X., Wong, K.L., Zhang, H., Jin, D., Wang, J. & Su, Q. 2017, 'Silica shell-assisted synthetic route for mono-disperse persistent nanophosphors with enhanced in vivo recharged near-infrared persistent luminescence', Nano Research, pp. 1-13.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
View description>>

© 2016 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergNear-infrared (NIR) persistent-luminescence nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of background-free contrast agents that are promising for in vivo imaging. The next key roadblock is to establish a robust and controllable method for synthesizing monodisperse nanoparticles with high luminescence brightness and long persistent duration. Herein, we report a synthesis strategy involving the coating/etching of the SiO2 shell to obtain a new class of small NIR highly persistent luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+,Sn4+ (ZGOCS) nanoparticles. The optimized ZGOCS nanoparticles have an excellent size distribution of ~15 nm without any agglomeration and an NIR persistent luminescence that is enhanced by a factor of 13.5, owing to the key role of the SiO2 shell in preventing nanoparticle agglomeration after annealing. The ZGOCS nanoparticles have a signal-to-noise ratio ~3 times higher than that of previously reported ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ (ZGC-1) nanoparticles as an NIR persistent-luminescence probe for in vivo bioimaging. Moreover, the persistent-luminescence signal from the ZGOCS nanoparticles can be repeatedly re-charged in situ with external excitation by a white lightemitting diode; thus, the nanoparticles are suitable for long-term in vivo imaging applications. Our study suggests an improved strategy for fabricating novel high-performance optical nanoparticles with good biocompatibility.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Conferences

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Student’s Experience in Online Intensive Mode (IM) Units at The Faculty of Business and Economics.', https://iated.org/inted/, The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017,, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain).
View description>>

The Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE) at Macquarie University conducted a pilot to explore online Intensive Mode (IM) as a delivery option. A project team was assembled to carry out the pilot. The aims were to support academics to introduce pedagogical innovation, address internationalisation, and create new opportunities for students that cannot enrol in full session units due to competing schedules. Additionally, IM units would give students a chance to fast-track their degree and increase flexibility. This paper is a discussion of students’ experience undertaking online IM units that will inform on good learning designs.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Surfing the Waves of Self-Regulated Learning to Evaluate Flipped Classrooms (FC)', The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED, Valencia (Spain).
View/Download from: UTS OPUS
View description>>

Flipped classrooms (FC) are becoming a standard instructional strategy in higher education in the last five years. Although the research in the field is increasing, it is still considered in its infancy and with the lack of pedagogical integrity. Most of the studies up to date do not count on solid theoretical foundations and assumed students would buy-in this way of instruction. There are limited frameworks available to guide FC implementations, and most of them consider three stages: before, during and after the classroom. A research gap has been identified; there is not any model available to evaluate learning in FC. This paper offers an evidence-based framework to measure self-regulation learning during FC. The model links goal setting, environmental structuring and time management before the classroom. During the classroom, task strategies and help-seeking and self-evaluation and self-consequences after the classroom. The aim is to gain an in-depth understanding on how students self-regulate their learning in FC interventions. Implications for the implementation of FC are considered.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'The Nightmare is Over: A Simple Guide to Design Effective Subject Outlines', The EdMedia World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, EdMedia, Washington, DC, USA.
View description>>

Higher education institutions worldwide are continuously implementing evidence-based educational approaches and quality control of subjects, courses, and programs. In this regard, a subject outline is a learning design document and an agreement between academics and students. It needs to address the subject structure, what are the requirements, assessment tasks, expectations and so on. A useful subject outline requires sound pedagogical and instructional approaches and to be clearly written, succinct, and conversational when possible. If information is missing or is not easily accessible, it will cause student confusion, unnecessary email traffic and potentially, loss of interest in the subject. Anecdotal reports indicate that students do not engage in the reading subject outlines and their attitude towards the usefulness of this document is not well-known in the literature. This paper covers five sections commonly used in subject outlines in Australian universities. Each of them presents evidence-based practices to help the design process considering educational taxonomies, constructive alignment, principles of active learning, authentic assessments and levels of feedback for learners. The aim of this paper is to guide early career academics new to teaching in higher education but also traditional academics moving towards a blended learning approach.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L., horgan, F., ramp, D. & meier, P. 2017, 'Using Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) as an Assessment Tool in Geological Sciences.', The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain).
View/Download from: UTS OPUS
View description>>

This study explores learner-generated digital media (LGDM) as an assessment tool in Geological Sciences. The aim was to engage students with the geology subject further and to develop their digital media literacies. For this purpose, a cohort of 97 students from the undergraduate Geological Processes subject (Autumn 2016) at the University of Technology Sydney, were randomly allocated to groups of 2-5 students. The students were asked to produce a five-minute digital media presentation on a chosen study topic. A lecture and workshop on digital media principles were delivered to prepare the students for the task early in the semester. Support and feedback were provided across the entire semester by the lecturer and digital media tutor through computer practicals and preparatory assignments. Group contribution was monitored using the SPARKPlus application. An online questionnaire was used at the end of the semester to gauge students’ attitude towards LGDM. The survey assessed demographics, digital media support, attitudes toward the assignment, and the contribution of LGDM to skills development. Methodological triangulation was used with data sets from the questionnaire, group work and marks obtained. Our preliminary results indicate that students had a positive attitude towards LGDM as an assessment tool and that the assessment provided a novel opportunity for students to apply attributes such as ‘creativity’ to their learning experience of geology. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

Wilkinson, S.J., Stoller, P., Ralph, P., Hamdorf, B., Navarro Catana, L. & Santana Kuzava, G. 2016, 'Exploring the feasibility of algae building technology in NSW', SBE16 International High Performance Built Environments Conference, Sydney NSW.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS
View description>>

For some time, Biochemists have been exploring the potential to produce biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy. Biofuels can be derived from crops such as corn, soybean and sugarcane however these crops can contribute to water scarcity and deforestation. Furthermore, large areas of land are used that could otherwise be used for food production. Another possibility is to use microalgae, which does not have the disadvantages associated with crop-based biofuels. Depending on conditions, microalgae can produce bio compounds that are converted into biofuels. The built environment is responsible for around 40 to 50% of total greenhouse gas emissions through fossil fuel consumption. Not only is it necessary to design and to retrofit our built environment to be more energy efficient, but it is also necessary to consider alternative fuel sources. To date, this has mostly focused on solar, wind and geothermal sources, however one residential building in Hamburg Germany has adopted algae building technology in the form of façade panels which act as a source of energy for heating the apartments and for hot water. The climate in northern Germany is very different to Australia, and the question arises; what is the feasibility to adopt algae building technology in New South Wales? There are issues around the physical and technical aspects of the technology, the social and environmental aspects, the regulatory and planning aspects, as well as the economic considerations. This paper reports on a study with key stakeholders in New South Wales to explore barriers and drivers associated with the adoption of algae building technology.

Reports

Irga, P.J., Paull, N.J., Abdo, P., Huynh, B.P., Avakian, V., Nguyen, T. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, DEVELOPING THE JUNGLEFY BREATHING WALL FOR ENHANCED INDOOR AIR QUALITY REMEDIATION.
View description>>

KEY RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Operational parameters of the Junglefy Breathing Wall system were determined and characterised. Data collected included system water loss, pressure drop, air distribution and the system’s effect on ambient temperature and relative humidity. Clean air delivery rates were calculated utilising the removal efficiencies. The system produced 25.86¬–28.70 m3/h per module, depending on particle size and airflow rate. A typical Breathing Wall of 10 m2, utilising 40 modules would thus produce up to 12,700 m3/h of particle-free air. Tests were conducted to identify the most appropriate plant species for survival in high pollution environments. All of the plant species tested, which are currently used in commercial applications of the Breathing Wall, recorded moderate air pollutant tolerance, and thus the system using the current plant species could possibly be used in industrial applications. Pollutant effect on air filled porosity of the substrate was negligible, even under extremely high pollutant loads. Air quality tests were conducted at the Lend Lease Head Office, and the efficiency of the first Breathing Wall installation was monitored. The Breathing Wall is successfully reducing ambient particulate matter and carbon dioxide relative to outdoors and other areas throughout the building. Additionally, air pollutants including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide were below the detection limit of the equipment being used, indicating excellent indoor environmental quality. The results indicate that the Breathing Wall is working as intended.

Labbate, M. Australian Academy of Sciences 2017, ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE: A COMPLEX MULTI-FACTORIAL PROBLEM REQUIRING AN ORCHESTRATED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESPONSE, pp. 17-20, Canberra.

Other

Reyna Zeballos, J.L., meier, P., hanham, J., Vlachopoulos, P. & rodgers, K. 2017, 'Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Framework'.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS
View description>>

Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) has been incorporated as a tool to assess students in K-12 and higher education in the last decade. There are frameworks developed for video making in the classroom that considers technical know-how and a model that incorporate pedagogies. However, there is the absence of a practical framework to inform academics and students on the implementation of digital presentations as an assessment tool in the curricula. The aim of this poster is to propose a model for how to design, implement and evaluate LGDM as assessment tools in tertiary education. This evidence-based framework considers the following elements: (1) pedagogy; (2) student training; (3) hosting of videos; (4) marking schemes; (5) group contribution; (6) feedback; (7) reflection, and; (8) evaluation. The model serves as a conduit between theory and good practice.

Woodcock, S. 2017, 'How predictable are the Oscars? More than you might think', The Conversation.