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Chapters

Bottomley, A.L., Turnbull, L., Whitchurch, C.B. & Harry, E.J. 2017, 'Immobilization Techniques of Bacteria for Live Super-resolution Imaging Using Structured Illumination Microscopy.' in Pontus Nordenfelt and Mattias Collin (ed), Bacterial Pathogenesis, pp. 197-209.
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Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-quality microscopy is good sample preparation to avoid bacterial cell movement that can result in motion blur during image acquisition. Here, we describe two techniques of sample preparation that reduce unwanted cell movement and are suitable for application to a number of bacterial species and imaging methods.

Hocking, J.S., Huston, W.M. & Chen, M. 2017, 'Chlamydia trachomatis Infection' in Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Special Populations A Clinical Guide, Springer.
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This text is the only book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art review of issues relevant to STI care in the HIV-infected adult, adolescent, and transgendered populations.

Horgan, F.G. 2017, 'Ecology and management of apple snails in rice' in Chauhan, B.S., Jabran, K. & Mahajan, G. (eds), Rice Production Worldwide, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 393-418.
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Apple snails (Ampulariidae) occur throughout tropical and subtropical rice-growing regions. Native apple snails rarely damage rice; however, in hot and humid tropical regions, some native species will damage wet-direct-seeded rice (i.e., Pomacea spp. in Suriname and Brazil). Similarly, exotic apple snails in wet, temperate regions can damage direct-seeded rice (i.e., Pomacea canaliculata in Japan). However, if left unmanaged, exotic apple snails in warm tropical regions (i.e., P. canaliculata and P. maculata in South East Asia) can cause significant economic losses even to transplanted rice (which is more robust that direct-seeded rice). The negative impact of apple snails on rice yield can be reduced by reducing seedling vulnerability or controlling snail population densities. Reducing vulnerability is a more sustainable solution to apple snails but requires new methods such as seedling broadcasting and machine transplanting to decrease labor costs. To avoid further spread of apple snails, the implementation of effective quarantine directives is recommended for tropical countries that are vulnerable to exotic apple snails.

Horgan, F.G. 2017, 'Insect Herbivores of Rice: Their Natural Regulation and Ecologically Based Management' in Chauhan, B.S., Jabran, K. & Mahajan, G. (eds), Rice Production Worldwide, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 279-302.
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The management of insect herbivores in rice ecosystems has been strongly influenced by three poorly informed beliefs. These are (1) that insects have generally negative effects on crop health, (2) that herbivore damage translates directly to yield loss, and (3) that insecticides increase rice yields. In the face of global changes, particularly increases in the production and marketing of agrochemicals, these beliefs will lead to unsustainable rice production systems and poor environmental health. This chapter assesses these beliefs, challenges their validity, and (by analyzing the dynamics of herbivore populations and their interspecific interactions in the rice ecosystem) presents a holistic alternative for understanding herbivore impacts on rice production systems. The chapter proposes a focus on “rice ecosystem health” with herbivore management based on ecological principals and incorporating such novel approaches as “ecological engineering” for ecosystem stability and system resilience.

Murrihy, R.C. 2017, 'evidence-based assessment and intervention for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in school psychology'.

Stuart, B.H. & Ueland, M. 2017, 'Decomposition in Aquatic Environments' in Taphonomy of Human Remains Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment, John Wiley & Sons.
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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work Includes case studies Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, ...

Stuart, B.H. & Ueland, M. 2017, 'Degradation of Clothing in Depositional Environments' in Taphonomy of Human Remains Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 120-133.
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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work Includes case studies Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, ...

Journal articles

Abu Saleh, D., Shimoni, O. & Sosnik, A. 2017, 'Novel core-corona hybrid nanomaterials based on the conjugation of amphiphilic polymeric diblocks to the surface of multifunctional nanodiamond anchors', Materials Today Chemistry, vol. 3, pp. 15-26.
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Agius, A., Jones, K., Epple, R., Morelato, M., Moret, S., Chadwick, S. & Roux, C. 2017, 'The use of handwriting examinations beyond the traditional court purpose', Science & Justice.

Aharonovich, I. & Jelezko, F. 2017, 'Spectroscopy: Mapping spins in flatland.', Nat Mater, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 397-398.
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Aili, S.R., Touchard, A., Petitclerc, F., Dejean, A., Orivel, J., Padula, M.P., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2017, 'Combined Peptidomic and Proteomic Analysis of Electrically Stimulated and Manually Dissected Venom from the South American Bullet Ant Paraponera clavata.', J Proteome Res, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1339-1351.
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Ants have evolved venoms rich in peptides and proteins used for predation, defense, and communication. However, they remain extremely understudied due to the minimal amount of venom secreted by each ant. The present study investigated the differences in the proteome and peptidome of the venom from the bullet ant, Paraponera clavata. Venom samples were collected from a single colony either by manual venom gland dissection or by electrical stimulation and were compared using proteomic methods. Venom proteins were separated by 2D-PAGE and identified by nanoLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS. Venom peptides were initially separated using C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, then analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteomic analysis revealed numerous proteins that could be assigned a biological function (total 94), mainly as toxins, or roles in cell regulation and transport. This investigation found that ca. 73% of the proteins were common to venoms collected by the two methods. The peptidomic analysis revealed a large number of peptides (total 309) but with <20% shared by the two collection methods. There was also a marked difference between venoms obtained by venom gland dissection from different ant colonies. These findings demonstrate the rich composition and variability of P. clavata venom.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters', Marine Drugs.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters'.
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Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters', Marine Drugs.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters.', Marine Drugs, vol. 15, no. 2.
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Ali, M., Al-Ani, A., Eamus, D. & Tan, D. 2017, 'Leaf Nitrogen Determination Using Non-Destructive Techniques – A Review', Journal of Plant Nutrition.
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The optimisation of plant nitrogen-use-efficiency (NUE) has a direct impact on increasing crop production by optimising use of nitrogen fertiliser. Moreover, it protects environment from negative effects of nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide production. Accordingly, nitrogen (N) management in agriculture systems has been major focus of many researchers. Improvement of NUE can be achieved through several methods including more accurate measurement of foliar N contents of crops during different growth phases. There are two types of methods to diagnose foliar N status: destructive and non-destructive. Destructive methods are expensive and time-consuming as they require tissue sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Thus, many farmers find destructive methods to be less attractive. Non-destructive methods are rapid and less expensive but are usually less accurate. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of non-destructive N estimations has become a common goal of many researchers, and various methods varying in complexity and optimality have been proposed for this purpose. This paper reviews various commonly used non-destructive methods for estimating foliar N status of plants.

Alonso-Peral, M.M., Trigueros, M., Sherman, B., Ying, H., Taylor, J.M., Peacock, W.J. & Dennis, E.S. 2017, 'Patterns of gene expression in developing embryos of Arabidopsis hybrids.', Plant J, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 927-939.
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Hybrids between the Arabidopsis ecotypes C24 and Ler have high levels of hybrid vigour, or heterosis, in both biomass and seed yield. Heterosis can be detected throughout the development of the plant and in different tissues. We examined developing embryos and seeds of C24/Ler reciprocal hybrids with the aim of detecting the earliest time at which heterotic gene activity occurs. In the transcriptomes of 4-dap (days after pollination; dermatogen to globular) and 6-dap (heart) embryos from both parents and hybrids, 95% of expressed genes were at the mid parent value (MPV) and 95% of the genes with single nucleotide polymorphisms between C24 and Ler retained the same relative allelic expression levels in the hybrids as existed in the parents. This included loci that had equivalent levels of transcription in the two parents, together with loci which had different levels of expression in the parents. Amongst the genes which did not have MPV expression levels in the hybrids (non-additively expressed genes), approximately 40 in the globular embryo stage and 89 in the heart embryo stage had altered levels of transcription in both reciprocal hybrids; these genes could contribute to the heterotic phenotype of the hybrid embryo. Many of the non-additively expressed genes had expression levels that were shifted towards maternal levels of transcription, and these differed in the reciprocal hybrids. Allelic expression analysis indicated that most genes with altered allelic contributions in the hybrids had an increase in the expression level of the hybrid's maternal allele. Consistent with the maternal pattern of gene expression, embryo and seed also show maternally influenced phenotypes.

Alvarado, R., To, J., Lund, M.E., Pinar, A., Mansell, A., Robinson, M.W., O'Brien, B.A., Dalton, J.P. & Donnelly, S. 2017, 'The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages.', FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85-95.
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The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that controls the production of IL-1β, a cytokine that influences the development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Helminth parasites secrete molecules that interact with innate immune cells, modulating their activity to ultimately determine the phenotype of differentiated T cells, thus creating an immune environment that is conducive to sustaining chronic infection. We show that one of these molecules, FhHDM-1, a cathelicidin-like peptide secreted by the helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica, inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β by macrophages. FhHDM-1 had no effect on the synthesis of pro-IL-1β. Rather, the inhibitory effect was associated with the capacity of the peptide to prevent acidification of the endolysosome. The activation of cathepsin B protease by lysosomal destabilization was prevented in FhHDM-1-treated macrophages. By contrast, peptide derivatives of FhHDM-1 that did not alter the lysosomal pH did not inhibit secretion of IL-1β. We propose a novel immune modulatory strategy used by F. hepatica, whereby secretion of the FhHDM-1 peptide impairs the activation of NLRP3 by lysosomal cathepsin B protease, which prevents the downstream production of IL-1β and the development of protective T helper 1 type immune responses that are detrimental to parasite survival.-Alvarado, R., To, J., Lund, M. E., Pinar, A., Mansell, A., Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, B. A., Dalton, J. P., Donnelly, S. The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages.

Anderson, C. & Ryan, L.M. 2017, 'A Comparison of Spatio-Temporal Disease Mapping Approaches Including an Application to Ischaemic Heart Disease in New South Wales, Australia.', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 14, no. 2.
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The field of spatio-temporal modelling has witnessed a recent surge as a result of developments in computational power and increased data collection. These developments allow analysts to model the evolution of health outcomes in both space and time simultaneously. This paper models the trends in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in New South Wales, Australia over an eight-year period between 2006 and 2013. A number of spatio-temporal models are considered, and we propose a novel method for determining the goodness-of-fit for these models by outlining a spatio-temporal extension of the Moran's I statistic. We identify an overall decrease in the rates of IHD, but note that the extent of this health improvement varies across the state. In particular, we identified a number of remote areas in the north and west of the state where the risk stayed constant or even increased slightly.

Arnold, M.D. 2017, 'Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays.', J Phys Condens Matter, vol. 29, no. 11, p. 115701.
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The Maxwell-Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

Austin, C., Tuft, K., Ramp, D., Cremona, T. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Bait preference for remote camera trap studies of the endangered northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus)', Australian Mammalogy, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 72-77.
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Estimating population size is crucial for managing populations of threatened species. In the Top End of northern Australia, populations of northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus), already affected by livestock grazing, inappropriate burning regimes and predation, have collapsed following the spread of the toxic cane toad (Rhinella marina). Cane toads are currently invading the Kimberley, where they pose a threat to quoll populations. To manage these populations, we need reliable methods for detecting and estimating quoll abundance. We deployed camera traps with lures containing tuna, peanut butter or no bait and found that baited cameras performed better than the unbaited control. Cameras with a tuna lure detected more individuals than cameras baited with peanut butter or no bait. Cameras with a tuna lure yielded more photographs per quoll than those baited with peanut butter or no bait. We identified individual quolls from unique spot patterns and found multiple photographs improved the accuracy of identification. We also found that population estimates for the sample area derived from camera trapping were consistent with those from live trapping using mark–recapture techniques.

Aylett, C.H.S. & Duggin, I.G. 2017, 'The Tubulin Superfamily in Archaea.', Subcell Biochem, vol. 84, pp. 393-417.
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In comparison with bacteria and eukaryotes, the large and diverse group of microorganisms known as archaea possess a great diversity of cytoskeletal proteins, including members of the tubulin superfamily. Many species contain FtsZ, CetZ and even possible tubulins; however, some major taxonomic groups do not contain any member of the tubulin superfamily. Studies using the model archaeon, Halferax volcanii have recently been instrumental in defining the fundamental roles of FtsZ and CetZ in archaeal cell division and cell shape regulation. Structural studies of archaeal tubulin superfamily proteins provide a definitive contribution to the cytoskeletal field, showing which protein-types must have developed prior to the divergence of archaea and eukaryotes. Several regions of the globular core domain - the "signature" motifs - combine in the 3D structure of the common molecular fold to form the GTP-binding site. They are the most conserved sequence elements and provide the primary basis for identification of new superfamily members through homology searches. The currently well-characterised proteins also all share a common mechanism of GTP-dependent polymerisation, in which GTP molecules are sandwiched between successive subunits that are arranged in a head-to-tail manner. However, some poorly-characterised archaeal protein families retain only some of the signature motifs and are unlikely to be capable of dynamic polymerisation, since the promotion of depolymerisation by hydrolysis to GDP depends on contributions from both subunits that sandwich the nucleotide in the polymer.

Bannister, K.W., Shannon, R.M., Macquart, J.P., Flynn, C., Edwards, P.G., O'Neill, M., Osłowski, S., Bailes, M., Zackay, B., Clarke, N., D'Addario, L.R., Dodson, R., Hall, P.J., Jameson, A., Jones, D., Navarro, R., Trinh, J.T., Allison, J., Anderson, C.S., Bell, M., Chippendale, A.P., Collier, J.D., Heald, G., Heywood, I., Hotan, A.W., Lee-Waddell, K., Madrid, J.P., Marvil, J., McConnell, D., Popping, A., Voronkov, M.A., Whiting, M.T., Allen, G.R., Bock, D.C.J., Brodrick, D.P., Cooray, F., Deboer, D.R., Diamond, P.J., Ekers, R., Gough, R.G., Hampson, G.A., Harvey-Smith, L., Hay, S.G., Hayman, D.B., Jackson, C.A., Johnston, S., Koribalski, B.S., McClure-Griffiths, N.M., Mirtschin, P., Ng, A., Norris, R.P., Pearce, S.E., Phillips, C.J., Roxby, D.N., Troup, E.R. & Westmeier, T. 2017, 'The Detection of an Extremely Bright Fast Radio Burst in a Phased Array Feed Survey', Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 841, no. 1.
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© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We report the detection of an ultra-bright fast radio burst (FRB) from a modest, 3.4-day pilot survey with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder. The survey was conducted in a wide-field fly's-eye configuration using the phased-array-feed technology deployed on the array to instantaneously observe an effective area of 160 deg 2 , and achieve an exposure totaling 13200 deg 2 hr . We constrain the position of FRB 170107 to a region in size (90% containment) and its fluence to be 58 ±6 Jy ms. The spectrum of the burst shows a sharp cutoff above 1400 MHz, which could be due to either scintillation or an intrinsic feature of the burst. This confirms the existence of an ultra-bright (∼ Jy ms) population of FRBs.

Bao, W., Xie, X., Xu, J., Guo, X., Song, J., Su, D., Wang, G. & Wu, W. 2017, 'Confine sulfur in 3D flexible hybrid MXene/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for lithium sulfur battery.', Chemistry.
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Three dimensional metal carbide MXene/reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanosheets were prepared and applied as a cathode host material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites cathodes were obtained through a facile and effective two-step liquid phase impregnation method. Owing to unique 3D layer structure and functional 2D surfaces of MXene and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for effectively trapping sulfur and lithium polysulfides, MXene/reduced graphene oxide/sulfur composites cathodes delivered a high initial capacity of 1144.2 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and a high level of capacity retention of of 878.4 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles. We demonstrated that hybrid metal carbide MXene/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets could be a promising cathode host material for lithium-sulfur batteries.

Baranov, O., Fang, J., Ostrikov, K. & Cvelbar, U. 2017, 'TiN deposition and morphology control by scalable plasma-assisted surface treatments', Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 188, pp. 143-153.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. A method to modify the mechanical properties and morphology of thin TiN films by controlling the ion fluxes via purposefully shaped magnetic field is developed to enhance the effectiveness of plasma-enhanced deposition of TiN on a large (up to 400 mm in diameter) substrate. For this purpose, the two main schemes of the plasma control are examined. When the substrate is a part of the plasma-generating circuit, TiN is deposited in the magnetron-like arc configuration of the magnetic field. This configuration is used to control ion fluxes for cleaning, etching, and heating of the substrate, and eventually, to control the mechanical properties and morphology of the deposits. When exposing the substrate to the plasma of an external plasma source, the magnetic traps of the bottle configuration with mirrors near the plasma source and substrate surface are created. It is shown that the ion fluxes from the external plasma source can be controlled by the location and powering of the control magnetic coils, which direct nitrogen and Ti ions to the surface. The proposed method is generic and could be used for controlling various nitride materials including but not limited to BN, NbN, W 2 N and TaN.

Barratt, J., Kaufer, A., Peters, B., Craig, D., Lawrence, A., Roberts, T., Lee, R., McAuliffe, G., Stark, D. & Ellis, J. 2017, 'Isolation of Novel Trypanosomatid, Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) Provides Support for a Gondwanan Origin of Dixenous Parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.', PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol. 11, no. 1, p. e0005215.
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The genus Leishmania includes approximately 53 species, 20 of which cause human leishmaniais; a significant albeit neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis has afflicted humans for millennia, but how ancient is Leishmania and where did it arise? These questions have been hotly debated for decades and several theories have been proposed. One theory suggests Leishmania originated in the Palearctic, and dispersed to the New World via the Bering land bridge. Others propose that Leishmania evolved in the Neotropics. The Multiple Origins theory suggests that separation of certain Old World and New World species occurred due to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Some suggest that the ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia evolved on Gondwana between 90 and 140 million years ago. In the present study a detailed molecular and morphological characterisation was performed on a novel Australian trypanosomatid following its isolation in Australia's tropics from the native black fly, Simulium (Morops) dycei Colbo, 1976. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted and confirmed this parasite as a sibling to Zelonia costaricensis, a close relative of Leishmania previously isolated from a reduviid bug in Costa Rica. Consequently, this parasite was assigned the name Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. Assuming Z. costaricensis and Z. australiensis diverged when Australia and South America became completely separated, their divergence occurred between 36 and 41 million years ago at least. Using this vicariance event as a calibration point for a phylogenetic time tree, the common ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia appeared in Gondwana approximately 91 million years ago. Ultimately, this study contributes to our understanding of trypanosomatid diversity, and of Leishmania origins by providing support for a Gondwanan origin of dixenous parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.

Barraza, V., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Huete, A., Grings, F., Beringer, J., Cleverly, J.R. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Estimation of latent heat flux over savannah vegetation across the North Australian Tropical Transect from multiple sensors and global meteorological data', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 232, pp. 689-703.
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Latent heat flux (LE) and corresponding water loss in non-moisture-limited ecosystems are well corre-lated to radiation and temperature. By contrast, in savannahs and arid and semi-arid lands LE is mostlydriven by available water and the vegetation exerts a strong control over the rate of transpiration.Therefore, LE models that use optical vegetation indices (VIs) to represent the vegetation component(transpiration as a function of surface conductance, Gs) generally overestimate water fluxes in water-limited ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated and compared optical and passive microwave indexbased retrievals of Gsand LE derived using the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation over the North Aus-tralian Tropical Transect (NATT). The methodology was evaluated at six eddy covariance (EC) sites fromthe OzFlux network. To parameterize the PM equation for retrievals of LE (PM-Gs), a subset of Gsvalueswas derived from meteorological and EC flux observations and regressed against individual and com-bined satellite indices, from (1) MODIS AQUA: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and theEnhanced Vegetation Index (EVI); and from (2) AMSR-E passive microwave: frequency index (FI), polar-ization index (PI), vegetation optical depth (VOD) and soil moisture (SM) products. Similarly, we combinedoptical and passive microwave indices (multi-sensor model) to estimate weekly Gsvalues, and evaluatedtheir spatial and temporal synergies. The multi-sensor approach explained 40–80% of LE variance at somesites, with root mean square errors (RMSE) lower than 20 W/m2and demonstrated better performanceto other satellite-based estimates of LE. The optical indices represented potential Gsassociated with thephenological status of the vegetation (e.g. leaf area index, chlorophyll content) at finer spatial resolution.The microwave indices provided information about water availability and moisture stress (e.g. watercontent in leaves and shallow soil depths, atmospheric demand) at a high tem...

Barraza, V., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Huete, A., Grings, F., Beringer, J., Cleverly, J.R. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Estimation of latent heat flux over savannah vegetation across the North Australian Tropical Transect from multiple sensors and global meteorological data', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 232, pp. 689-703.
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Latent heat flux (LE) and corresponding water loss in non-moisture-limited ecosystems are well corre-lated to radiation and temperature. By contrast, in savannahs and arid and semi-arid lands LE is mostlydriven by available water and the vegetation exerts a strong control over the rate of transpiration.Therefore, LE models that use optical vegetation indices (VIs) to represent the vegetation component(transpiration as a function of surface conductance, Gs) generally overestimate water fluxes in water-limited ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated and compared optical and passive microwave indexbased retrievals of Gsand LE derived using the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation over the North Aus-tralian Tropical Transect (NATT). The methodology was evaluated at six eddy covariance (EC) sites fromthe OzFlux network. To parameterize the PM equation for retrievals of LE (PM-Gs), a subset of Gsvalueswas derived from meteorological and EC flux observations and regressed against individual and com-bined satellite indices, from (1) MODIS AQUA: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and theEnhanced Vegetation Index (EVI); and from (2) AMSR-E passive microwave: frequency index (FI), polar-ization index (PI), vegetation optical depth (VOD) and soil moisture (SM) products. Similarly, we combinedoptical and passive microwave indices (multi-sensor model) to estimate weekly Gsvalues, and evaluatedtheir spatial and temporal synergies. The multi-sensor approach explained 40–80% of LE variance at somesites, with root mean square errors (RMSE) lower than 20 W/m2and demonstrated better performanceto other satellite-based estimates of LE. The optical indices represented potential Gsassociated with thephenological status of the vegetation (e.g. leaf area index, chlorophyll content) at finer spatial resolution.The microwave indices provided information about water availability and moisture stress (e.g. watercontent in leaves and shallow soil depths, atmospheric demand) at a high tem...

Beck, H.J., Feary, D.A., Nakamura, Y. & Booth, D.J. 2017, 'Temperate macroalgae impacts tropical fish recruitment at forefronts of range expansion', Coral Reefs, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 639-651.
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© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Warming waters and changing ocean currents are increasing the supply of tropical fish larvae to temperature regions where they are exposed to novel habitats, namely temperate macroalgae and barren reefs. Here, we use underwater surveys on the temperate reefs of south-eastern (SE) Australia and western Japan (~33.5°N and S, respectively) to investigate how temperate macroalgal and non-macroalgal habitats influence recruitment success of a range of tropical fishes. We show that temperate macroalgae strongly affected recruitment of many tropical fish species in both regions and across three recruitment seasons in SE Australia. Densities and richness of recruiting tropical fishes, primarily planktivores and herbivores, were over seven times greater in non-macroalgal than macroalgal reef habitat. Species and trophic diversity (K-dominance) were also greater in non-macroalgal habitat. Temperate macroalgal cover was a stronger predictor of tropical fish assemblages than temperate fish assemblages, reef rugosities or wave exposure. Tropical fish richness, diversity and density were greater on barren reef than on reef dominated by turfing algae. One common species, the neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis), chose non-macroalgal habitat over temperate macroalgae for settlement in an aquarium experiment. This study highlights that temperate macroalgae may partly account for spatial variation in recruitment success of many tropical fishes into higher latitudes. Hence, habitat composition of temperate reefs may need to be considered to accurately predict the geographic responses of many tropical fishes to climate change.

Bellgrove, A., van Rooyen, A., Weeks, A.R., Clark, J.S., Doblin, M.A. & Miller, A.D. 2017, 'New resource for population genetics studies on the Australasian intertidal brown alga, Hormosira banksii: isolation and characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci through next generation DNA sequencing', Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 1721-1727.
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© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. The Australasian fucoid, Hormosira banksii, commonly known as ‘Neptune’s necklace’ or ‘bubbleweed’ is regarded as an autogenic ecosystem engineer with no functional equivalents. Population declines resulting from climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances pose significant threats to intertidal biodiversity. For effective conservation strategies, patterns of gene flow and po pulation genetic structure across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. We developed a suite of 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers using next generation sequencing of 53–55 individuals from two sites (south-western Victoria and central New South Wales, Australia) and a replicated spatially hierarchical sampling design. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus =3.26; mean expected heterozygosity =0.38) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Independent spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed for each site using multilocus genotypes and different relatedness measures. Both analyses indicated no significant patterns between relatedness and geographic distance, complemented by non-significant Hardy-Weinberg estimates (P  <  0.05), suggesting that individuals from each site represent a randomly mating, outcrossing population. A preliminary investigation of population structure indicates that gene flow among sites is limited (F ST  = 0.49), however more comprehensive sampling is needed to determine the extent of population structure across the species range ( > 10,000 km). The genetic markers described provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments that will help guide conservation planning for H. banksii and the associated intertidal communities.

Ben-Nissan, B. & Vance, L. 2017, 'Editorial', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 1-1.
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Benson, N., Dos Santos, R.O., Griffiths, K., Cole, N., Doble, P., Roux, C. & Blanes, L. 2017, 'The development of a stabbing machine for forensic textile damage analysis.', Forensic Science International, vol. 273, pp. 132-139.
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This article describes the development of a horizontal stabbing machine with an interchangeable knife holder to simulate stab events. The machine consists of a motorised arm with a pneumatic system designed to deliver 60 unique stabbing positions. The mechanics were robust and the positioning system highly reproducible with standard deviations of less than 1.0mm in the x-axis and 2.3mm in the y-axis for a given stab position. The force of the instrument may be varied by the operator to a maximum of approximately 221N. The suitability of the instrument for simulating stab events was evaluated by measuring the severance length and textile damage from stab delivered from four different knives and nine penetrating angles.

Benyon, R.G., Nolan, R.H., Hawthorn, S.N.D. & Lane, P.N.J. 2017, 'Stand-level variation in evapotranspiration in non-water-limited eucalypt forests', Journal of Hydrology, vol. 551, pp. 233-244.
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Berhane, A.M., Bradac, C. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Photoinduced blinking in a solid-state quantum system', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 96, no. 4.
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Berhane, A.M., Jeong, K.-.Y., Bodrog, Z., Fiedler, S., Schröder, T., Triviño, N.V., Palacios, T., Gali, A., Toth, M., Englund, D. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride.', Adv Mater, vol. 29, no. 12.
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Room-temperature quantum emitters in gallium nitride (GaN) are reported. The emitters originate from cubic inclusions in hexagonal lattice and exhibit narrowband luminescence in the red spectral range. The sources are found in different GaN substrates, and therefore are promising for scalable quantum technologies.

Bhati, M., Llamosas, E., Jacques, D.A., Jeffries, C.M., Dastmalchi, S., Ripin, N., Nicholas, H.R. & Matthews, J.M. 2017, 'Interactions between LHX3- and ISL1-family LIM-homeodomain transcription factors are conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans.', Sci Rep, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 4579.
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LIM-Homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors are highly conserved in animals where they are thought to act in a transcriptional 'LIM code' that specifies cell types, particularly in the central nervous system. In chick and mammals the interaction between two LIM-HD proteins, LHX3 and Islet1 (ISL1), is essential for the development of motor neurons. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis we showed that the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of LHX3 and ISL1, CEH-14 and LIM-7 can physically interact. Structural characterisation of a complex comprising the LIM domains from CEH-14 and a LIM-interaction domain from LIM-7 showed that these nematode proteins assemble to form a structure that closely resembles that of their vertebrate counterparts. However, mutagenic analysis across the interface indicates some differences in the mechanisms of binding. We also demonstrate, using fluorescent reporter constructs, that the two C. elegans proteins are co-expressed in a small subset of neurons. These data show that the propensity for LHX3 and Islet proteins to interact is conserved from C. elegans to mammals, raising the possibility that orthologous cell specific LIM-HD-containing transcription factor complexes play similar roles in the development of neuronal cells across diverse species.

Bishop, D.P., Blanes, L., Wilson, A.B., Wilbanks, T., Killeen, K., Grimm, R., Wenzel, R., Major, D., Macka, M., Clarke, D., Schmid, R., Cole, N. & Doble, P.A. 2017, 'Microfluidic high performance liquid chromatography-chip hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry', Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 149, pp. 64-69.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.The Agilent Chip Cube Interface is a microfluidic chip-based technology originally designed for nanospray molecular mass spectrometry in which the sample enrichment, nano-column, tubing, connectors and spray tip were integrated into a single biocompatible chip. Here we describe the hyphenation of the Chip Cube Interface to ICP-MS via modification of the standard HPLC chip design and a new total consumption nebuliser suitable for flow rates as low as 300nLmin-1. The potential of the instrument to eliminate common nanoLC - ICP-MS shortcomings such as leaks, blockages and band-broadening was demonstrated via analysis of cyanocobalamin in equine plasma. The method was linear over three orders of magnitude with an r2 of 0.9999, the peak area repeatability was 1.9% (n=7), and the detection limit was 14ngmL-1. This novel configuration of the Chip Cube Interface coupled to ICP-MS is a suitable platform for the analysis of biomolecules associated with trace metals and speciation applications.

Bitto, N.J., Chapman, R., Pidot, S., Costin, A., Lo, C., Choi, J., D'Cruze, T., Reynolds, E.C., Dashper, S.G., Turnbull, L., Whitchurch, C.B., Stinear, T.P., Stacey, K.J. & Ferrero, R.L. 2017, 'Bacterial membrane vesicles transport their DNA cargo into host cells.', Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-11.
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Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular sacs containing biologically active products, such as proteins, cell wall components and toxins. OMVs are reported to contain DNA, however, little is known about the nature of this DNA, nor whether it can be transported into host cells. Our work demonstrates that chromosomal DNA is packaged into OMVs shed by bacteria during exponential phase. Most of this DNA was present on the external surfaces of OMVs, with smaller amounts located internally. The DNA within the internal compartments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa OMVs were consistently enriched in specific regions of the bacterial chromosome, encoding proteins involved in virulence, stress response, antibiotic resistance and metabolism. Furthermore, we demonstrated that OMVs carry DNA into eukaryotic cells, and this DNA was detectable by PCR in the nuclear fraction of cells. These findings suggest a role for OMV-associated DNA in bacterial-host cell interactions and have implications for OMV-based vaccines.

Bo, R., Nasiri, N., Chen, H., Caputo, D., Fu, L. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Low-Voltage High-Performance UV Photodetectors: An Interplay between Grain Boundaries and Debye Length.', ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2606-2615.
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Accurate detection of UV light by wearable low-power devices has many important applications including environmental monitoring, space to space communication, and defense. Here, we report the structural engineering of ultraporous ZnO nanoparticle networks for fabrication of very low-voltage high-performance UV photodetectors. A record high photo- to dark-current ratio of 3.3 × 10(5) and detectivity of 3.2 × 10(12) Jones at an ultralow operation bias of 2 mV and low UV-light intensity of 86 μW·cm(-2) are achieved by controlling the interplay between grain boundaries and surface depletion depth of ZnO nanoscale semiconductors. An optimal window of structural properties is determined by varying the particle size of ultraporous nanoparticle networks from 10 to 42 nm. We find that small electron-depleted nanoparticles (≤40 nm) are necessary to minimize the dark-current; however, the rise in photocurrent is tampered with decreasing particle size due to the increasing density of grain boundaries. These findings reveal that nanoparticles with a size close to twice their Debye length are required for high photo- to dark-current ratio and detectivity, while further decreasing their size decreases the photodetector performance.

Borovkov, K., Mishura, Y., Novikov, A. & Zhitlukhin, M. 2017, 'Bounds for expected maxima of Gaussian processes and their discrete approximations', Stochastics: An International Journal of Probability and Stochastic Processes, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 21-37.
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© 2015 Taylor & Francis The paper deals with the expected maxima of continuous Gaussian processes (Formula presented.) that are Hölder continuous in (Formula presented.)-norm and/or satisfy the opposite inequality for the (Formula presented.)-norms of their increments. Examples of such processes include the fractional Brownian motion and some of its “relatives” (of which several examples are given in the paper). We establish upper and lower bounds for (Formula presented.) and investigate the rate of convergence to that quantity of its discrete approximation (Formula presented.). Some further properties of these two maxima are established in the special case of the fractional Brownian motion.

Bossa, L., Kline, K., McDougald, D., Lee, B.B. & Rice, S.A. 2017, 'Urinary catheter-associated microbiota change in accordance with treatment and infection status.', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. e0177633-e0177633.
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The use of long-term catheterisation to manage insensate bladders, often associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), increases the risk of microbial colonisation and infection of the urinary tract. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is typically diagnosed and treated based on the culturing of organisms from the urine, although this approach overlooks low titer, slow growing and non-traditional pathogens. Here, we present an investigation of the urinary tract microbiome in catheterised SCI individuals, using T-RFLP and metagenomic sequencing of the microbial community. We monitored three neurogenic patients over a period of 12 months, who were part of a larger study investigating the efficacy of probiotics in controlling UTIs, to determine how their urinary tract microbial community composition changed over time and in relation to probiotic treatment regimens. Bacterial biofilms adherent to urinary catheters were examined as a proxy for bladder microbes. The microbial community composition of the urinary tract differed significantly between individuals. Probiotic therapy resulted in a significant change in the microbial community associated with the catheters. The community also changed as a consequence of UTI and this shift in community composition preceded the clinical diagnosis of infection. Changes in the microbiota due to probiotic treatment or infection were transient, resolving to microbial communities similar to their pre-treatment communities, suggesting that the native community was highly resilient. Based on these results, we propose that monitoring a patient's microbial community can be used to track the health of chronically catheterized patients and thus, can be used as part of a health-status monitoring program.

Bradbury, P.M., Turner, K., Mitchell, C., Griffin, K.R., Middlemiss, S., Lau, L., Dagg, R., Taran, E., Cooper-White, J., Fabry, B. & O'Neill, G.M. 2017, 'The focal adhesion targeting domain of p130Cas confers a mechanosensing function', Journal of Cell Science, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 1263-1273.
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© 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Members of the Cas family of focal adhesion proteins contain a highly conserved C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. To determine the role of the FAT domain in these proteins, we compared wild-type exogenous NEDD9 with a hybrid construct in which the NEDD9 FAT domain had been exchanged for the p130Cas (also known as BCAR1) FAT domain. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed significantly slowed exchange of the fusion protein at focal adhesions and significantly slower twodimensional migration. No differences were detected in cell stiffness as measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in cell adhesion forces measured with a magnetic tweezer device. Thus, the slowed migration was not due to changes in cell stiffness or adhesion strength. Analysis of cell migration on surfaces of increasing rigidity revealed a striking reduction of cell motility in cells expressing the p130Cas FAT domain. The p130Cas FAT domain induced rigiditydependent phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within NEDD9. This in turn reduced post-translational cleavage of NEDD9, which we show inhibits NEDD9-induced migration. Collectively, our data therefore suggest that the p130Cas FAT domain uniquely confers a mechanosensing function.

Brodersen, K.E., Hammer, K.J., Schrameyer, V., Floytrup, A., Rasheed, M.A., Ralph, P.J., Kühl, M. & Pedersen, O. 2017, 'Sediment Resuspension and Deposition on Seagrass Leaves Impedes Internal Plant Aeration and Promotes Phytotoxic H2S Intrusion.', Front Plant Sci, vol. 8, p. 657.
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HIGHLIGHTS: Sedimentation of fine sediment particles onto seagrass leaves severely hampers the plants' performance in both light and darkness, due to inadequate internal plant aeration and intrusion of phytotoxic H2S. Anthropogenic activities leading to sediment re-suspension can have adverse effects on adjacent seagrass meadows, owing to reduced light availability and the settling of suspended particles onto seagrass leaves potentially impeding gas exchange with the surrounding water. We used microsensors to determine O2 fluxes and diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness on leaves of the seagrass Zostera muelleri with and without fine sediment particles, and combined these laboratory measurements with in situ microsensor measurements of tissue O2 and H2S concentrations. Net photosynthesis rates in leaves with fine sediment particles were down to ~20% of controls without particles, and the compensation photon irradiance increased from a span of 20-53 to 109-145 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). An ~2.5-fold thicker DBL around leaves with fine sediment particles impeded O2 influx into the leaves during darkness. In situ leaf meristematic O2 concentrations of plants exposed to fine sediment particles were lower than in control plants and exhibited long time periods of complete meristematic anoxia during night-time. Insufficient internal aeration resulted in H2S intrusion into the leaf meristematic tissues when exposed to sediment resuspension even at relatively high night-time water-column O2 concentrations. Fine sediment particles that settle on seagrass leaves thus negatively affect internal tissue aeration and thereby the plants' resilience against H2S intrusion.

Broséus, J., Rhumorbarbe, D., Morelato, M., Staehli, L. & Rossy, Q. 2017, 'A geographical analysis of trafficking on a popular darknet market.', Forensic Science International, vol. 277, pp. 88-102.
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Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces, located on the darknet, that facilitate the trading of a variety of illegal goods, mostly drugs. While the literature essentially focus on drugs, various other goods and products related to financial or identity fraud, firearms, counterfeit goods, as well as doping products are also offered on these marketplaces. Through the analysis of relevant data collected on a popular marketplace in 2014-2015, Evolution, this research provides an analysis of the structure of trafficking (types and proportions of products, number of vendors and shipping countries). It also aims at highlighting geographical patterns in the trafficking of these products (e.g. trafficking flows, specialisation of vendors and assessment of their role in the distribution chain). The analysis of the flow of goods between countries emphasises the role of specific countries in the international and domestic trafficking, potentially informing law enforcement agencies to target domestic mails or international posts from specific countries. The research also highlights the large proportion of licit and illicit drug listings and vendors on Evolution, followed by various fraud issues (in particular, financial fraud), the sharing of knowledge (tutorials) and finally goods, currencies and precious metals (principally luxury goods). Looking at the shipping country, there seems to be a clear division between digital and physical products, with more specific information for physical goods. This reveals that the spatial analysis of trafficking is particularly meaningful in the case of physical products (such as illicit drugs) and to a lesser extent for digital products. Finally, the geographical analysis reveals that spatial patterns on Evolution tend to reflect the structure of the traditional illicit market. However, regarding illicit drugs, country-specificity has been observed and are presented in this article.

Callingham, J.R., Ekers, R.D., Gaensler, B.M., Line, J.L.B., Hurley-Walker, N., Sadler, E.M., Tingay, S.J., Hancock, P.J., Bell, M.E., Dwarakanath, K.S., For, B.Q., Franzen, T.M.O., Hindson, L., Johnston-Hollitt, M., Kapińska, A.D., Lenc, E., McKinley, B., Morgan, J., Offringa, A.R., Procopio, P., Staveley-Smith, L., Wayth, R.B., Wu, C. & Zheng, Q. 2017, 'Extragalactic Peaked-spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 836, no. 2.
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© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present a sample of 1483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low-frequency analogs of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesized to be the precursors to massive radio galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of known peaked-spectrum candidates, and 95% of our sample have a newly characterized spectral peak. We highlight that some GPS sources peaking above 5 GHz have had multiple epochs of nuclear activity, and we demonstrate the possibility of identifying high-redshift (z > 2) galaxies via steep optically thin spectral indices and low observed peak frequencies. The distribution of the optically thick spectral indices of our sample is consistent with past GPS/CSS samples but with a large dispersion, suggesting that the spectral peak is a product of an inhomogeneous environment that is individualistic. We find no dependence of observed peak frequency with redshift, consistent with the peaked-spectrum sample comprising both local CSS sources and high-redshift GPS sources. The 5 GHz luminosity distribution lacks the brightest GPS and CSS sources of previous samples, implying that a convolution of source evolution and redshift influences the type of peaked-spectrum sources identified below 1 GHz. Finally, we discuss sources with optically thick spectral indices that exceed the synchrotron self-absorption limit.

Camp, E.F., Dong, L.F., Suggett, D.J., Smith, D.J., Boatman, T.G., Crosswel, J.R., Evenhuis, C., Scorfield, S., Walinjkar, A., Woods, J. & Lawson, T. 2017, 'A novel membrane inlet-infrared gas analysis (MI-IRGA) system for monitoring of seawater carbonate system', Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 38-53.
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© 2016 The Authors Limnology and Oceanography: Methods published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations are driving changes in ocean chemistry at unprecedented rates resulting in ocean acidification, which is predicted to impact the functioning of marine biota, in particular of marine calcifiers. However, the precise understanding of such impacts relies on an analytical system that determines the mechanisms and impact of elevated pCO 2 on the physiology of organisms at scales from species to entire communities. Recent work has highlighted the need within experiments to control all aspects of the carbonate system to resolve the role of different inorganic carbon species on the physiological responses observed across taxa in real-time. Presently however, there are limited options available for continuous quantification of physiological responses, coupled with real-time calculation of the seawater carbonate chemistry system within microcosm environments. Here, we describe and characterise the performance of a novel pCO 2 membrane equilibrium system (the Membrane Inlet Infra-Red Gas Analyser, MI-IRGA) integrated with a continuous pH and oxygen monitoring platform. The system can detect changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry and determine organism physiological responses, while providing the user with real-time control over the microcosm system. We evaluate the systems control, response time and associated error, and demonstrate the flexibility of the system to operate under field conditions and within a laboratory. We use the system to measure physiological parameters (photosynthesis and respiration) for the corals Pocillipora damicornis and Porites cylindrica; in doing so we present a novel dataset examining the interactive role of temperature, light and pCO 2 on the physiology of P. cylindrica.

Camp, E.F., Nitschke, M.R., Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Houlbreque, F., Gardner, S.G., Smith, D.J., Zampighi, M. & Suggett, D.J. 2017, 'Reef-building corals thrive within hot-acidified and deoxygenated waters.', Sci Rep, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 2434.
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Coral reefs are deteriorating under climate change as oceans continue to warm and acidify and thermal anomalies grow in frequency and intensity. In vitro experiments are widely used to forecast reef-building coral health into the future, but often fail to account for the complex ecological and biogeochemical interactions that govern reefs. Consequently, observations from coral communities under naturally occurring extremes have become central for improved predictions of future reef form and function. Here, we present a semi-enclosed lagoon system in New Caledonia characterised by diel fluctuations of hot-deoxygenated water coupled with tidally driven persistently low pH, relative to neighbouring reefs. Coral communities within the lagoon system exhibited high richness (number of species = 20) and cover (24-35% across lagoon sites). Calcification rates for key species (Acropora formosa, Acropora pulchra, Coelastrea aspera and Porites lutea) for populations from the lagoon were equivalent to, or reduced by ca. 30-40% compared to those from the reef. Enhanced coral respiration, alongside high particulate organic content of the lagoon sediment, suggests acclimatisation to this trio of temperature, oxygen and pH changes through heterotrophic plasticity. This semi-enclosed lagoon therefore provides a novel system to understand coral acclimatisation to complex climatic scenarios and may serve as a reservoir of coral populations already resistant to extreme environmental conditions.

Cardoso, B.R., Hare, D.J., Bush, A.I. & Roberts, B.R. 2017, 'Glutathione peroxidase 4: a new player in neurodegeneration?', Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 328-335.
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Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) is an antioxidant enzyme reported as an inhibitor of ferroptosis, a recently discovered non-apoptotic form of cell death. This pathway was initially described in cancer cells and has since been identified in hippocampal and renal cells. In this Perspective, we propose that inhibition of ferroptosis by GPx4 provides protective mechanisms against neurodegeneration. In addition, we suggest that selenium deficiency enhances susceptibility to ferroptotic processes, as well as other programmed cell death pathways due to a reduction in GPx4 activity. We review recent studies of GPx4 with an emphasis on neuronal protection, and discuss the relevance of selenium levels on its enzymatic activity.

Cardoso, B.R., Hare, D.J., Bush, A.I., Li, Q.-.X., Fowler, C.J., Masters, C.L., Martins, R.N., Ganio, K., Lothian, A., Mukherjee, S., Kapp, E.A., Roberts, B.R. & AIBL research group 2017, 'Selenium Levels in Serum, Red Blood Cells, and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A Report from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker & Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL).', Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 183-193.
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Selenium (Se) protects cells against oxidative stress damage through a range of bioactive selenoproteins. Increased oxidative stress is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies have shown that Se deficiency is associated with age-related cognitive decline. In this study, we assessed Se status in different biofluids from a subgroup of participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing. As Se in humans can either be an active component of selenoproteins or inactive via non-specific incorporation into other proteins, we used both size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry to characterize selenoproteins in serum. We observed no differences in total Se concentration in serum or cerebrospinal fluid of AD subjects compared to mildly cognitively impairment patients and healthy controls. However, Se levels in erythrocytes were decreased in AD compared to controls. SEC-ICP-MS analysis revealed a dominant Se-containing fraction. This fraction was subjected to standard protein purification and a bottom-up proteomics approach to confirm that the abundant Se in the fraction was due, in part, to selenoprotein P. The lack of change in the Se level is at odds with our previous observations in a Brazilian population deficient in Se, and we attribute this to the Australian cohort being Se-replete.

Carey, B.J., Ou, J.Z., Clark, R.M., Berean, K.J., Zavabeti, A., Chesman, A.S.R., Russo, S.P., Lau, D.W.M., Xu, Z.Q., Bao, Q., Kevehei, O., Gibson, B.C., Dickey, M.D., Kaner, R.B., Daeneke, T. & Kalantar-Zadeh, K. 2017, 'Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals', Nature Communications, vol. 8.
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© The Author(s) 2017. A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

Carroll, L., Pattison, D.I., Fu, S., Schiesser, C.H., Davies, M.J. & Hawkins, C.L. 2017, 'Catalytic oxidant scavenging by selenium-containing compounds: Reduction of selenoxides and N-chloramines by thiols and redox enzymes.', Redox Biol, vol. 12, pp. 872-882.
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Myeloperoxidase produces strong oxidants during the immune response to destroy invading pathogens. However, these oxidants can also cause tissue damage, which contributes to the development of numerous inflammatory diseases. Selenium containing compounds, including selenomethionine (SeMet) and 1,4-anhydro-5-seleno-D-talitol (SeTal), react rapidly with different MPO-derived oxidants to form the respective selenoxides (SeMetO and SeTalO). This study investigates the susceptibility of these selenoxides to undergo reduction back to the parent compounds by intracellular reducing systems, including glutathione (GSH) and the glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase systems. GSH is shown to reduce SeMetO and SeTalO, with consequent formation of GSSG with apparent second order rate constants, k2, in the range 10(3)-10(4)M(-1)s(-1). Glutathione reductase reduces both SeMetO and SeTalO at the expense of NADPH via formation of GSSG, whereas thioredoxin reductase acts only on SeMetO. The presence of SeMet and SeTal also increased the rate at which NADPH was consumed by the glutathione reductase system in the presence of N-chloramines. In contrast, the presence of SeMet and SeTal reduced the rate of NADPH consumption by the thioredoxin reductase system after addition of N-chloramines, consistent with the rapid formation of selenoxides, but only slow reduction by thioredoxin reductase. These results support a potential role of seleno compounds to act as catalytic scavengers of MPO-derived oxidants, particularly in the presence of glutathione reductase and NADPH, assuming that sufficient plasma levels of the parent selenoether can be achieved in vivo following supplementation.

Cartaxana, P., Trampe, E., Kühl, M. & Cruz, S. 2017, 'Kleptoplast photosynthesis is nutritionally relevant in the sea slug Elysia viridis.', Sci Rep, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 7714.
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Several sacoglossan sea slug species feed on macroalgae and incorporate chloroplasts into tubular cells of their digestive diverticula. We investigated the role of the "stolen" chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) in the nutrition of the sea slug Elysia viridis and assessed how their abundance, distribution and photosynthetic activity were affected by light and starvation. Elysia viridis individuals feeding on the macroalga Codium tomentosum were compared with starved specimens kept in dark and low light conditions. A combination of variable Chl a fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging, and HPLC pigment analysis was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of photopigments and of the photosynthetic capacity of kleptoplasts. We show increased loss of weight and body length in dark-starved E. viridis as compared to low light-starved sea slugs. A more pronounced decrease in kleptoplast abundance and lower photosynthetic electron transport rates were observed in dark-starved sea slugs than in low light-starved animals. This study presents strong evidence of the importance of kleptoplast photosynthesis for the nutrition of E. viridis in periods of food scarcity. Deprived of photosynthates, E. viridis could accelerate the breakdown of kleptoplasts in the dark to satisfy its' energy requirements.

Chadwick, S., Neskoski, M., Spindler, X., Lennard, C. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 153-160.
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Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

Chai, A.B., Ammit, A.J. & Gelissen, I.C. 2017, 'Examining the role of ABC lipid transporters in pulmonary lipid homeostasis and inflammation.', Respir Res, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 41.
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Respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by excessive and persistent inflammation. Current treatments are often inadequate for symptom and disease control, and hence new therapies are warranted. Recent emerging research has implicated dyslipidaemia in pulmonary inflammation. Three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are found in the mammalian lung - ABCA1, ABCG1 and ABCA3 - that are involved in movement of cholesterol and phospholipids from lung cells. The aim of this review is to corroborate the current evidence for the role of ABC lipid transporters in pulmonary lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we summarise results from murine knockout studies, human diseases associated with ABC transporter mutations, and in vitro studies. Disruption to ABC transporter activity results in lipid accumulation and elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue. Furthermore, these ABC-knockout mice exhibit signs of respiratory distress. ABC lipid transporters appear to have a crucial and protective role in the lung. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms for these benefits requires further attention. Understanding the relationship between cholesterol and inflammation in the lung, and the role that ABC transporters play in this may illuminate new pathways to target for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

Chan, Y.L., Saad, S., Al-Odat, I., Oliver, B.G., Pollock, C., Jones, N.M. & Chen, H. 2017, 'Maternal L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves Brain Health in Offspring from Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mothers.', Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 10, pp. 1-15.
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Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) causes detrimental changes associated with the development of chronic neurological diseases in the offspring as a result of oxidative mitochondrial damage. Maternal L-Carnitine administration has been shown to reduce renal oxidative stress in SE offspring, but its effect in the brain is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal L-Carnitine supplementation on brain markers of oxidative stress, autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial energy producing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in SE offspring. Female Balb/c mice (8 weeks) were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation with or without L-Carnitine supplementation (1.5 mM in drinking water). In 1 day old male SE offspring, brain mitochondrial damage was suggested by increased mitochondrial fusion and reduced autophagosome markers; whereas at 13 weeks, enhanced brain cell damage was suggested by reduced fission and autophagosome markers, as well as increased apoptosis and DNA fragmentation markers, which were partially reversed by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. In female SE offspring, enhanced mitochondrial regeneration was suggested by decreased fission and increased fusion markers at day 1. At 13 weeks, there was an increase in brain energy demand, oxidative stress and mitochondrial turnover, reflected by the protein changes of OXPHOS complex, fission and autophagosome markers, as well as the endogenous antioxidant, which were also partially normalized by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. However, markers of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were not significantly changed. Thus L-Carnitine supplementation may benefit the brain health of the offspring from smoking mothers.

Chapman, D.G., Mougey, E.B., Van der Velden, J.L., Lahue, K.G., Aliyeva, M., Daphtary, N., George, K.L., Hoffman, S.M., Schneider, R.W., Tracy, R.P., Worthen, G.S., Poynter, M.E., Peters, S.P., Lima, J.J., Janssen-Heininger, Y.M.W. & Irvin, C.G. 2017, 'The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines regulates asthma pathophysiology.', Clin Exp Allergy.
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BACKGROUND: The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is an atypical receptor that regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of DARC in asthma pathophysiology is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of DARC in allergic airways disease in mice, and the association between DARC single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical outcomes in patients with asthma. METHODS: Mice with targeted disruption of the Darc gene (Darc(∆E2) ) or WT mice were challenged over 3 weeks with house dust mite (HDM) antigen. Allergic airways disease was assessed 24 hours and 7 days following the final challenge. Additionally, associations between DARC SNPs and clinical outcomes were analysed in a cohort of poorly controlled asthmatics. RESULTS: Total airway inflammation following HDM did not differ between Darc(∆E2) and WT mice. At 24 hours, Darc(∆E2) mice had increased airway hyperresponsiveness; however, at 7 days airway hyperresponsiveness had completely resolved in Darc(∆E2) but persisted in WT mice. In poorly controlled asthmatics, DARC SNPs were associated with worse asthma control at randomization and subsequent increased risk of healthcare utilization (odds ratio 3.13(1.37-7.27), P=.0062). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our animal model and human patient data suggest a novel role for DARC in the temporal regulation in asthma pathophysiology and symptoms.

CHAUVIRÉ, BORIS, RONDEAU, B.E.N.J.A.M.I.N. & MANGOLD, N.I.C.O.L.A.S. 2017, 'Near infrared signature of opal and chalcedony as a proxy for their structure and formation conditions', European Journal of Mineralogy.
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Chekli, L., Corjon, E., Tabatabai, S.A.A., Naidu, G., Tamburic, B., Park, S.H. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Performance of titanium salts compared to conventional FeCl3 for the removal of algal organic matter (AOM) in synthetic seawater: Coagulation performance, organic fraction removal and floc characteristics.', J Environ Manage, vol. 201, pp. 28-36.
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During algal bloom periods, operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment processes (e.g. ultrafiltration (UF)) has been hindered due to the high concentration of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM). The present study evaluated for the first time the performance of titanium salts (i.e. titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC)) for the removal of AOM in seawater and results were compared with the conventional FeCl3 coagulant. Previous studies already demonstrated that titanium salts not only provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional coagulants by producing a valuable by-product but also minimise the environmental impact of sludge production. Results from this study showed that both TiCl4 and PTC achieved better performance than FeCl3 in terms of turbidity, UV254 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal at similar coagulant dose. Liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) was used to determine the removal of AOM compounds based on their molecular weight (MW). This investigation revealed that both humic substances and low MW organics were preferentially removed (i.e. up to 93% removal) while all three coagulants showed poorer performance for the removal of high MW biopolymers (i.e. less than 50% removal). The detailed characterization of flocs indicated that both titanium coagulants can grow faster, reach larger size and present a more compact structure, which is highly advantageous for the design of smaller and more compact mixing and sedimentation tanks. Both titanium coagulants also presented a higher ability to withstand shear force, which was related to the higher amount of DOC adsorbed with the aggregated flocs. Finally, TiCl4 had a better recovery after breakage suggesting that charge neutralization may be the dominant mechanism for this coagulant, while the lower recovery of both PTC and FeCl3 indicated that sweep flocculation is also a contributing mechanism for the coagulation of AOM...

Chekli, L., Eripret, C., Park, S.H., Tabatabai, S.A.A., Vronska, O., Tamburic, B., Kim, J.H. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 175, pp. 99-106.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl 3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency > 97%); although TiCl 4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. < 9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl 3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

Chen, R., Cole, N., Dutta, D., Kumar, N. & Willcox, M.D.P. 2017, 'Antimicrobial activity of immobilized lactoferrin and lactoferricin', Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials.
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© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were immobilized on glass surfaces via two linkers, 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) or 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide (FNA). The resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the surfaces was determined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains by fluorescence microscopy. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilization was confirmed by XPS showing significant increases (p<0.05) in nitrogen on the glass surface. The immobilization of both proteins slightly increased the overall hydrophobicity of the glass. Both lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilized on glass significantly (p<0.05) reduced the numbers of viable bacterial cells adherent to the glass. For P. aeruginosa, the immobilized proteins consistently increased the percentage of dead cells compared to the total cells adherent to the glass surfaces (p<0.03). Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were successfully immobilized on glass surfaces and showed promising antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

Cheng, L., Zhang, L., Wang, Y.-.P., Canadell, J.G., Chiew, F.H.S., Beringer, J., Li, L., Miralles, D.G., Piao, S. & Zhang, Y. 2017, 'Recent increases in terrestrial carbon uptake at little cost to the water cycle.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 110.
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Quantifying the responses of the coupled carbon and water cycles to current global warming and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration is crucial for predicting and adapting to climate changes. Here we show that terrestrial carbon uptake (i.e. gross primary production) increased significantly from 1982 to 2011 using a combination of ground-based and remotely sensed land and atmospheric observations. Importantly, we find that the terrestrial carbon uptake increase is not accompanied by a proportional increase in water use (i.e. evapotranspiration) but is largely (about 90%) driven by increased carbon uptake per unit of water use, i.e. water use efficiency. The increased water use efficiency is positively related to rising CO2 concentration and increased canopy leaf area index, and negatively influenced by increased vapour pressure deficits. Our findings suggest that rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has caused a shift in terrestrial water economics of carbon uptake.The response of the coupled carbon and water cycles to anthropogenic climate change is unclear. Here, the authors show that terrestrial carbon uptake increased significantly from 1982 to 2011 and that this increase is largely driven by increased water-use efficiency, rather than an increase in water use.

Chipperfield, J., Brown, J. & Bell, P. 2017, 'Estimating the count error in the Australian census', Journal of Official Statistics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 43-59.
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© Statistics Sweden. In many countries, counts of people are a key factor in the allocation of government resources. However, it is well known that errors arise in Census counting of people (e.g., undercoverage due to missing people). Therefore, it is common for national statistical agencies to conduct one or more “audit” surveys that are designed to estimate and remove systematic errors in Census counting. For example, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) conducts a single audit sample, called the Post Enumeration Survey (PES), shortly after each Australian Population Census. This article describes the estimator used by the ABS to estimate the count of people in Australia. Key features of this estimator are that it is unbiased when there is systematic measurement error in Census counting and when nonresponse to the PES is nonignorable.

Chipperfield, J., Brown, J.J. & Watson, N. 2017, 'The Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset: using record linkage to create a longitudinal sample from a series of cross-sections', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 1-16.
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© 2017 Australian Statistical Publishing Association Inc. Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia Pty Ltd. The Australian Bureau of Statistics is creating a longitudinal sample, called the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (ACLD), by linking person records across its five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. This paper proposes a Multi-Panel framework for selecting and weighting records in the ACLD. This framework can be applied more generally to selecting longitudinal samples from a series of cross-sectional administrative files. The proposed framework avoids some significant limitations of the popular ‘Top-Up’ sampling approach to maintaining the cross-sectional and longitudinal representativeness of a sample over time.

Choi, S., Cho, Y.G., Kim, J., Choi, N.S., Song, H.K., Wang, G. & Park, S. 2017, 'Mesoporous Germanium Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery with Exceptional Cycling Stability in Wide Temperature Range', Small, vol. 13, no. 13.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Porous structured materials have unique architectures and are promising for lithium-ion batteries to enhance performances. In particular, mesoporous materials have many advantages including a high surface area and large void spaces which can increase reactivity and accessibility of lithium ions. This study reports a synthesis of newly developed mesoporous germanium (Ge) particles prepared by a zincothermic reduction at a mild temperature for high performance lithium-ion batteries which can operate in a wide temperature range. The optimized Ge battery anodes with the mesoporous structure exhibit outstanding electrochemical properties in a wide temperature ranging from −20 to 60 °C. Ge anodes exhibit a stable cycling retention at various temperatures (capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles at 25 °C, 84% after 300 cycles at 60 °C, and 50% after 50 cycles at −20 °C). Furthermore, full cells consisting of the mesoporous Ge anode and an LiFePO 4 cathode show an excellent cyclability at −20 and 25 °C. Mesoporous Ge materials synthesized by the zincothermic reduction can be potentially applied as high performance anode materials for practical lithium-ion batteries.

Choi, S., Rogers, D.J., Sandana, E.V., Bove, P., Teherani, F.H., Nenstiel, C., Hoffmann, A., McClintock, R., Razeghi, M., Look, D., Gentle, A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Radiative recombination of confined electrons at the MgZnO/ZnO heterojunction interface.', Sci Rep, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 7457.
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We investigate the optical signature of the interface in a single MgZnO/ZnO heterojunction, which exhibits two orders of magnitude lower resistivity and 10 times higher electron mobility compared with the MgZnO/Al2O3 film grown under the same conditions. These impressive transport properties are attributed to increased mobility of electrons at the MgZnO/ZnO heterojunction interface. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence studies reveal a 3.2 eV H-band optical emission from the heterointerface, which exhibits excitonic properties and a localization energy of 19.6 meV. The emission is attributed to band-bending due to the polarization discontinuity at the interface, which leads to formation of a triangular quantum well and localized excitons by electrostatic coupling.

Choi, S., Song, J., Wang, C., Park, S. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Multifunctional Free-Standing Gel Polymer Electrolyte with Carbon Nanofiber Interlayers for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.', Chem Asian J, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 1470-1474.
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Free-standing trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate gel polymer electrolyte is synthesized by a chemical cross-linking process and used as an electrolyte and separator membrane in lithium-sulfur batteries. The cross linked gel polymer electrolyte also exhibited a stable geometric size retention of 95 % at the high temperature of 130 °C. The as-prepared gel polymer electrolyte membrane with carbon nanofibers interlayer can effectively prevent polysulfide dissolution and shuttle effect, leading to significantly enhanced electrochemical properties, including high capacity and cycling stability, with an enhanced specific capacity of 790 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles.

Choi, T.-.Y., Lee, M.S., Kim, J.I. & Zaslawski, C. 2017, 'Moxibustion for the treatment of osteoarthritis: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.', Maturitas, vol. 100, pp. 33-48.
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The aim of this study was to update previous reviews and examine recent evidence from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of the use of moxibustion for osteoarthritis (OA). Twelve databases were searched from inception through to September 2016 with no language limits applied. Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessments were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 19 RCTs met all inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Three RCTs compared the effects of moxibustion with those of sham moxibustion in patients with knee OA (KOA) and found favourable effects of moxibustion on pain reduction (n=305; SMD, -0.46; 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.06, P=0.02, I(2)=65%), including at follow-up (n=305; SMD, -0.36; 95% CI: -0.70 to -0.01, P=0.04, I(2)=54%). Eleven RCTs compared the effects of moxibustion with those of conventional oral drug therapies. Eight RCTs reported a total symptom score and the meta-analysis showed superior effects of moxibustion compared with drug therapies for this measure (n=691; SMD, -0.24; 95% CI: -0.78 to 0.29; P=0.37, I(2)=91%) and response rate (n=758 knees; RR, 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05-1.16, P <0.0001, I(2)=0%). Three RCTs found superior or equivalent effects of moxibustion on symptom score compared with intra-articular injection or topical drug therapy. The existing trial evidence is sufficiently convincing to suggest that moxibustion, compared with sham moxibustion and oral drugs, is effective for pain reduction and symptom management in KOA. The level of evidence is moderate, given the high risk of bias and small sample size.

Chua, L., Head, K., Thomas, P. & Stuart, B. 2017, 'FTIR and Raman microscopy of organic binders and extraneous organic materials on painted ceremonial objects from the Highlands of Papua New Guinea', Microchemical Journal, vol. 134, pp. 246-256.
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Clark, I.A. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'The meteorology of cytokine storms, and the clinical usefulness of this knowledge.', Semin Immunopathol, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 505-516.
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The term cytokine storm has become a popular descriptor of the dramatic harmful consequences of the rapid release of polypeptide mediators, or cytokines, that generate inflammatory responses. This occurs throughout the body in both non-infectious and infectious disease states, including the central nervous system. In infectious disease it has become a useful concept through which to appreciate that most infectious disease is not caused directly by a pathogen, but by an overexuberant innate immune response by the host to its presence. It is less widely known that in addition to these roles in disease pathogenesis these same cytokines are also the basis of innate immunity, and in lower concentrations have many essential physiological roles. Here we update this field, including what can be learned through the history of how these interlinking three aspects of biology and disease came to be appreciated. We argue that understanding cytokine storms in their various degrees of acuteness, severity and persistence is essential in order to grasp the pathophysiology of many diseases, and thus the basis of newer therapeutic approaches to treating them. This particularly applies to the neurodegenerative diseases.

Colusso, A.C., Cortie, M.B., Dowd, A. & McDonagh, A.M. 2017, 'Thermal stability of mesoscopic compounds of cetyltrimethylammonium and Keggin metatungstates.', Dalton Trans.
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A hybrid surfactant/polyoxometalate compound was synthesized by combining isopolytungstate anions with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA-Br) to produce a hierarchical compound that we identify as (CTA)7[H2W12O40]Cl·2H2O. At room temperature the compound consisted of hexagonally ordered sheets of Keggin ions, with an intervening gallery containing alkyl-chains of the organic cations. The synthesis was highly dependent on solution pH, reaction time and the order in which the reactants were added. We examined the effect of temperature on the stability of (CTA)7[H2W12O40]Cl·2H2O using thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and found a step-wise conversion to monoclinic WOxvia a series of intermediates. Heating under nitrogen atmospheres accelerated transition events by ∼100 °C when compared to heating in air. During heating, the interplanar gallery at first expanded in a series of steps starting at 90 °C as the CTA(+) amphiphiles changed orientation, before collapsing rapidly at 240 °C, a temperature coinciding with the removal of about 40% of the organic material. Between 240 and 320 °C, the material consisted of fragments of the Keggin ion cores, arranged in 2D hexagonally-packed sheets. At ∼330 °C, the Keggin ions were completely destroyed and replaced by bulk W17O47 which, upon further heating, transformed to bulk WO2 or WO3 depending on the environment.

Commault, A.S., Laczka, O., Siboni, N., Tamburic, B., Crosswell, J.R., Seymour, J.R. & Ralph, P.J. 2017, 'Electricity and biomass production in a bacteria-Chlorella based microbial fuel cell treating wastewater', Journal of Power Sources, vol. 356, pp. 299-309.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The chlorophyte microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been exploited within bioindustrial settings to treat wastewater and produce oxygen at the cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), thereby accumulating algal biomass and producing electricity. We aimed to couple these capacities by growing C. vulgaris at the cathode of MFCs in wastewater previously treated by anodic bacteria. The bioelectrochemical performance of the MFCs was investigated with different catholytes including phosphate buffer and anode effluent, either in the presence or absence of C. vulgaris. The power output fluctuated diurnally in the presence of the alga. The maximum power when C. vulgaris was present reached 34.2 ± 10.0 mW m −2 , double that observed without the alga (15.6 ± 9.7 mW m −2 ), with a relaxation of 0.19 gL −1  d −1 chemical oxygen demand and 5 mg L −1  d −1 ammonium also removed. The microbial community associated with the algal biofilm included nitrogen-fixing (Rhizobiaceae), denitrifying (Pseudomonas stutzeri and Thauera sp., from Pseudomonadales and Rhodocyclales orders, respectively), and nitrate-reducing bacteria (Rheinheimera sp. from the Alteromonadales), all of which likely contributed to nitrogen cycling processes at the cathode. This paper highlights the importance of coupling microbial community screening to electrochemical and chemical analyses to better understand the processes involved in photo-cathode MFCs.

Cooper, E.R., McGrath, K.C., Li, X., Akram, O., Kasz, R., Kazlauskas, R., McLeod, M.D., Handelsman, D.J. & Heather, A.K. 2017, 'The use of tandem yeast and mammalian cell in vitro androgen bioassays to detect androgens in internet-sourced sport supplements.', Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 545-552.
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Sport supplements containing steroids never approved for therapeutic use have the potential for abuse by athletes. Most are marketed online and may contain undisclosed steroids yet are readily available despite lacking toxicological or pharmacological evaluation. In this study, 18 supplements purchased online underwent organic solvent extraction to isolate any steroids they contained. From the 18 supplements, 19 steroids were identified and for each, its intrinsic androgenic potency was determined by a yeast cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) androgen bioassay and its potential androgenic potency was determined by a liver (HuH7) cell androgen bioassay. The yeast bioassay showed that of the 19 steroids tested, 6 demonstrated strong intrinsic bioactivity, with 4 metabolically activated to even stronger androgens. Moreover, 4 steroids with moderate and 1 with intrinsically weak androgenic bioactivity were activated to more potent androgens. Finally, 8 steroids were metabolically inactivated or deactivated into weaker androgens. Our results show that Internet-sourced sport supplements may contain intrinsically strong androgens, or precursors that can be metabolized to them. These potentially potent pharmacologically active steroids are being used without regulatory control or consumer awareness of their potential adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Coughlan, C.P., Ainsworth, R.E., Eislöffel, J., Hoeft, M., Drabent, A., Scaife, A.M.M., Ray, T.P., Bell, M.E., Broderick, J.W., Corbel, S., Grießmeier, J.M., Van Der Horst, A.J., Van Leeuwen, J., Markoff, S., Pietka, M., Stewart, A.J., Wijers, R.A.M.J. & Zarka, P. 2017, 'A LOFAR DETECTION of the LOW-MASS YOUNG STAR T TAU at 149 MHz', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 834, no. 2.
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© 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V. Radio observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) enable the study of ionized plasma outflows from young protostars via their free-free radiation. Previous studies of the low-mass young system T Tau have used radio observations to model the spectrum and estimate important physical properties of the associated ionized plasma (local electron density, ionized gas content, and emission measure). However, without an indication of the low-frequency turnover in the free-free spectrum, these properties remain difficult to constrain. This paper presents the detection of T Tau at 149 MHz with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR)-the first time a YSO has been observed at such low frequencies. The recovered total flux indicates that the free-free spectrum may be turning over near 149 MHz. The spectral energy distribution is fitted and yields improved constraints on local electron density ((7.2 ± 2.1) × 10 3 cm -3 ), ionized gas mass ( ± × -1.0 1.8 10 -6 Ṁ), and emission measure ((1.67 ± 0.14) × 10 5 pc cm -6 ).

Craddock, M. 2017, 'Fundamental solutions for the two dimensional affine group and Hn+1', Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 445, no. 1, pp. 953-970.
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© 2016 Elsevier Inc. We derive the wave and heat kernels on the ax+b group, as well as the fundamental solution of the group Laplacian. We make particular use of the Kontorovich–Lebedev transform and a recent result of the author to produce new expressions for these kernels. Our results easily extend to the hyperbolic space H n+1 for any n and the explicit formulas are given in n dimensions.

Cranfield, C.G., Henriques, S.T., Martinac, B., Duckworth, P., Craik, D.J. & Cornell, B. 2017, 'Kalata B1 and Kalata B2 Have a Surfactant-Like Activity in Phosphatidylethanolomine-Containing Lipid Membranes.', Langmuir, vol. 33, no. 26, pp. 6630-6637.
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Cyclotides are cyclic disulfide-rich peptides that are chemically and thermally stable and possess pharmaceutical and insecticidal properties. The activities reported for cyclotides correlate with their ability to target phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-phospholipids and disrupt cell membranes. However, the mechanism by which this disruption occurs remains unclear. In the current study we examine the effect of the prototypic cyclotides, kalata B1 (kB1) and kalata B2 (kB2), on tethered lipid bilayer membranes (tBLMs) using swept frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy. We confirmed that kB1 and kB2 bind to bilayers only if they contain PE-phospholipids. We hypothesize that the increase in membrane conduction and capacitance observed upon addition of kB1 or kB2 is unlikely to result from ion channel like pores but is consistent with the formation of lipidic toroidal pores. This hypothesis is supported by the concentration dependence of effects of kB1 and kB2 being suggestive of a critical micelle concentration event rather than a progressive increase in conduction arising from increased channel insertion. Additionally, conduction behavior is readily reversible when the peptide is rinsed from the bilayer. Our results support a mechanism by which kB1 and kB2 bind to and disrupt PE-containing membranes by decreasing the overall membrane critical packing parameter, as would a surfactant, which then opens or increases the size of existing membrane defects. The cyclotides need not participate directly in the conductive pore but might exert their effect indirectly through altering membrane packing constraints and inducing purely lipidic conductive pores.

Crisol-Martínez, E., Ford, G., Horgan, F.G., Brown, P.H. & Wormington, K.R. 2017, 'Ecology and conservation of insectivorous bats in fragmented areas of macadamia production in eastern Australia', Austral Ecology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 597-610.
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© 2016 Ecological Society of Australia Microbats perform important ecological services in agro-ecosystems, but several species are globally threatened by loss of roosting and breeding habitats. The successful conservation of bats in agricultural land requires adequate knowledge of their ecology. Using ultrasonic recorders, we studied the activity of insectivorous bats in areas of macadamia production in eastern Australia at two spatial scales: across woodland-orchard transects at the local scale and across three levels of fragmentation at the landscape scale. At the local scale, activity patterns of ‘clutter’ and ‘edge’ specialists were consistently higher in woodland patches, gradually decreasing towards isolated orchards, where only a few ‘open’ specialists were active. At the landscape scale, bat community activity was affected by the level of fragmentation, partly because three of the most recorded taxa (Austronomus australis, Saccolaimus flaviventris and Miniopterus australis) had their highest activity in less-fragmented areas. A distance-based model explained 24% of the bat community activity based on a combination of six environmental variables. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that a number of bat taxa were associated with open areas of macadamia, whereas other taxa were associated with increasing values of landscape composition, and arthropod and water availability. In addition, total bat activity was highly correlated with foraging rate. These results suggest that most bat taxa were influenced by proximity to woodland and the degree of fragmentation, and only few taxa were able to exploit isolated orchards. Environmental factors that promote bat activity could be exploited to strengthen conservation efforts. Preserving remnant woodland and promoting habitat heterogeneity will benefit several bat species. In particular, the foraging activity of ‘edge’ specialists could be fostered by increasing landscape connectivity and maintaining unobstructe...

Dai, R., Sun, W., Lv, L.-.P., Wu, M., Liu, H., Wang, G. & Wang, Y. 2017, 'Bimetal-Organic-Framework Derivation of Ball-Cactus-Like Ni-Sn-P@C-CNT as Long-Cycle Anode for Lithium Ion Battery.', Small, vol. 13, no. 27, pp. 1-11.
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Metal phosphides are a new class of potential high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries, but their short cycle life is the critical problem to hinder its practical application. A unique ball-cactus-like microsphere of carbon coated NiP2 /Ni3 Sn4 with deep-rooted carbon nanotubes (Ni-Sn-P@C-CNT) is demonstrated in this work to solve this problem. Bimetal-organic-frameworks (BMOFs, Ni-Sn-BTC, BTC refers to 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) are formed by a two-step uniform microwave-assisted irradiation approach and used as the precursor to grow Ni-Sn@C-CNT, Ni-Sn-P@C-CNT, yolk-shell Ni-Sn@C, and Ni-Sn-P@C. The uniform carbon overlayer is formed by the decomposition of organic ligands from MOFs and small CNTs are deeply rooted in Ni-Sn-P@C microsphere due to the in situ catalysis effect of Ni-Sn. Among these potential anode materials, the Ni-Sn-P@C-CNT is found to be a promising anode with best electrochemical properties. It exhibits a large reversible capacity of 704 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and excellent high-rate cycling performance (a stable capacity of 504 mA h g(-1) retained after 800 cycles at 1 A g(-1) ). These good electrochemical properties are mainly ascribed to the unique 3D mesoporous structure design along with dual active components showing synergistic electrochemical activity within different voltage windows.

Darling, A.E. 2017, 'Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation − a benchmark of computational metagenomics software', Nature Methods.
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In metagenome analysis, computational methods for assembly, taxonomic profiling and binning are key components facilitating downstream biological data interpretation. However, a lack of consensus about benchmarking datasets and evaluation metrics complicates proper performance assessment. The Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) challenge has engaged the global developer community to benchmark their programs on datasets of unprecedented complexity and realism. Benchmark metagenomes were generated from newly sequenced ~700 microorganisms and ~600 novel viruses and plasmids, including genomes with varying degrees of relatedness to each other and to publicly available ones and representing common experimental setups. Across all datasets, assembly and genome binning programs performed well for species represented by individual genomes, while performance was substantially affected by the presence of related strains. Taxonomic profiling and binning programs were proficient at high taxonomic ranks, with a notable performance decrease below the family level. Parameter settings substantially impacted performances, underscoring the importance of program reproducibility. While highlighting current challenges in computational metagenomics, the CAMI results provide a roadmap for software selection to answer specific research questions.

Davis, A., Abbriano, R., Smith, S.R. & Hildebrand, M. 2017, 'Clarification of Photorespiratory Processes and the Role of Malic Enzyme in Diatoms', PROTIST, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 134-153.
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Dayananda, B., Ibargüengoytía, N., Whiting, M.J. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Effects of pregnancy on body temperature and locomotor performance of velvet geckos.', J Therm Biol, vol. 65, pp. 64-68.
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Pregnancy is a challenging period for egg laying squamates. Carrying eggs can encumber females and decrease their locomotor performance, potentially increasing their risk of predation. Pregnant females can potentially reduce this handicap by selecting higher temperatures to increase their sprint speed and ability to escape from predators, or to speed up embryonic development and reduce the period during which they are burdened with eggs ('selfish mother' hypothesis). Alternatively, females might select more stable body temperatures during pregnancy to enhance offspring fitness ('maternal manipulation hypothesis'), even if the maintenance of such temperatures compromises a female's locomotor performance. We investigated whether pregnancy affects the preferred body temperatures and locomotor performance of female velvet geckos Amalosia lesueurii. We measured running speed of females during late pregnancy, and one week after they laid eggs at four temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C). Preferred body temperatures of females were measured in a cost-free thermal gradient during late pregnancy and one week after egg-laying. Females selected higher and more stable set-point temperatures when they were pregnant (mean =29.0°C, Tset =27.8-30.5°C) than when they were non-pregnant (mean =26.2°C, Tset =23.7-28.7°C). Pregnancy was also associated with impaired performance; females sprinted more slowly at all four test temperatures when burdened with eggs. Although females selected higher body temperatures during late pregnancy, this increase in temperature did not compensate for their impaired running performance. Hence, our results suggest that females select higher temperatures during pregnancy to speed up embryogenesis and reduce the period during which they have reduced performance. This strategy may decrease a female's probability of encountering predatory snakes that use the same microhabitats for thermoregulation. Selection of stable temperatures by pregnant females may...

Dayananda, B., Murray, B.R. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Hotter nests produce hatchling lizards with lower thermal tolerance.', J Exp Biol, vol. 220, no. Pt 12, pp. 2159-2165.
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In many regions, the frequency and duration of summer heatwaves is predicted to increase in future. Hotter summers could result in higher temperatures inside lizard nests, potentially exposing embryos to thermally stressful conditions during development. Potentially, developmentally plastic shifts in thermal tolerance could allow lizards to adapt to climate warming. To determine how higher nest temperatures affect the thermal tolerance of hatchling geckos, we incubated eggs of the rock-dwelling velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, at two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current nest temperatures (mean 23.2°C, range 10-33°C, 'cold') and future nest temperatures (mean 27.0°C, range 14-37°C, 'hot'). Hatchlings from the hot incubation group hatched 27 days earlier and had a lower critical thermal maximum (CTmax 38.7°C) and a higher critical thermal minimum (CTmin 6.2°C) than hatchlings from cold incubation group (40.2 and 5.7°C, respectively). In the field, hatchlings typically settle under rocks near communal nests. During the hatching period, rock temperatures ranged from 13 to 59°C, and regularly exceeded the CTmax of both hot- and cold-incubated hatchlings. Because rock temperatures were so high, the heat tolerance of lizards had little effect on their ability to exploit rocks as retreat sites. Instead, the timing of hatching dictated whether lizards could exploit rocks as retreat sites; that is, cold-incubated lizards that hatched later encountered less thermally stressful environments than earlier hatching hot-incubated lizards. In conclusion, we found no evidence that CTmax can shift upwards in response to higher incubation temperatures, suggesting that hotter summers may increase the vulnerability of lizards to climate warming.

Dayananda, B... & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards', Biology Letters, vol. 13.

De Silva, K.S.B., Keast, V.J., Gentle, A. & Cortie, M.B. 2017, 'Optical properties and oxidation of α-phase Ag-Al thin films.', Nanotechnology, vol. 28, no. 9, p. 095202.
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We investigate a series of Ag-Al thin films containing up to 12 at% Al with the purpose of discovering whether these alloys would be a better choice for nanophotonic applications than pure Ag. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, AFM, x-ray diffraction and density functional theory are applied to explore and characterize the materials. Electromagnetic simulations of optical properties are used to place the results into a theoretical framework. We find that the increase in electron-to-atom ratio associated with the Al additions changes the optical properties: additions of the order of 1-2 at% Al are beneficial as they are associated with favorable changes in the dielectric function, but for greater additions of Al there is a flattening of the absorption edge and an increase in optical loss. In addition, contents of more than about 2 at% Al are associated with the onset of time-dependent intergranular oxidation, which causes a pronounced dip in the reflectance spectrum at about 2.3-2.4 eV (∼500-540 nm).

Dean, S., Peng, W., Zaslawski, C., Elliott, D., Newton-John, T., Campo, M. & Pappas, E. 2017, 'Mindfulness in Physical and Occupational Therapy Education and Practice: A scoping review', Physical Therapy Reviews, pp. 1-8.
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Dean, S.J., Foureur, M., Zaslawski, C., Newton-John, T., Yu, N. & Pappas, E. 2017, 'The effects of a structured mindfulness program on the development of empathy in healthcare students', NursingPlus Open, vol. 3, pp. 1-5.
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Del Campo, J., Pombert, J.F., Šlapeta, J., Larkum, A. & Keeling, P.J. 2017, 'The 'other' coral symbiont: Ostreobium diversity and distribution.', The ISME journal, vol. 11, pp. 296-299.
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Ostreobium is an endolithic algal genus thought to be an early-diverging lineage of the Bryopsidales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Ostreobium can live in low-light conditions on calcium carbonate substrata in tropical conditions. It is best known as a symbiont of corals, where it lives deep within the animal skeleton and exchanges nitrogen and carbon, as well as providing nutrients and photoassimilates. In contrast to the relatively well-studied role of the photosynthetic zooxanthellae symbionts in coral (Symbiodinium), Ostreobium phylogeny, diversity and distribution are all poorly understood. Here, we describe the phylogenetic position and diversity of Ostreobium based on plastid 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 18S rDNA and rbcL genes from a nuclear genome survey and complete plastid genome, and determined its environmental diversity and distribution by screening the publicly available environmental data for those genes. The results shed light on the phylogeny and the ecology of the 'other' coral symbiont.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 15 July 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.101.

Devièse, T., Ribechini, E., Castex, D., Stuart, B., Regert, M. & Colombini, M.P. 2017, 'A multi-analytical approach using FTIR, GC/MS and Py-GC/MS revealed early evidence of embalming practices in Roman catacombs', Microchemical Journal, vol. 133, pp. 49-59.
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Donahoe, S.L., Phalen, D.N., McAllan, B.M., O'Meally, D., McAllister, M.M., Ellis, J. & Šlapeta, J. 2017, 'Differential Gamma Interferon- and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Driven Cytokine Response Distinguishes Acute Infection of a Metatherian Host with Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.', Infect Immun, vol. 85, no. 6.
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Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum (both Apicomplexa) are closely related cyst-forming coccidian parasites that differ significantly in their host ranges and ability to cause disease. Unlike eutherian mammals, Australian marsupials (metatherian mammals) have long been thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis and neosporosis because of their historical isolation from the parasites. In this study, the carnivorous fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) was used as a disease model to investigate the immune response and susceptibility to infection of an Australian marsupial to T. gondii and N. caninum The disease outcome was more severe in N. caninum-infected dunnarts than in T. gondii-infected dunnarts, as shown by the severity of clinical and histopathological features of disease and higher tissue parasite burdens in the tissues evaluated. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of spleens from infected dunnarts and mitogen-stimulated dunnart splenocytes was used to define the cytokine repertoires. Changes in mRNA expression during the time course of infection were measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) for key Th1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]), Th2 (interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-6), and Th17 (IL-17A) cytokines. The results show qualitative differences in cytokine responses by the fat-tailed dunnart to infection with N. caninum and T. gondii Dunnarts infected with T. gondii were capable of mounting a more effective Th1 immune response than those infected with N. caninum, indicating the role of the immune response in the outcome scenarios of parasite infection in this marsupial mammal.

Dorantes-Aranda, J.J., Campbell, K., Bradbury, A., Elliott, C.T., Harwood, D.T., Murray, S.A., Ugalde, S.C., Wilson, K., Burgoyne, M. & Hallegraeff, G.M. 2017, 'Comparative performance of four immunological test kits for the detection of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Tasmanian shellfish.', Toxicon, vol. 125, pp. 110-119.
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Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Group 1) seriously impacted the Tasmanian shellfish industry during 2012 and 2015, necessitating product recalls and intensive paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) product testing. The performance of four commercial PST test kits, Abraxis™, Europroxima™, Scotia™ and Neogen™, was compared with the official AOAC LC-FLD method for contaminated mussels and oysters. Abraxis and Europroxima kits underestimated PST in 35-100% of samples when using standard protocols but quantification improved when concentrated extracts were further diluted (underestimation ≤18%). The Scotia kit (cut off 0.2-0.7 mg STX-diHCl eq/kg) delivered 0% false negatives, but 27% false positives. Neogen produced 5% false negatives and 13% false positives when the cut off was altered to 0.5-0.6 mg STX-diHCl eq/kg, the introduction of a conversion step eliminated false negatives. Based on their sensitivity, ease of use and performance, the Neogen kit proved the most suitable kit for use with Tasmanian mussels and oysters. Once formally validated for regulatory purposes, the Neogen kit could provide shellfish growers with a rapid tool for harvesting decisions at the farm gate. Effective rapid screening preventing compliant samples undergoing testing using the more expensive and time consuming LC-FLD method will result in significant savings in analytical costs.

Dossou, K.B. 2017, 'Large field enhancement obtained by combining Fabry-Perot resonance and Rayleigh anomaly in photonic crystal slabs', Journal of Optics (United Kingdom), vol. 19, no. 4.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. By applying the properties of Fabry-Perot resonance and Rayleigh anomaly, we have shown that a photonic crystal slab can scatter the light from an incident plane wave into a diffracted light with a very large reflection or transmission coefficient. The enhanced field is either a propagating diffracted wave (with a grazing angle of diffraction) or a weakly evanescent diffracted wave, so it can be particularly useful for applications requiring an enhanced propagating field (or an enhanced field with a low attenuation). An efficient effective medium technique is developed for the design of the resonant photonic crystal slabs. Numerical simulations have shown that photonic crystal slabs with low index contrast, such as the ones found in the cell wall of diatoms, can enhance the intensity of the incident light by four orders of magnitude.

Dowse, R., Palmer, C.G., Hills, K., Torpy, F. & Kefford, B.J. 2017, 'The mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus Harker defies common osmoregulatory assumptions.', R Soc Open Sci, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 160520.
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Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l(-1) added synthetic marine salt (SMS), respectively. They were strong osmoregulators. At aquarium water osmolality of 256 ± 3.12 mmol kg(-1) (±s.e.; equivalent to 10 g l(-1) added SMS), the haemolymph osmolality of A. pusillus was a much higher 401 ± 4.18 mmol kg(-1) (±s.e.). The osmoregulatory capacity of A. pusillus did not break down, even at the salinity corresponding to their LC99, thus their mortality at this concentration is due to factors other than increased internal osmotic pressure. No freshwater invertebrate has been previously reported as suffering mortality from rises in salinity that are well below the iso-osmotic point. Recently, studies have reported reduced abundance/richness of Ephemeroptera with slightly elevated salinity. Given that salinization is an increasing global threat to freshwaters, there is an urgent need for studies into the osmophysiology of the Ephemeroptera to determine if their loss at locations with slightly elevated salinity is a direct result of external salinity or other, possibly physiological, causes.

Dubios, S., Fenwick, N., Ryan, E.A., Baker, L., Baker, S.E., Beausoleil, N.J., Carter, S., Cartwright, B., Costa, F., Draper, C., Griffin, J., Grogan, A., Howald, G., Jones, B., Littin, K.E., Lombard, A.T., Mellor, D.J., Ramp, D., Schuppli, C.A. & Fraser, D. 2017, 'International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control', Conservation Biology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 753-760.
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Human–wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human–wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human–wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation.

Ebenezer, J.A., Christensen, J.M., Oliver, B.G., Oliver, R.A., Tjin, G., Ho, J., Habib, A.R., Rimmer, J., Sacks, R. & Harvey, R.J. 2017, 'Periostin as a marker of mucosal remodelling in chronic rhinosinusitis.', Rhinology.
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BACKGROUND: Although extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are associated with irreversible lower airway changes, the relationship with upper airway remodelling which occurs during chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is poorly understood. This study assessed the expression of ECM proteins periostin, fibulin-1, fibronectin and collagenIV in nasal mucosa of patients with and without histologic features of remodelling. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of sinonasal mucosal biopsies taken from patients, undergoing surgery for CRS was performed, where patients were grouped according to remodelling, defined by basement membrane thickening (BMT over 7.5 micrometer) and subepithelial fibrosis. An overall view and three random fields of immunostained tissue sections that included epithelium, basement membrane and submucosa, were imaged using Zeiss Zen software. The area and intensity of positive staining were scored by two blinded observers, using a 12-point ordinal scale of weak to strong. RESULTS: 65 patients (47.6 +/- 13.4years, 44.6% female) were assessed. Patients were grouped as controls 26.2%, BMT/no fibrosis 38.5% or BMT and fibrosis 33.8%. Stronger grade of periostin expression was associated with remodelling changes and tissue eosinophilia over 10/HPF. Fibulin-1, fibronectin and collagenIV did not differ. CONCLUSION: Periostin expression was associated with the presence of BMT, fibrosis and tissue eosinophilia and may identify patients undergoing remodelling changes.

Elder, M.J. & Rogers, C.M. 2017, 'Sub-dominant cogrowth behaviour and the viability of deciding amenability numerically', Experimental Mathematics.
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We critically analyse a recent numerical method due to the first author, Rechnitzer and van Rensburg, which attempts to detect amenability in a finitely generated group by numerically estimating its asymptotic cogrowth rate. We identify two potential sources of error. We then propose a modification of the method that enables it to easily compute surprisingly accurate estimates for initial terms of the cogrowth sequence.

Elsdon, D.S., Spanswick, S., Zaslawski, C. & Meier, P.C. 2017, 'Protocol: Testing the Relevance of Acupuncture Theory in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain in the Upper Trapezius Muscle.', J Acupunct Meridian Stud, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 67-74.
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A protocol for a prospective single-blind parallel four-arm randomized placebo-controlled trial with repeated measures was designed to test the effects of various acupuncture methods compared with sham. Eighty self-selected participants with myofascial pain in the upper trapezius muscle were randomized into four groups. Group 1 received acupuncture to a myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in the upper trapezius. Group 2 received acupuncture to the MTrP in addition to relevant distal points. Group 3 received acupuncture to the relevant distal points only. Group 4 received a sham treatment to both the MTrP and distal points using a deactivated acupuncture laser device. Treatment was applied four times within 2 weeks with outcomes measured throughout the trial and at 2 weeks and 4 weeks posttreatment. Outcome measurements were a 100-mm visual analog pain scale, SF-36, pressure pain threshold, Neck Disability Index, the Upper Extremity Functional Index, lateral flexion in the neck, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale, Working Alliance Inventory (short form), and the Credibility Expectance Questionnaire. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to assess the differences between groups.

Ferrage, L., Bertrand, G., Lenormand, P., Grossin, D. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2017, 'A review of the additive manufacturing (3DP) of bioceramics: Alumina, zirconia (PSZ) and hydroxyapatite', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 11-20.
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The additive manufacturing of bioceramic parts has been investigated since the 1980s. This paper offers an overview of the present achievements in the production of alumina, zirconia and hydroxyapatite parts by means of selective laser sintering/melting of a powder bed or stereolithography. A focus is placed on these specific materials because of their widespread use in the biomedical field. It demonstrates that even though the manufacturing of parts with these processes is possible from pure bioceramics, the use of a binder (or another chemical adjuvant) is required in order to achieve good mechanical properties. Still, improvements in the raw material preparation and in the comprehension of the physical phenomena occurring during the processing remain necessary to be able to prevent the formation of cracks or to be able to control the porosity of the parts.

Finkelstein, D.I., Billings, J.L., Adlard, P.A., Ayton, S., Sedjahtera, A., Masters, C.L., Wilkins, S., Shackleford, D.M., Charman, S.A., Bal, W., Zawisza, I.A., Kurowska, E., Gundlach, A.L., Ma, S., Bush, A.I., Hare, D.J., Doble, P.A., Crawford, S., Gautier, E.C., Parsons, J., Huggins, P., Barnham, K.J. & Cherny, R.A. 2017, 'The novel compound PBT434 prevents iron mediated neurodegeneration and alpha-synuclein toxicity in multiple models of Parkinson's disease.', Acta Neuropathologica Communications, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 53-53.
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Elevated iron in the SNpc may play a key role in Parkinson's disease (PD) neurodegeneration since drug candidates with high iron affinity rescue PD animal models, and one candidate, deferirpone, has shown efficacy recently in a phase two clinical trial. However, strong iron chelators may perturb essential iron metabolism, and it is not yet known whether the damage associated with iron is mediated by a tightly bound (eg ferritin) or lower-affinity, labile, iron pool. Here we report the preclinical characterization of PBT434, a novel quinazolinone compound bearing a moderate affinity metal-binding motif, which is in development for Parkinsonian conditions. In vitro, PBT434 was far less potent than deferiprone or deferoxamine at lowering cellular iron levels, yet was found to inhibit iron-mediated redox activity and iron-mediated aggregation of α-synuclein, a protein that aggregates in the neuropathology. In vivo, PBT434 did not deplete tissue iron stores in normal rodents, yet prevented loss of substantia nigra pars compacta neurons (SNpc), lowered nigral α-synuclein accumulation, and rescued motor performance in mice exposed to the Parkinsonian toxins 6-OHDA and MPTP, and in a transgenic animal model (hA53T α-synuclein) of PD. These improvements were associated with reduced markers of oxidative damage, and increased levels of ferroportin (an iron exporter) and DJ-1. We conclude that compounds designed to target a pool of pathological iron that is not held in high-affinity complexes in the tissue can maintain the survival of SNpc neurons and could be disease-modifying in PD.

Flynn, K.J. & Raven, J.A. 2017, 'What is the limit for photoautotrophic plankton growth rates?', Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 13-22.
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© 2016 The Author. Knowing the potential maximum photoautotrophic growth rate for planktonic primary producers is fundamental to our understanding of trophic and biogeochemical processes, and of importance in applied phycology. When dayintegrated C-specific growth is considered over natural light:dark cycles, plausible RuBisCO activity (K cat coupled with cellular RuBisCO content) caps growth to less than a few doubling per day. Prolonged periods of C-specific growth rates above ca. 1.3 d thus appear increasingly implausible. Discrepancies between RuBisCO-capped rates and reported microalgal-specific growth rates, including temperature-growth rate relationships, may be explained by transformational errors in growth rate determinations made by reference to cell counts or most often chlorophyll, or by extrapolations from short-Term measurements. Coupled studies of enzyme activity and day-on-day C-specific growth rates are required to provide definitive evidence of high growth rates. It seems likely, however, that selective pressure to evolve a RuBisCO with a high K cat (with a likely concomitant increase in K m for CO 2 ) would be low, as other factors such as light limitation (developing during biomass growth due to self-shading), nutrient limitations, CO 2 depletion and pH elevation, would all rapidly depress realized specific growth rates.

Fourment, Darling, A.E. & Holmes, E.C. 2017, 'The Impact of Migratory Flyways on the Spread of Avian Influenza Virus in North America', BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 17, no. 1.
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Wild birds are the major reservoir hosts for influenza A viruses (AIVs) and have been implicated in the emergence of pandemic events in livestock and human populations. Understanding how AIVs spread within and across continents is therefore critical to the development of successful strategies to manage and reduce the impact of influenza outbreaks. In North America many bird species undergo seasonal migratory movements along a North-South axis, thereby fostering opportunities for viruses to spread over long distances. However, the role played by such avian flyways in shaping the genetic structure of AIV populations has proven controversial. To assess the relative contribution of bird migration along flyways to the genetic structure of AIV we performed a large-scale phylogeographic study of viruses sampled in the USA and Canada, involving the analysis of 3805 to 4505 sequences from 36 to 38 geographic localities depending on the gene data set. To assist this we developed a maximum likelihood-based genetic algorithm to explore a wide range of complex spatial models, thereby depicting a more complete picture of the migration network than previous studies. Based on phylogenies estimated from nucleotide data sets, our results show that AIV migration rates within flyways are significantly higher than those between flyways, indicating that the migratory patterns of birds play a key role in pathogen dispersal. These findings provide valuable insights into the evolution, maintenance and transmission of AIVs, in turn allowing the development of improved programs for surveillance and risk assessment.

Fransen, J., Bush, S., Woodcock, S., Novak, A., Deprez, D., Baxter-Jones, A.D.G., Vaeyens, R. & Lenoir, M. 2017, 'Improving the Prediction of Maturity From Anthropometric Variables Using a Maturity Ratio', Pediatric Exercise Science, pp. 1-28.
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Gao, J., Djaidi, D., Marjo, C.E., Bhadbhade, M.M., Ung, A.T. & Bishop, R. 2017, 'Weak Intermolecular Forces, but High Melting Points*', Australian Journal of Chemistry.
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Gardiner, M., Vicaretti, M., Sparks, J., Bansal, S., Bush, S., Liu, M., Darling, A., Harry, E. & Burke, C.M. 2017, 'A longitudinal study of the diabetic skin and wound microbiome.', PeerJ, vol. 5, pp. e3543-e3543.
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BACKGROUND: Type II diabetes is a chronic health condition which is associated with skin conditions including chronic foot ulcers and an increased incidence of skin infections. The skin microbiome is thought to play important roles in skin defence and immune functioning. Diabetes affects the skin environment, and this may perturb skin microbiome with possible implications for skin infections and wound healing. This study examines the skin and wound microbiome in type II diabetes. METHODS: Eight type II diabetic subjects with chronic foot ulcers were followed over a time course of 10 weeks, sampling from both foot skin (swabs) and wounds (swabs and debrided tissue) every two weeks. A control group of eight control subjects was also followed over 10 weeks, and skin swabs collected from the foot skin every two weeks. Samples were processed for DNA and subject to 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing of the V4 region. RESULTS: The diabetic skin microbiome was significantly less diverse than control skin. Community composition was also significantly different between diabetic and control skin, however the most abundant taxa were similar between groups, with differences driven by very low abundant members of the skin communities. Chronic wounds tended to be dominated by the most abundant skin Staphylococcus, while other abundant wound taxa differed by patient. No significant correlations were found between wound duration or healing status and the abundance of any particular taxa. DISCUSSION: The major difference observed in this study of the skin microbiome associated with diabetes was a significant reduction in diversity. The long-term effects of reduced diversity are not yet well understood, but are often associated with disease conditions.

Gardner, S.G., Raina, J.-.B., Ralph, P.J. & Petrou, K. 2017, 'Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dimethylated sulphur compounds in coral explants under acute thermal stress.', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 220, no. Pt 10, pp. 1787-1791.
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Coral bleaching is intensifying with global climate change. Although the causes for these catastrophic events are well understood, the cellular mechanism that triggers bleaching is not well established. Our understanding of coral bleaching processes is hindered by the lack of robust methods for studying interactions between host and symbiont at the single-cell level. Here, we exposed coral explants to acute thermal stress and measured oxidative stress, more specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), in individual symbiont cells. Furthermore, we measured concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to elucidate the role of these compounds in coral antioxidant function. This work demonstrates the application of coral explants for investigating coral physiology and biochemistry under thermal stress and delivers a new approach to study host-symbiont interactions at the microscale, allowing us to directly link intracellular ROS with DMSP and DMSO dynamics.

Gates, A.R., Benfield, M.C., Booth, D.J., Fowler, A.M., Skropeta, D. & Jones, D.O.B. 2017, 'Deep-sea observations at hydrocarbon drilling locations: Contributions from the SERPENT Project after 120 field visits', Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol. 137, pp. 463-479.
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© 2016 The SERPENT Project has been running for over ten years. In this time scientists from universities and research institutions have made more than 120 visits to oil rigs, drill ships and survey vessels operated by 16 oil companies, in order to work with the industry's Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV). Visits have taken place in Europe, North and South America, Africa and Australasia at water depths from 100 m to nearly 3000 m. The project has directly produced > 40 peer reviewed publications and data from the project's > 2600 entry online image and video archive have been used in many others. The aim of this paper is to highlight examples of how valuable data can be obtained through collaboration with hydrocarbon exploration and production companies to use existing industry infrastructure to increase scientific discovery in unexplored areas and augment environmental monitoring of industrial activity. The large number of industry ROVs operating globally increases chance encounters with large, enigmatic marine organisms. SERPENT video observations include the deepest known records of species previously considered epipelagic such as scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) and southern sunfish (Mola ramsayi) and the first in situ observations of pelagic species such as oarfish (Regalecus glesne). Such observations enable improvements to distribution records and description of behaviour of poorly understood species. Specimen collection has been used for taxonomic descriptions, functional studies and natural products chemistry research. Anthropogenic effects been assessed at the local scale using in situ observations and sample collection at the time of drilling operations and subsequent visits have enabled study of recovery from drilling. Future challenges to be addressed using the SERPENT approach include ensuring unique faunal observations by industry ROV operators are reported, further study of recovery from deep-water drilling activity and to carry out in sit...

Gazzola, M., Lortie, K., Henry, C., Mailhot-Larouche, S., Chapman, D.G., Couture, C., Seow, C.Y., Paré, P.D., King, G.G., Boulet, L.-.P. & Bossé, Y. 2017, 'Airway smooth muscle tone increases airway responsiveness in healthy young adults.', American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 312, no. 3, pp. L348-L357.
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Force adaptation, a process whereby sustained spasmogenic activation (viz., tone) of airway smooth muscle (ASM) increases its contractile capacity, has been reported in isolated ASM tissues in vitro, as well as in mice in vivo. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of tone on airway responsiveness in humans. Ten healthy volunteers underwent methacholine challenge on two occasions. One challenge consisted of six serial doses of saline followed by a single high dose of methacholine. The other consisted of six low doses of methacholine 5 min apart followed by a higher dose. The cumulative dose was identical for both challenges. After both methacholine challenges, subjects took a deep inspiration (DI) to total lung capacity as another way to probe ASM mechanics. Responses to methacholine and the DI were measured using a multifrequency forced oscillation technique. Compared with a single high dose, the challenge preceded by tone led to an elevated response measured by respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance at 5 Hz. However, there was no difference in the increase in Rrs at 19 Hz, suggesting a predominant effect on smaller airways. Increased tone also reduced the efficacy of DI, measured by an attenuated maximal dilation during the DI and an increased renarrowing post-DI. We conclude that ASM tone increases small airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine and reduces the effectiveness of DI in healthy humans. This suggests that force adaptation may contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and the reduced bronchodilatory effect of DI in asthma.

Gerace, D., Martiniello-Wilks, R., Nassif, N.T., Lal, S., Steptoe, R. & Simpson, A.M. 2017, 'CRISPR-targeted genome editing of mesenchymal stem cell-derived therapies for type 1 diabetes: a path to clinical success?', Stem Cell Res Ther, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 62.
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Due to their ease of isolation, differentiation capabilities, and immunomodulatory properties, the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been assessed in numerous pre-clinical and clinical settings. Currently, whole pancreas or islet transplantation is the only cure for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and, due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, MSCs have been utilised either natively or transdifferentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) as an alternative treatment. However, the initial success in pre-clinical animal models has not translated into successful clinical outcomes. Thus, this review will summarise the current state of MSC-derived therapies for the treatment of T1D in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, in particular their use as an immunomodulatory therapy and targets for the generation of IPCs via gene modification. In this review, we highlight the limitations of current clinical trials of MSCs for the treatment of T1D, and suggest the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene-editing technology and improved clinical trial design as strategies to translate pre-clinical success to the clinical setting.

Ghadiri, M., Young, P.M., Jarolimek, W., Grau, G.E.R., Oliver, B.G.G. & Traini, D. 2017, 'The effect of non-specific tight junction modulators on the transepithelial transport of poorly permeable drugs across airway epithelial cells.', Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 342-349.
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The epithelial barrier in the respiratory system is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the systemic circulation in the lung. Epithelial barrier hinders the transport of large macromolecules or polar drugs. Essential components of this epithelial fence are physical intercellular structures termed tight junctions. Therefore, modulating tight junctions can enhance paracellular transport across epithelial barrier. In this study, the effect of some of non-specific tight junction modulators (TJMs); (Sodium (Na) decanoate, oleic acid and ethyleneglycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N, N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)) with established effect on intestinal tight junctions was evaluated for its effects on bronchial epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells). It was demonstrated that the effect of TJMs especially Na decanoate resulted in a reversible opening of tight junctions evidenced by the decrease in the transepithelial resistance. It was also demonstrated that this reduction of TEER upon exposing the epithelial cells to the TJMs resulted in a significant increase in Flu-Na (paracellular marker) and PXS25 (anti-fibrotic compound) transepithelial transport through this barrier. In conclusion, among the investigated non-specific TJMs, Na decanoate fulfilled the requirements of an effective, non-toxic and reversible tight junction modulator for Calu-3 lung epithelial cells.

Glastras, S.J., Chen, H., Tsang, M., Teh, R., McGrath, R.T., Zaky, A., Chen, J., Wong, M.G., Pollock, C.A. & Saad, S. 2017, 'The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet.', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1-17.
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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32. RESULTS: HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity.

Gloag, E.S., Elbadawi, C., Zachreson, C.J., Aharonovich, I., Toth, M., Charles, I.G., Turnbull, L. & Whitchurch, C.B. 2017, 'Micro-Patterned Surfaces That Exploit Stigmergy to Inhibit Biofilm Expansion.', Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 1-10.
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Twitching motility is a mode of surface translocation that is mediated by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and which, depending on the conditions, enables migration of individual cells or can manifest as a complex multicellular collective behavior that leads to biofilm expansion. When twitching motility occurs at the interface of an abiotic surface and solidified nutrient media, it can lead to the emergence of extensive self-organized patterns of interconnected trails that form as a consequence of the actively migrating bacteria forging a furrow network in the substratum beneath the expanding biofilm. These furrows appear to direct bacterial movements much in the same way that roads and footpaths coordinate motor vehicle and human pedestrian traffic. Self-organizing systems such as these can be accounted for by the concept of stigmergy which describes self-organization that emerges through indirect communication via persistent signals within the environment. Many bacterial communities are able to actively migrate across solid and semi-solid surfaces through complex multicellular collective behaviors such as twitching motility and flagella-mediated swarming motility. Here, we have examined the potential of exploiting the stigmergic behavior of furrow-mediated trail following as a means of controlling bacterial biofilm expansion along abiotic surfaces. We found that incorporation of a series of parallel micro-fabricated furrows significantly impeded active biofilm expansion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. We observed that in both cases bacterial movements tended to be directed along the furrows. We also observed that narrow furrows were most effective at disrupting biofilm expansion as they impeded the ability of cells to self-organize into multicellular assemblies required for escape from the furrows and migration into new territory. Our results suggest that the implementation of micro-fabricated furrows that exploit stigmergy may be a ...

Goodwin, K.D., Thompson, L.R., Duarte, B., Kahlke, T., Thompson, A.R., Marques, J.C. & Caçador, I. 2017, 'DNA sequencing as a tool to monitor marine ecological status', Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 4, no. MAY.
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© 2017 Goodwin, Thompson, Duarte, Kahlke, Thompson, Marques and Caçador. Many ocean policies mandate integrated, ecosystem-based approaches to marine monitoring, driving a global need for efficient, low-cost bioindicators of marine ecological quality. Most traditional methods to assess biological quality rely on specialized expertise to provide visual identification of a limited set of specific taxonomic groups, a time-consuming process that can provide a narrow view of ecological status. In addition, microbial assemblages drive food webs but are not amenable to visual inspection and thus are largely excluded from detailed inventory. Molecular-based assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem function offer advantages over traditional methods and are increasingly being generated for a suite of taxa using a "microbes to mammals" or "barcodes to biomes" approach. Progress in these efforts coupled with continued improvements in high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics pave the way for sequence data to be employed in formal integrated ecosystem evaluation, including food web assessments, as called for in the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. DNA sequencing of bioindicators, both traditional (e.g., benthic macroinvertebrates, ichthyoplankton) and emerging (e.g., microbial assemblages, fish via eDNA), promises to improve assessment of marine biological quality by increasing the breadth, depth, and throughput of information and by reducing costs and reliance on specialized taxonomic expertise.

Gorle, A.K., Bottomley, A.L., Harry, E.J., Collins, J.G., Keene, F.R. & Woodward, C.E. 2017, 'DNA condensation in live E. coli provides evidence for transertion.', Molecular BioSystems, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 677-680.
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Condensation studies of chromosomal DNA in E. coli with a tetranuclear ruthenium complex are carried out and images obtained with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Remarkably different condensate morphologies resulted, depending upon the treatment protocol. The occurrence of condensed nucleoid spirals in live bacteria provides evidence for the transertion hypothesis.

Goyen, S., Pernice, M., Szabó, M., Warner, M.E., Ralph, P.J. & Suggett, D.J. 2017, 'A molecular physiology basis for functional diversity of hydrogen peroxide production amongst Symbiodinium spp. (Dinophyceae)', Marine Biology: international journal on life in oceans and coastal waters, vol. 164, no. 3.
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Gramaglia, I., Velez, J., Combes, V., Grau, G.E.R., Wree, M. & van der Heyde, H.C. 2017, 'Platelets activate a pathogenic response to blood-stage Plasmodium infection but not a protective immune response.', Blood, vol. 129, no. 12, pp. 1669-1679.
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Clinical studies indicate that thrombocytopenia correlates with the development of severe falciparum malaria, suggesting that platelets either contribute to control of parasite replication, possibly as innate parasite killer cells or function in eliciting pathogenesis. Removal of platelets by anti-CD41 mAb treatment, platelet inhibition by aspirin, and adoptive transfer of wild-type (WT) platelets to CD40-KO mice, which do not control parasite replication, resulted in similar parasitemia compared with control mice. Human platelets at a physiologic ratio of 1 platelet to 9 red blood cells (RBCs) did not inhibit the in vitro development or replication of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum The percentage of Plasmodium-infected (iRBCs) with bound platelets during the ascending parasitemia in Plasmodium chabaudi- and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and the 48-hour in vitro cycle of P falciparum was <10%. P chabaudi and P berghei iRBCs with apoptotic parasites (TdT(+)) exhibited minimal platelet binding (<5%), which was similar to nonapoptotic iRBCs. These findings collectively indicate platelets do not kill bloodstage Plasmodium at physiologically relevant effector-to-target ratios. P chabaudi primary and secondary parasitemia was similar in mice depleted of platelets by mAb-injection just before infection, indicating that activation of the protective immune response does not require platelets. In contrast to the lack of an effect on parasite replication, adoptive transfer of WT platelets to CD40-KO mice, which are resistant to experimental cerebral malaria, partially restored experimental cerebral malaria mortality and symptoms in CD40-KO recipients, indicating platelets elicit pathogenesis and platelet CD40 is a key molecule.

Green, D.W., Ben-Nissan, B., Yoon, K.S., Milthorpe, B. & Jung, H.-.S. 2017, 'Natural and Synthetic Coral Biomineralization for Human Bone Revitalization.', Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 43-54.
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Coral skeletons can regenerate replacement human bone in nonload-bearing excavated skeletal locations. A combination of multiscale, interconnected pores and channels and highly bioactive surface chemistry has established corals as an important alternative to using healthy host bone replacements. Here, we highlight how coral skeletal systems are being remolded into new calcified structures or synthetic corals by biomimetic processes, as places for the organized permeation of bone tissue cells and blood vessels. Progressive technologies in coral aquaculture and self-organization inorganic chemistry are helping to modify natural corals and create synthetic coral architectures able to accelerate bone regeneration with proper host integration at more skeletal locations, adapted to recent surgical techniques and used to treat intrinsic skeletal deformities and metabolic conditions.

Green, P.J. & Mortera, J. 2017, 'Paternity testing and other inference about relationships from DNA mixtures', Forensic Science International: Genetics.
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Gunawan, C., Marquis, C.P., Amal, R., Sotiriou, G.A., Rice, S.A. & Harry, E.J. 2017, 'Widespread and Indiscriminate Nanosilver Use: Genuine Potential for Microbial Resistance.', ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 3438-3445.
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In this era of increasing antibiotic resistance, the use of alternative antimicrobials such as silver has become more widespread. Superior antimicrobial activity has been provided through fabrication of silver nanoparticles or nanosilver (NAg), which imparts cytotoxic actions distinct from those of bulk silver. In the wake of the recent discoveries of bacterial resistance to NAg and its rising incorporation in medical and consumer goods such as wound dressings and dietary supplements, we argue that there is an urgent need to monitor the prevalence and spread of NAg microbial resistance. In this Perspective, we describe how the use of NAg in commercially available products facilitates prolonged microorganism exposure to bioavailable silver, which underpins the development of resistance. Furthermore, we advocate for a judicial approach toward NAg use in order to preserve its efficacy and to avoid environmental disruption.

Guo, X., Sun, B., Su, D., Liu, X., Liu, H., Wang, Y. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Recent developments of aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries: functional materials determine the electrochemical performance', Science Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 442-452.
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© 2017 Lithium oxygen battery has the highest theoretical capacity among the rechargeable batteries and it can reform energy storage technology if it comes to commercialization. However, many critical challenges, mainly embody as low charge/discharge round-trip efficiency and poor cycling stability, impede the development of Li-O 2 batteries. The electrolyte decomposition, lithium metal anode corrosion and sluggish oxygen reaction kinetics at cathode are all responsible for poor electrochemical performances. Particularly, the catalytic cathode of Li-O 2 batteries, playing a crucial role to reduce the oxygen during discharging and to decompose discharge products during charging, is regarded as a breakthrough point that has been comprehensive investigated. In this review, the progress and issues of electrolyte, anode and cathode, especially the catalysts used at cathode, are systematically summarized and discussed. Then the perspectives toward the developments of a long life Li-O 2 battery are also presented at last.

Guo, X., Xie, X., Choi, S., Zhao, Y., Liu, H., Wang, C., Chang, S. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Sb2O3/MXene(Ti3C2Tx) hybrid anode materials with enhanced performance for sodium-ion batteries', Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 5, no. 24, pp. 12445-12452.
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Hageer, Y., Esperon-Rodriguez, M., Baumgartner, J.B. & Beaumont, L.J. 2017, 'Climate, soil or both? Which variables are better predictors of the distributions of Australian shrub species?', PEERJ, vol. 5.
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Hare, D.J. 2017, 'Commentary: Comments regarding Becker et al. (Analytica Chimica Acta, 835, 2014, 1-18).', Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 972, pp. 12-15.
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Hare, D.J. 2017, 'Hepcidin: a real-time biomarker of iron need.', Metallomics, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 606-618.
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There are numerous blood-based biomarkers for assessing iron stores, but all come with certain limitations. Hepcidin is a hormone primarily produced in the liver that has been proposed as the 'master regulator' of dietary uptake and iron metabolism, and has enormous potential to provide a 'real time' indicator of body iron levels. In this Minireview, the biochemical function of hepcidin in regulating iron levels will be discussed, with a specific focus on how hepcidin can aid in the assessment of iron stores and clinical diagnosis of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia and other iron-related disorders. The role hepcidin itself plays in diseases of iron metabolism will be examined, and current efforts to translate hepcidin assays into the clinic will be critically appraised. Potential limitations of hepcidin as a marker of iron need will also be addressed, as well as the development of new therapies that directly target the hormone that sits atop the hierarchy of systemic iron metabolism.

Hare, D.J., Kysenius, K., Paul, B., Knauer, B., Hutchinson, R.W., O'Connor, C., Fryer, F., Hennessey, T.P., Bush, A.I., Crouch, P.J. & Doble, P.A. 2017, 'Imaging Metals in Brain Tissue by Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).', Journal of Visualized Experiments, no. 119, pp. 1-8.
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Metals are found ubiquitously throughout an organism, with their biological role dictated by both their chemical reactivity and abundance within a specific anatomical region. Within the brain, metals have a highly compartmentalized distribution, depending on the primary function they play within the central nervous system. Imaging the spatial distribution of metals has provided unique insight into the biochemical architecture of the brain, allowing direct correlation between neuroanatomical regions and their known function with regard to metal-dependent processes. In addition, several age-related neurological disorders feature disrupted metal homeostasis, which is often confined to small regions of the brain that are otherwise difficult to analyze. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for quantitatively imaging metals in the mouse brain, using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and specially designed image processing software. Focusing on iron, copper and zinc, which are three of the most abundant and disease-relevant metals within the brain, we describe the essential steps in sample preparation, analysis, quantitative measurements and image processing to produce maps of metal distribution within the low micrometer resolution range. This technique, applicable to any cut tissue section, is capable of demonstrating the highly variable distribution of metals within an organ or system, and can be used to identify changes in metal homeostasis and absolute levels within fine anatomical structures.

Hare, D.J., New, E.J. & McColl, G. 2017, 'Imaging metals in biology: pictures of metals in health and disease.', Metallomics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 343-345.
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Hare, N.J., Lee, L.Y., Loke, I., Britton, W.J., Saunders, B.M. & Thaysen-Andersen, M. 2017, 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Manipulates the Glycosylation Machinery and the N-Glycoproteome of Human Macrophages and Their Microparticles.', J Proteome Res, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 247-263.
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and lethal infectious disease. The glycobiology associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of frontline alveolar macrophages is still unresolved. Herein, we investigated the regulation of protein N-glycosylation in human macrophages and their secreted microparticles (MPs) used for intercellular communication upon M. tb infection. LC-MS/MS-based proteomics and glycomics were performed to monitor the regulation of glycosylation enzymes and receptors and the N-glycome in in vitro-differentiated macrophages and in isolated MPs upon M. tb infection. Infection promoted a dramatic regulation of the macrophage proteome. Most notably, significant infection-dependent down-regulation (4-26 fold) of 11 lysosomal exoglycosidases, e.g., β-galactosidase, β-hexosaminidases and α-/β-mannosidases, was observed. Relative weak infection-driven transcriptional regulation of these exoglycosidases and a stronger augmentation of the extracellular hexosaminidase activity demonstrated that the lysosome-centric changes may originate predominantly from infection-induced secretion of the lysosomal content. The macrophages showed heterogeneous N-glycan profiles and displayed significant up-regulation of complex-type glycosylation and concomitant down-regulation of paucimannosylation upon infection. Complementary intact N-glycopeptide analysis supported a subcellular-specific manipulation of the glycosylation machinery and altered glycosylation patterns of lysosomal N-glycoproteins within infected macrophages. Interestingly, the corresponding macrophage-derived MPs displayed unique N-glycome and proteome signatures supporting a preferential packaging from plasma membranes. The MPs were devoid of infection-dependent N-glycosylation signatures, but interestingly displayed increased levels of the glyco-initiating oligosaccharyltransferase complex and associated α-glucosidases that correlated with increased formation, N-glycan precursor levels and N-...

Harris, C.J., Manea, A., Moles, A.T., Murray, B.R. & Leishman, M.R. 2017, 'Differences in life-cycle stage components between native and introduced ranges of five woody Fabaceae species', Austral Ecology, vol. 402, pp. 404-413.
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© 2016 Ecological Society of Australia.Understanding differences in the components of life-cycle stages of species between their native and introduced ranges can provide insights into the process of species transitioning from introduction to naturalization and invasion. We examined reproductive variables of the germination (seed predation, seed viability, time to germination), seed output (crown projection, seed production, seed weight) and dispersal (seed weight, dispersal investment) stages of five woody Fabaceae species, comparing native and introduced ranges. We predicted that each species would differ in reproductive variables of at least one life-cycle stage between their native and introduced ranges, thus allowing us to determine the life-cycle stage most associated with invasion success in the introduced range. Acacia melanoxylon and Paraserianthes lophantha had reduced seed predation in their introduced ranges while P. lophantha also had higher seed viability indicating that the germination life-cycle stage is most strongly associated with their invasion success in the introduced range. Only Acacia longifolia varied between ranges for the seed output stage due to larger plant size, greater seed production and smaller seed size in its introduced range. Similar to A. longifolia, Acacia cyclops had smaller seed size in its introduced range but did not have any other variable differences between ranges suggesting that the dispersal stage is best associated with its invasion success in the introduced range. Surprisingly, Acacia saligna was the only species without a clear life-cycle stage difference between ranges despite it being one of the more invasive acacia species in Australia. Although we found clear differences in reproductive variables associated with life-cycle stages between native and introduced ranges of these five species, these differences were largely species-specific. This suggests that a species invasion strategy into a novel environment is ...

Hatoum, D., Haddadi, N., Lin, Y., Nassif, N.T. & McGowan, E.M. 2017, 'Mammalian sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes and isoform expression: challenges for SphK as an oncotarget.', Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 22, pp. 36898-36929.
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The various sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes (isozymes) and isoforms, key players in normal cellular physiology, are strongly implicated in cancer and other diseases. Mutations in SphKs, that may justify abnormal physiological function, have not been recorded. Nonetheless, there is a large and growing body of evidence demonstrating the contribution of gain or loss of function and the imbalance in the SphK/S1P rheostat to a plethora of pathological conditions including cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. SphK is expressed as two isozymes SphK1 and SphK2, transcribed from genes located on different chromosomes and both isozymes catalyze the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Expression of each SphK isozyme produces alternately spliced isoforms. In recent years the importance of the contribution of SpK1 expression to treatment resistance in cancer has been highlighted and, additionally, differences in treatment outcome appear to also be dependent upon SphK isoform expression. This review focuses on an exciting emerging area of research involving SphKs functions, expression and subcellular localization, highlighting the complexity of targeting SphK in cancer and also comorbid diseases. This review also covers the SphK isoenzymes and isoforms from a historical perspective, from their first discovery in murine species and then in humans, their role(s) in normal cellular function and in disease processes, to advancement of SphK as an oncotarget.

Hatoum, D., Yagoub, D., Ahadi, A., Nassif, N.T. & McGowan, E.M. 2017, 'Annexin/S100A protein family regulation through p14ARF-p53 activation: A role in cell survival and predicting treatment outcomes in breast cancer', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 1.
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© 2017 Hatoum et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The annexin family and S100A associated proteins are important regulators of diverse calcium- dependent cellular processes including cell division, growth regulation and apoptosis. Dysfunction of individual annexin and S100A proteins is associated with cancer progression, metastasis and cancer drug resistance. This manuscript describes the novel finding of differential regulation of the annexin and S100A family of proteins by activation of p53 in breast cancer cells. Additionally, the observed differential regulation is found to be beneficial to the survival of breast cancer cells and to influence treatment efficacy. We have used unbiased, quantitative proteomics to determine the proteomic changes occurring post p14ARF-p53 activation in estrogen receptor (ER) breast cancer cells. In this report we identified differential regulation of the annexin/S100A family, through unique peptide recognition at the N-terminal regions, demonstrating p14ARF-p53 is a central orchestrator of the annexin/S100A family of calcium regulators in favor of pro-survival functions in the breast cancer cell. This regulation was found to be cell-type specific. Retrospective human breast cancer studies have demonstrated that tumors with functional wild type p53 (p53wt) respond poorly to some chemotherapy agents compared to tumors with a non-functional p53. Given that modulation of calcium signaling has been demonstrated to change sensitivity of chemotherapeutic agents to apoptotic signals, in principle, we explored the paradigm of how p53 modulation of calcium regulators in ER+ breast cancer patients impacts and influences therapeutic outcomes.

He, L., Cleverly, J., Wang, B., Jin, N., Mi, C., Liu, D.L. & Yu, Q. 2017, 'Multi-model ensemble projections of future extreme heat stress on rice across southern China', Theoretical and Applied Climatology.
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Heather, E., Bortz, A., Shimmon, R. & McDonagh, A.M. 2017, 'Organic impurity profiling of methylone and intermediate compounds synthesized from catechol.', Drug Test Anal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 436-445.
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This work examined the synthesis and organic impurity profile of methylone prepared from catechol. The primary aim of this work was to determine whether the synthetic pathway used to prepare 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone could be ascertained through analysis of the synthesized methylone. The secondary aim was the structural elucidation and origin determination of the organic impurities detected in methylone and the intermediate compounds. The organic impurities present in the reaction products were identified using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Six organic impurities were detected in 1,3-benzodioxole and identified as the 1,3-benzodioxole dimer, 1,3-benzodioxole trimer, [1,3] dioxolo[4,5-b]oxanthrene, 4,4'-, 4,5'-, and 5,5'-methylenebis-1,3-benzodioxole. Six organic impurities were detected in 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone and identified as (2-hydroxyphenyl) propanoate, [2-(chloromethoxy) phenyl] propanoate, (2-propanoyloxyphenyl)propanoate, 5-[1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)prop-1-enyl]-1,3-benzodioxole, (5E)- and (5Z)-7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-ethylidene-6-methyl-cyclopenta[f][1,3]benzodioxole). Exploratory synthetic experiments were also conducted to unambiguously identify the organic impurities detected in 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Two organic impurities were detected in 5-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone and identified as [2-(chloromethoxy)phenyl] propanoate and 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Five organic impurities were detected in methylone and identified as 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-methyl-propan-1-imine, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methylimino-propan-1-one, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N1,N2-dimethyl-propane-1,2-diimine and butylated hydroxytoluene. The origin of these organic impurities was also ascertained, providing valuable insight into the chemical profiles of methylone and the intermediate compounds. However, neither the catechol precursor nor the 1,3-benzodioxole intermediate could be identified based on the ...

Hernandez-Fernaud, J.R., Ruengeler, E., Casazza, A., Neilson, L.J., Pulleine, E., Santi, A., Ismail, S., Lilla, S., Dhayade, S., MacPherson, I.R., McNeish, I., Ennis, D., Ali, H., Kugeratski, F.G., Al Khamici, H., van den Biggelaar, M., van den Berghe, P.V.E., Cloix, C., McDonald, L., Millan, D., Hoyle, A., Kuchnio, A., Carmeliet, P., Valenzuela, S.M., Blyth, K., Yin, H., Mazzone, M., Norman, J.C. & Zanivan, S. 2017, 'Secreted CLIC3 drives cancer progression through its glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase activity.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14206.
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The secretome of cancer and stromal cells generates a microenvironment that contributes to tumour cell invasion and angiogenesis. Here we compare the secretome of human mammary normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We discover that the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3) is an abundant component of the CAF secretome. Secreted CLIC3 promotes invasive behaviour of endothelial cells to drive angiogenesis and increases invasiveness of cancer cells both in vivo and in 3D cell culture models, and this requires active transglutaminase-2 (TGM2). CLIC3 acts as a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that reduces TGM2 and regulates TGM2 binding to its cofactors. Finally, CLIC3 is also secreted by cancer cells, is abundant in the stromal and tumour compartments of aggressive ovarian cancers and its levels correlate with poor clinical outcome. This work reveals a previously undescribed invasive mechanism whereby the secretion of a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase drives angiogenesis and cancer progression by promoting TGM2-dependent invasion.

Hildebrand, M., Manandhar-Shrestha, K. & Abbriano, R. 2017, 'Effects of chrysolaminarin synthase knockdown in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: Implications of reduced carbohydrate storage relative to green algae', ALGAL RESEARCH-BIOMASS BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS, vol. 23, pp. 66-77.
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Hingee, M.C., Eamus, D., Krix, D.W., Zolfagher, S. & Murray, B.R. 2017, 'Patterns of plant species composition in mesic woodlands are related to a naturally occurring depth-to-groundwater gradient', Community Ecology, vol. 18, pp. 21-30.

Hinz, J. & Yee, J. 2017, '[title field missing]', International Journal of Control, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 569-581.
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© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. In industrial applications, optimal control problems frequently appear in the context of decision-making under incomplete information. In such framework, decisions must be adapted dynamically to account for possible regime changes of the underlying dynamics. Using stochastic filtering theory, Markovian evolution can be modelled in terms of latent variables, which naturally leads to high-dimensional state space, making practical solutions to these control problems notoriously challenging. In our approach, we utilise a specific structure of this problem class to present a solution in terms of simple, reliable, and fast algorithms. The algorithms presented in this paper have already been implemented in an R package.

Hofstetter, C., Maitre, M., Beavis, A., Roux, C.P., Weyermann, C. & Gassner, A.-.L. 2017, 'A study of transfer and prevalence of organic gunshot residues.', Forensic Science International, vol. 277, pp. 241-251.
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The main goal of the present study was to determine the amounts and distribution of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) on the shooter's upper body and clothing after discharging a pistol. A preliminary study was also performed to evaluate the prevalence of OGSR in the general population as well as in a police laboratory environment. In the transfer study, results indicated that OGSR are not only transferred to the hand of the shooter, but also to other parts of the upper body. Thus, wrists and forearms also represent interesting targets as they are washed less frequently than hands. Samples from the face and hair of the shooters resulted in no OGSR detection just after firing. It was also observed that the concentrations recovered from clothing are generally higher compared to the same skin area. Prevalence in both general (n=27) and police populations (n=25) was low. No OGSR was detected in the samples from the general population and only two samples from the police population were found positive.

Horgan, F.G. & Ferrater, J.B. 2017, 'Benefits and potential trade-offs associated with yeast-like symbionts during virulence adaptation in a phloem-feeding planthopper', Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 112-125.
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© 2017 The Netherlands Entomological Society Insect herbivores form symbioses with a diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. A role for endosymbionts during host feeding on nutrient-poor diets – including phloem – is now supported by a large body of evidence. Furthermore, symbiont-herbivore associations have been implicated in feeding preferences by host races (mainly aphids) on multiple plant species. However, the role of symbionts in mediating herbivore preferences between varieties of the same plant species has received little research attention despite the implications for virulence adaptation to resistant crops. This study investigates the role of yeast-like symbionts (YLS) in virulence adaptation and host plant switching among populations of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), that were selected on various rice [Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae)] lines differing in their resistance against herbivores. Planthopper fitness (nymph weight) declined where YLS densities were depleted through heat treatment. However, compared to normal symbiotic planthoppers, the depletion of symbionts did not generally change the relative fitness of planthoppers (each ‘adapted’ to a single natal host) when switched to feed on a range of rice lines (exposed hosts). In some cases, this occurred despite differences in YLS density responses to the various hosts. Furthermore, we detected no fitness costs associated with YLS in adapted populations. Therefore, the result s of this study suggest that, whereas YLS are essential for planthopper nutrition, changes in YLS density play little role during virulence adaptation and host plant switching by the brown planthopper.

Horgan, F.G., Kudavidanage, E.P., Weragodaarachchi, A. & Ramp, D. 2017, 'Traditional ‘maavee’ rice production in Sri Lanka: environmental, economic and social pressures revealed through stakeholder interviews', Paddy and Water Environment.
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The Nilwala Ganga Basin of Sri Lanka includes important natural wetlands that are habitat for vulnerable animal and plant species. Flood protection and intensive rice production in the Basin have resulted in degraded acid soils and declining rice yields. However, traditional ‘maavee’ rice production outside the flood protection scheme has continued to generate a high-value rice product. This study reports on interviews conducted with farmers and other stakeholders to document the production practices and the potential environmental and economic benefits associated with maavee rice paddies. The maavee production system has prevailed for at least several decades. Farmers apply no chemicals to their paddies, relying instead on alluvial deposits as a source of nutrients, and on the natural pest and disease resistance of their traditional varieties. The maavee rice product can attain three times the selling price of rice from conventional farms making it more economically viable than conventional rice production. However, much of maavee production is for home consumption and the system is threatened by increasing labour costs, an ageing farming population and pressures to increase rice yields. Non-invasive production practices and the proximity of maavee paddies to regenerating wetlands in the Kirala Kele Sanctuary suggest that traditional paddies may constitute an important habitat for vulnerable wildlife; however, maavee farmers also perceive wetland birds as potentially damaging to rice. Based on a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, we make recommendations for future research needs and potential management actions to safeguard the environmental and economic sustainability of the maavee system.

Horgan, F.G., Nogues Palenzuela, A., Stuart, A.M., Naredo, A.I., Ramal, A.F., Bernal, C.C. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of silicon soil amendments and nitrogen fertilizer on apple snail (Ampullariidae) damage to rice seedlings', Crop Protection, vol. 91, pp. 123-131.
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd This study examines the potential for silicon soil amendments and nitrogen to reduce apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, damage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. A rate of 75 kg/ha of nitrogen applied as (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 to rice (cv IR64 and cv YTH183) seedbeds increased seedling biomass, allowing the seedlings to gain critical stem thickness and avoid snail herbivory. These seedlings remained relatively large afte r exposure to snails in pot experiments, mainly because of faster growth rates, but also due to lower damage from snails to > 21 day-old IR64 seedlings. Silicon applied as Na 2 O 3 Si·9H 2 0 alone (without nitrogen) reduced seedling growth compared to control seedlings. When nitrogen and silicon were applied together, the addition of silicon resulted in reduced seedling growth in YTH183 compared to seedlings treated with nitrogen alone. However, the same effect was not noted for IR64 seedlings, indicating clear variety-specific responses to seedbed inputs. Regardless of variety, silicon-treated seedlings that were transplanted to snail-infested pots at 21 days after seeding (DAS) had lower biomass than seedlings without silicon despite silicon-treated IR64 seedlings having less snail damage than untreated controls. From an experiment conducted in snail-infested ponds, we found no difference between snail damage to silicon (SiO 2 )-treated and control cv IR50 seedlings. Although we did not determine silicon levels in plant tissues, our results indicate that the effects of silicon soil amendments are largely insufficient to reduce the impact of apple snails to young rice seedlings (≤21 DAS).

Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Villegas, J.M., Almazan, M.L.P., Bernal, C.C., Jamoralin, A., Pasang, J.M., Orboc, G., Agreda, V. & Arroyo, C. 2017, 'Ecological engineering with high diversity vegetation patches enhances bird activity and ecosystem services in Philippine rice fields', Regional Environmental Change, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1355-1367.
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© 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergThis study examines the potential for ecological engineering to enhance the beneficial ecosystem services provided by birds in tropical rice fields. Bird activities were monitored at six sites in the Philippines with high-diversity vegetation patches (HDVPs) established as an ecological engineering approach to restore ecosystem services. Adjacent plots of conventional rice were monitored as controls. Predatory birds (shrikes, Lanius spp., grassbirds, Megalurus palustris, and kingfishers, Halcyon spp.) were more active in the ecological engineering fields where they foraged for arthropods and snails among the rice plants. Pied trillers, Lalage nigra, and yellow vented bulbuls, Pycnonotus goiavier, foraged more in the HDVPs than in rice. These birds mainly responded to the availability of bamboo for perching in the HDVPs, although patch vegetation beneath the bamboo was also used for perching by some species. Aerial hunters such as swallows, Hirundo spp., avoided HDVPs likely because the tall vegetation and bamboo stakes represented an obstacle for their flight. Small changes in the design of HDVPs could avoid any negative effects on foraging by swallows and swifts. The results indicate that ecological engineering of rice paddies can have multiple benefits for farmers and the environment, including improved nutrition for farming communities, the creation of habitat for wildlife, and the enhancement of regulatory ecosystem services provided by insectivorous and snail-eating birds.

Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Villegas, J.M., Jamoralin, A., Bernal, C.C., Perez, M.O., Pasang, J.M., Naredo, A.I. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of bund crops and insecticide treatments on arthropod diversity and herbivore regulation in tropical rice fields', Journal of Applied Entomology, vol. 141, pp. 587-599.
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© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Ecological engineering using vegetable or flower strips is promoted as a potential pest management strategy in irrigated rice. Farmers in the Philippines often plant rice levees (bunds) with vegetables, particularly string beans (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walpers) to supplement income, but without considering the potential for pest management. This study examines the effects of planted bunds on rice herbivores and their natural enemies. We compared arthropods in (a) rice fields that had string beans planted on bunds, (b) fields without string beans and without any insecticide applications and (c) fields without string beans but with insecticide treatments (standard practice). Rice yield was similar across all treatments; however, the vegetation strips produced an extra 3.6 kg of fresh string bean pods per metre of bund. There were no apparent increases in major natural enemy groups in fields with string beans compared to fields with conventional bunds. Fields with insecticide treatments had higher damage from leaffolders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The sprayed fields also had lower parasitism of planthopper eggs and fewer predatory dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata). Furthermore, the mortality of planthopper (Delphacidae: Hemiptera) and stemborer (Pyralidae) eggs by parasitoids and predators was density dependent only in the unsprayed fields (with and without string beans). Our results demonstrate that planting string beans on rice bunds improves the productivity of rice farms, but our ecological engineering system did not appreciably affect natural enemy or herbivore abundance; however, chemical insecticides adversely affected pest regulatory ecosystem functions leading to higher pest damage.

Hudson, L.N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S.L.L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., Phillips, H.R.P., Alhusseini, T.I., Bedford, F.E., Bennett, D.J., Booth, H., Burton, V.J., Chng, C.W.T., Choimes, A., Correia, D.L.P., Day, J., Echeverría-Londoño, S., Emerson, S.R., Gao, D., Garon, M., Harrison, M.L.K., Ingram, D.J., Jung, M., Kemp, V., Kirkpatrick, L., Martin, C.D., Pan, Y., Pask-Hale, G.D., Pynegar, E.L., Robinson, A.N., Sanchez-Ortiz, K., Senior, R.A., Simmons, B.I., White, H.J., Zhang, H., Aben, J., Abrahamczyk, S., Adum, G.B., Aguilar-Barquero, V., Aizen, M.A., Albertos, B., Alcala, E.L., Del Mar Alguacil, M., Alignier, A., Ancrenaz, M., Andersen, A.N., Arbeláez-Cortés, E., Armbrecht, I., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Aumann, T., Axmacher, J.C., Azhar, B., Azpiroz, A.B., Baeten, L., Bakayoko, A., Báldi, A., Banks, J.E., Baral, S.K., Barlow, J., Barratt, B.I.P., Barrico, L., Bartolommei, P., Barton, D.M., Basset, Y., Batáry, P., Bates, A.J., Baur, B., Bayne, E.M., Beja, P., Benedick, S., Berg, Å., Bernard, H., Berry, N.J., Bhatt, D., Bicknell, J.E., Bihn, J.H., Blake, R.J., Bobo, K.S., Bóçon, R., Boekhout, T., Böhning-Gaese, K., Bonham, K.J., Borges, P.A.V., Borges, S.H., Boutin, C., Bouyer, J., Bragagnolo, C., Brandt, J.S., Brearley, F.Q., Brito, I., Bros, V., Brunet, J., Buczkowski, G., Buddle, C.M., Bugter, R., Buscardo, E., Buse, J., Cabra-García, J., Cáceres, N.C., Cagle, N.L., Calviño-Cancela, M., Cameron, S.A., Cancello, E.M., Caparrós, R., Cardoso, P., Carpenter, D., Carrijo, T.F., Carvalho, A.L., Cassano, C.R., Castro, H., Castro-Luna, A.A., Rolando, C.B., Cerezo, A., Chapman, K.A., Chauvat, M., Christensen, M., Clarke, F.M., Cleary, D.F.R., Colombo, G., Connop, S.P., Craig, M.D., Cruz-López, L., Cunningham, S.A., D'Aniello, B., D'Cruze, N., da Silva, P.G., Dallimer, M., Danquah, E., Darvill, B., Dauber, J., Davis, A.L.V., Dawson, J., de Sassi, C., de Thoisy, B., Deheuvels, O., Dejean, A., Devineau, J.-.L., Diekötter, T., Dolia, J.V., Domínguez, E., Dominguez-Haydar, Y., Dorn, S., Draper, I., Dreber, N., Dumont, B., Dures, S.G., Dynesius, M., Edenius, L., Eggleton, P., Eigenbrod, F., Elek, Z., Entling, M.H., Esler, K.J., de Lima, R.F., Faruk, A., Farwig, N., Fayle, T.M., Felicioli, A., Felton, A.M., Fensham, R.J., Fernandez, I.C., Ferreira, C.C., Ficetola, G.F., Fiera, C., Filgueiras, B.K.C., Fırıncıoğlu, H.K., Flaspohler, D., Floren, A., Fonte, S.J., Fournier, A., Fowler, R.E., Franzén, M., Fraser, L.H., Fredriksson, G.M., Freire, G.B., Frizzo, T.L.M., Fukuda, D., Furlani, D., Gaigher, R., Ganzhorn, J.U., García, K.P., Garcia-R, J.C., Garden, J.G., Garilleti, R., Ge, B.-.M., Gendreau-Berthiaume, B. & et al. 2017, 'The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project.', Ecol Evol, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 145-188.
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The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

Hurley-Walker, N., Callingham, J.R., Hancock, P.J., Franzen, T.M.O., Hindson, L., Kapińska, A.D., Morgan, J., Offringa, A.R., Wayth, R.B., Wu, C., Zheng, Q., Murphy, T., Bell, M.E., Dwarakanath, K.S., For, B., Gaensler, B.M., Johnston-Hollitt, M., Lenc, E., Procopio, P., Staveley-Smith, L., Ekers, R., Bowman, J.D., Briggs, F., Cappallo, R.J., Deshpande, A.A., Greenhill, L., Hazelton, B.J., Kaplan, D.L., Lonsdale, C.J., McWhirter, S.R., Mitchell, D.A., Morales, M.F., Morgan, E., Oberoi, D., Ord, S.M., Prabu, T., Udaya Shankar, N., Srivani, K.S., Subrahmanyan, R., Tingay, S.J., Webster, R.L., Williams, A. & Williams, C.L. 2017, 'GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey - I. A low-frequency extragalactic catalogue', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 464, no. 1, pp. 1146-1167.
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© 2016 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array precursor located in Western Australia, we have completed the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, and present the resulting extragalactic catalogue, utilizing the first year of observations. The catalogue covers 24 831 square degrees, over declinations south of +30° and Galactic latitudes outside 10° of the Galactic plane, excluding some areas such as theMagellanic Clouds. It contains 307 455 radio sources with 20 separate flux density measurements across 72-231 MHz, selected from a time- and frequency-integrated image centred at 200 MHz, with a resolution of ≈2 arcmin. Over the catalogued region, we estimate that the catalogue is 90 per cent complete at 170 mJy, and 50 per cent complete at 55 mJy, and large areas are complete at even lower flux density levels. Its reliability is 99.97 per cent above the detection threshold of 5σ, which itself is typically 50 mJy. These observations constitute the widest fractional bandwidth and largest sky area survey at radio frequencies to date, and calibrate the low-frequency flux density scale of the southern sky to better than 10 per cent. This paper presents details of the flagging, imaging, mosaicking and source extraction/characterization, as well as estimates of the completeness and reliability. All source measurements and images are available online. 1 This is the first in a series of publications describing the GLEAM survey results.

Huynh, T.T., Jamil, I., Pianegonda, N.A., Blanksby, S.J., Barker, P.J., Manefield, M. & Rice, S.A. 2017, 'Investigation of the microbial communities colonizing prepainted steel used for roofing and walling.', MicrobiologyOpen, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1-11.
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Microbial colonization of prepainted steel, commonly used in roofing applications, impacts their aesthetics, durability, and functionality. Understanding the relevant organisms and the mechanisms by which colonization occurs would provide valuable information that can be subsequently used to design fouling prevention strategies. Here, next-generation sequencing and microbial community finger printing (T-RFLP) were used to study the community composition of microbes colonizing prepainted steel roofing materials at Burrawang, Australia and Kapar, Malaysia over a 52-week period. Community diversity was low and was dominated by Bacillus spp., cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum nigrum, and Teratosphaeriaceae sp. Cultivation-based methods isolated approximately 20 different fungi and bacteria, some of which, such as E. nigrum and Cladosporium sp., were represented in the community sequence data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging showed that fungi were the most dominant organisms present. Analysis of the sequence and T-RFLP data indicated that the microbial communities differed significantly between locations and changed significantly over time. The study demonstrates the utility of molecular ecology tools to identify and characterize microbial communities associated with the fouling of painted steel surfaces and ultimately can enable the targeted development of control strategies based on the dominant species responsible for fouling.

Iqbal, M.A., Nizio, K.D., Ueland, M. & Forbes, S.L. 2017, 'Forensic decomposition odour profiling: A review of experimental designs and analytical techniques', TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 91, pp. 112-124.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The complex process of cadaveric decomposition releases diverse volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as by-products. These VOCs are significant in forensic science as the odour they comprise can be tracked by trained canines when searching for human remains in cases of missing persons, homicide, or mass disaster. Although this is an emerging area of research, numerous studies have been conducted to form a greater understanding of decomposition odour and its range of applications. While some of these studies are conducted in laboratories, most are conducted at specialised field sites (e.g., forensic, archaeological, taphonomic, search and rescue training facilities). This paper reviews these studies to provide a critical overview of the experimental approaches and analytical techniques used in decomposition odour analysis. Discussion covers the outcomes of these studies, their contribution to the field, and future directions, particularly the advances in analytical instrumentation currently being employed to provide a comprehensive decomposition odour profile.

Irga, P.J., Abdo, P., Zavattaro, M. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'An assessment of the potential fungal bioaerosol production from an active living wall', Building and Environment, vol. 111, pp. 140-146.
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© 2016 Active living walls, or indoor air biofilters, have been proposed as a sustainable and aesthetic means of improving indoor air quality. However these systems have yet to be adequately assessed for their potential contribution to airborne fungal proliferation in indoor spaces. The current work represents a simulation study to determine, under realistic office conditions, whether a typical active living wall makes a quantifiable contribution to the airborne aeromycota. We found that the living wall studied made no significant contribution to the density or diversity of airborne culturable fungi in a test room. Few organisms of concern to public health were identified. We conclude that active biofilters are unlikely to make hazardous contributions to indoor fungi; however, further work that documents the bioaerosol generation rate with variations in temperature, airflow, plant varieties, planting densities, maintenance schedule, age of plants, plant growth substrates and substrate moisture content need further elucidation.

Irga, P.J., Braun, J.T., Douglas, A.N.J., Pettit, T., Fujiwara, S., Burchett, M.D. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'The distribution of green walls and green roofs throughout Australia: Do policy instruments influence the frequency of projects?', Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, vol. 24, pp. 164-174.
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© 2017 Elsevier GmbH Green roofs and green walls are gaining popularity as a means of mitigating a range of environmental impacts associated with urbanisation. Although this technology has been widely implemented in some parts of the world, uptake within Australia has been slow. This might be attributed to a range of factors, including a lack of awareness; a scarcity of urban green infrastructure policies; a lack of examples to give urban designers confidence in the technology; and perhaps also a limited number of professionals capable of installing green infrastructure systems. This paper researches the distribution of green wall and green roof projects in urban Australia, and the possible influence of local government policies and guidelines that have been designed to promote the increase of green infrastructure in Australia's cities. Differences were observed among project distributions and frequency, both within and between cities. In addition, councils that offered policy instruments and guidance tended to have more green wall and green roof projects than those which have no such policies in place. Compared to successful examples seen internationally, further policy implementation in Australia could increase the frequency of green infrastructure projects, indicating that governmental influence may play a substantial role in encouraging green infrastructure installation.

Irga, P.J., Paull, N.J., Abdo, P. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'An assessment of the atmospheric particle removal efficiency of an in-room botanical biofilter system', Building and Environment, vol. 115, pp. 281-290.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In addition to the growing requirement to reduce building energy needs, demand has arisen to find sustainable methods of improving indoor air quality. Recent advances in green wall technology have led to the development of activated systems, termed botanical biofilters, that move air through the plant growth substrate to increase the rate at which the interior atmospheric environment is exposed to the components of the plant-substrate system that are active in air pollutant removal. Development of this technology is moving towards green wall integration within building air conditioning and ventilation systems. The work presented here describes an evaluation of several parameters essential for determining the functionality of a modular botanical biofilter, as well as experiments to systematically determine the filtration performance of the device, specifically the single-pass particulate rem filtration efficiency was evaluated and defined. The maximum filtration efficiency for total suspended particulate matter peaked at an air flow rate of 11.25 L s −1 through the 0.25 m 2 filter, with any increases in air flow rate met with a reduction in efficiency. The system recorded removal efficiencies were 53.35 ± 9.73% for total suspend particles, 53.51 ± 15.99% for PM 10 , and 48.21 ± 14.71% for PM 2.5. Comparisons were made against the single pass efficiency of the system without the botanical component, as well as a common in-duct pleated panel air filter, indicating that further development is required to enhance the filtration capacity of the system if it is match current air filtration standards.

Isaac, P., Cleverly, J., McHugh, I., van Gorsel, E., Ewenz, C. & Beringer, J. 2017, 'OzFlux data: network integration from collection to curation', Biogeosciences, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 2903-2928.
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Jacqueline A. Melvold Ethan R. Wyrsch Jessica McKinnon Piklu Roy Chowdhury Ian G. Charles Steven P. Djordjevic 2017, 'Identification of a novel qnrA allele, qnrA8, in environmental Shewanella algae', Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
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Jaiswal, R., Johnson, M.S., Pokharel, D., Krishnan, S.R. & Bebawy, M. 2017, 'Microparticles shed from multidrug resistant breast cancer cells provide a parallel survival pathway through immune evasion.', BMC Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-12.
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BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined. Breast tumors, typical of many tumor types, shed membrane vesicles called microparticles (MPs), ranging in size from 0.1-1 μm in diameter. MPs serve as vectors in the intercellular transfer of functional proteins and nucleic acids and in drug sequestration. In addition, MPs are also emerging to be important players in the evasion of cancer cell immune surveillance. METHODS: A comparative analysis of effects of MPs isolated from human breast cancer cells and non-malignant human brain endothelial cells were examined on THP-1 derived macrophages in vitro. MP-mediated effects on cell phenotype and functionality was assessed by cytokine analysis, cell chemotaxis and phagocytosis, immunolabelling, flow cytometry and confocal imaging. Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In this paper we report on the discovery of a new cellular basis for immune evasion, which is mediated by breast cancer derived MPs. MPs shed from multidrug resistant (MDR) cells were shown to selectively polarize macrophage cells to a functionally incapacitated state and facilitate their engulfment by foreign cells. CONCLUSIONS: We propose this mechanism may serve to physically disrupt the inherent immune response prior to cancer cell colonization whilst releasing mediators required for the recruitment...

James, S.A., Churches, Q.I., de Jonge, M.D., Birchall, I.E., Streltsov, V., McColl, G., Adlard, P.A. & Hare, D.J. 2017, 'Iron, Copper, and Zinc Concentration in Aβ Plaques in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Correlates with Metal Levels in the Surrounding Neuropil.', ACS Chemical Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 629-637.
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The metal ions of iron, copper, and zinc have long been associated with the aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease; an interaction that has been suggested to promote increased oxidative stress and neuronal dysfunction. We examined plaque metal load in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice using X-ray fluorescence microscopy to assess how the anatomical location of Aβ plaques was influenced by the metal content of surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemical staining of Aβ plaques colocalized with areas of increased X-ray scattering power in unstained tissue sections, allowing direct X-ray based-assessment of plaque metal levels in sections subjected to minimal chemical fixation. We identified and mapped 48 individual plaques in four subregions of the hippocampus from four biological replicates. Iron, Cu, and Zn areal concentrations (ng cm(-2)) were increased in plaques compared to the surrounding neuropil. However, this elevation in metal load reflected the local metal makeup of the surrounding neuropil, where different brain regions are enriched for different metal ions. After correcting for tissue density, only Zn levels remained elevated in plaques. This study suggests that the in vivo binding of Zn to plaques is not simply due to increased protein deposition.

Jensen, P.Ø., Kolpen, M., Kragh, K.N. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'Microenvironmental characteristics and physiology of biofilms in chronic infections of CF patients are strongly affected by the host immune response.', APMIS, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 276-288.
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In vitro studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other pathogenic bacteria in biofilm aggregates have yielded detailed insight into their potential growth modes and metabolic flexibility under exposure to gradients of substrate and electron acceptor. However, the growth pattern of P. aeruginosa in chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is very different from what is observed in vitro, for example, in biofilms grown in flow chambers. Dense in vitro biofilms of P. aeruginosa exhibit rapid O2 depletion within <50-100 μm due to their own aerobic metabolism. In contrast, in vivo investigations show that P. aeruginosa persists in the chronically infected CF lung as relatively small cell aggregates that are surrounded by numerous PMNs, where the activity of PMNs is the major cause of O2 depletion rendering the P. aeruginosa aggregates anoxic. High levels of nitrate and nitrite enable P. aeruginosa to persist fueled by denitrification in the PMN-surrounded biofilm aggregates. This configuration creates a potentially long-term stable ecological niche for P. aeruginosa in the CF lung, which is largely governed by slow growth and anaerobic metabolism and enables persistence and resilience of this pathogen even under the recurring aggressive antimicrobial treatments of CF patients. As similar slow growth of other CF pathogens has recently been observed in endobronchial secretions, there is now a clear need for better in vitro models that simulate such in vivo growth patterns and anoxic microenvironments in order to help unravel the efficiency of existing or new antimicrobials targeting anaerobic metabolism in P. aeruginosa and other CF pathogens. We also advocate that host immune responses such as PMN-driven O2 depletion play a central role in the formation of anoxic microniches governing bacterial persistence in other chronic infections such as chronic wounds.

Jogdeo, P., Chai, R., Shuyang, S., Saballus, M., Constancias, F., Wijesinghe, S.L., Thierry, D., Blackwood, D.J., McDougald, D., Rice, S.A. & Marsili, E. 2017, 'Onset of Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC) in Stainless Steel Exposed to Mixed Species Biofilms from Equatorial Seawater', Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 164, no. 9, pp. C532-C538.
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Jones, L.A., Kimball, J.S., Reichle, R.H., Madani, N., Glassy, J., Ardizzone, J., Colliander, A., Cleverly, J., Desai, A.R., Eamus, D., Euskirchen, E., Hutley, L., Macfarlane, C. & Scott, R. 2017, 'The SMAP level 4 carbon product for monitoring ecosystem land-atmosphere CO2 exchange', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.
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Jones, P.M. & George, A.M. 2017, 'How Intrinsic Dynamics Mediates the Allosteric Mechanism in the ABC Transporter Nucleotide Binding Domain Dimer.', J Chem Theory Comput, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1712-1722.
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A protein's architecture facilitates specific motions-intrinsic dynamic modes-that are employed to effect function. Here we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the dynamics of the MJ0796 ABC transporter nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). ABC transporter NBDs form a rotationally symmetric dimer whereby two equivalent active sites are formed at their interface; in complex with a dimer of transmembrane domains they hydrolyze ATP to energize translocation of substrates across cellular membranes. Our data suggest the ABC NBD's ensemble of functional states can be understood predominately in terms of conformational changes between its major subdomains, occurring along two orthogonal dynamic modes. The data show that ligands and oligomeric interactions modulate the equilibrium conformation of the NBD with respect to these motions, suggesting that allostery is achieved by affecting the energetic profile along these two modes. The observed dynamics and allostery integrate consonantly and logically within a mechanistic framework for the ABC NBD dimer, which is supported by a large body of experimental and theoretical data, providing a higher resolution view of the enzyme's dynamic cycle. Our study shows how valuable mechanistic inferences can be derived from accessible short-time scale MD simulations of an enzyme's substructures.

Juan, M.L., Bradac, C., Besga, B., Johnsson, M., Brennen, G., Molina-Terriza, G. & Volz, T. 2017, 'Cooperatively enhanced dipole forces from artificial atoms in trapped nanodiamonds', Nature Physics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 241-245.
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© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Optical trapping is a powerful tool to manipulate small particles, from micrometre-size beads in liquid environments to single atoms in vacuum. The trapping mechanism relies on the interaction between a dipole and the electric field of laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution to the associated force typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the polarizability of the bulk material. Here, we show that for nano scale diamond crystals containing a large number of artificial atoms, nitrogen-vacancy colour centres, the contributions from both the nanodiamond and the colour centres to the optical trapping strength can be simultaneously observed in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths around the zero-phonon line transition of the colour centres, we observe a 10% increase of overall trapping strength. The magnitude of this effect suggests that due to the large density of centres, cooperative effects between the artificial atoms contribute to the observed modification of the trapping strength. Our approach may enable the study of cooperativity in nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation.

Kapińska, A.D., Staveley-Smith, L., Crocker, R., Meurer, G.R., Bhandari, S., Hurley-Walker, N., Offringa, A.R., Hanish, D.J., Seymour, N., Ekers, R.D., Bell, M.E., Callingham, J.R., Dwarakanath, K.S., For, B.Q., Gaensler, B.M., Hancock, P.J., Hindson, L., Johnston-Hollitt, M., Lenc, E., McKinley, B., Morgan, J., Procopio, P., Wayth, R.B., Wu, C., Zheng, Q., Barry, N., Beardsley, A.P., Bowman, J.D., Briggs, F., Carroll, P., Dillon, J.S., Ewall-Wice, A., Feng, L., Greenhill, L.J., Hazelton, B.J., Hewitt, J.N., Jacobs, D.J., Kim, H.S., Kittiwisit, P., Line, J., Loeb, A., Mitchell, D.A., Morales, M.F., Neben, A.R., Paul, S., Pindor, B., Pober, J.C., Riding, J., Sethi, S.K., Shankar, N.U., Subrahmanyan, R., Sullivan, I.S., Tegmark, M., Thyagarajan, N., Tingay, S.J., Trott, C.M., Webster, R.L., Wyithe, S.B., Cappallo, R.J., Deshpande, A.A., Kaplan, D.L., Lonsdale, C.J., McWhirter, S.R., Morgan, E., Oberoi, D., Ord, S.M., Prabu, T., Srivani, K.S., Williams, A. & Williams, C.L. 2017, 'Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 838, no. 1.
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© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free-free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154-231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-sha ped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z-direction (from the major axis).

Kardaras, C., Oblłój, J. & Platen, E. 2017, 'The numéraire property and long-term growth optimality for drawdown-constrained investments', Mathematical Finance, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 68-95.
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We consider the portfolio choice problem for a long-run investor in a general continuous semimartingale model. We combine the decision criterion of pathwise growth optimality with a flexible specification of attitude toward risk, encoded by a linear drawdown constraint imposed on admissible wealth processes. We define the constrained numéraire property through the notion of expected relative return and prove that drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio exists and is unique, but may depend on the investment horizon. However, when sampled at the times of its maximum and asymptotically as the time-horizon becomes distant, the drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio is given explicitly through a model-independent transformation of the unconstrained numéraire portfolio. The asymptotically growth-optimal strategy is obtained as limit of numéraire strategies on finite horizons.

Kaufer, A., Ellis, J., Stark, D. & Barratt, J. 2017, 'The evolution of trypanosomatid taxonomy.', Parasit Vectors, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 287.
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Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites of the class Kinetoplastida predominately restricted to invertebrate hosts (i.e. possess a monoxenous life-cycle). However, several genera are pathogenic to humans, animals and plants, and have an invertebrate vector that facilitates their transmission (i.e. possess a dixenous life-cycle). Phytomonas is one dixenous genus that includes several plant pathogens transmitted by phytophagous insects. Trypanosoma and Leishmania are dixenous genera that infect vertebrates, including humans, and are transmitted by hematophagous invertebrates. Traditionally, monoxenous trypanosomatids such as Leptomonas were distinguished from morphologically similar dixenous species based on their restriction to an invertebrate host. Nonetheless, this criterion is somewhat flawed as exemplified by Leptomonas seymouri which reportedly infects vertebrates opportunistically. Similarly, Novymonas and Zelonia are presumably monoxenous genera yet sit comfortably in the dixenous clade occupied by Leishmania. The isolation of Leishmania macropodum from a biting midge (Forcipomyia spp.) rather than a phlebotomine sand fly calls into question the exclusivity of the Leishmania-sand fly relationship, and its suitability for defining the Leishmania genus. It is now accepted that classic genus-defining characteristics based on parasite morphology and host range are insufficient to form the sole basis of trypanosomatid taxonomy as this has led to several instances of paraphyly. While improvements have been made, resolution of evolutionary relationships within the Trypanosomatidae is confounded by our incomplete knowledge of its true diversity. The known trypanosomatids probably represent a fraction of those that exist and isolation of new species will help resolve relationships in this group with greater accuracy. This review incites a dialogue on how our understanding of the relationships between certain trypanosomatids has shifted, and discusses new knowledge t...

Kaur, A., Shimoni, O. & Wallach, M. 2017, 'Celiac disease: from etiological factors to evolving diagnostic approaches.', J Gastroenterol.
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Celiac disease has advanced from a medical rarity to a highly prevalent disorder. Patients with the disease show varying degrees of chronic inflammation within the small intestine due to an aberrant immune response to the digestion of gliadin found in wheat. As a result, cytokines and antibodies are produced in celiac patients that can be used as specific biomarkers for developing diagnostic tests. This review paper describes celiac disease in terms of its etiological cause, pathological effects, current diagnostic tests based on mucosal biopsy, and the genetic basis for the disease. In addition, it discusses the use of gliadin-induced cytokines, antibodies and autoantibodies as a diagnostic tool for celiac disease. Despite good initial results in terms of sensitivity and specificity, when these immunological tests were used on a large scale, even in combination with genetic testing, the results showed lower predictive value. This review addresses that issue and ends with an outlook on future work required to develop diagnostic tests with greater accuracy in predicting celiac disease in the general public, thus avoiding the need for endoscopy and mucosal biopsy.

Kerr, M.C., Gomez, G.A., Ferguson, C., Tanzer, M.C., Murphy, J.M., Yap, A.S., Parton, R.G., Huston, W.M. & Teasdale, R.D. 2017, 'Laser-mediated rupture of chlamydial inclusions triggers pathogen egress and host cell necrosis.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14729.
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Remarkably little is known about how intracellular pathogens exit the host cell in order to infect new hosts. Pathogenic chlamydiae egress by first rupturing their replicative niche (the inclusion) before rapidly lysing the host cell. Here we apply a laser ablation strategy to specifically disrupt the chlamydial inclusion, thereby uncoupling inclusion rupture from the subsequent cell lysis and allowing us to dissect the molecular events involved in each step. Pharmacological inhibition of host cell calpains inhibits inclusion rupture, but not subsequent cell lysis. Further, we demonstrate that inclusion rupture triggers a rapid necrotic cell death pathway independent of BAK, BAX, RIP1 and caspases. Both processes work sequentially to efficiently liberate the pathogen from the host cytoplasm, promoting secondary infection. These results reconcile the pathogen's known capacity to promote host cell survival and induce cell death.

Kianinia, M., Regan, B., Tawfik, S.A., Tran, T.T., Ford, M.J., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2017, 'Robust Solid-State Quantum System Operating at 800 K', ACS Photonics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 768-773.
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© 2017 American Chemical Society. Realization of quantum information and communications technologies requires robust, stable solid-state single-photon sources. However, most existing sources cease to function above cryogenic or room temperature due to thermal ionization or strong phonon coupling, which impedes their emissive and quantum properties. Here we present an efficient single-photon source based on a defect in a van der Waals crystal that is optically stable and operates at elevated temperatures of up to 800 K. The quantum nature of the source and the photon purity are maintained upon heating to 800 K and cooling back to room temperature. Our report of a robust high-temperature solid-state single photon source constitutes a significant step toward practical, integrated quantum technologies for real-world environments.

King, S.R., Shimmon, S., Totonjian, D.D. & McDonagh, A.M. 2017, 'Influence of Bound versus Non-Bound Stabilizing Molecules on the Thermal Stability of Gold Nanoparticles', JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, vol. 121, no. 25, pp. 13944-13951.
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Klein, S.G., Pitt, K.A., Nitschke, M.R., Goyen, S., Welsh, D.T., Suggett, D.J. & Carroll, A.R. 2017, 'Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian.', Glob Chang Biol, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 3690-3703.
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Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O2 and assimilate CO2 and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for noncalcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp.) under reduced O2 (~2.09 mg/L) and pH (~ 7.63) scenarios in a full-factorial experiment. Host fitness was characterized as asexual reproduction and their ability to regulate internal pH and Symbiodinium performance characterized by maximum photochemical efficiency, chla content and cell density. Acidification alone resulted in 58% more asexual reproduction of symbiotic polyps than aposymbiotic polyps (and enhanced Symbiodinium cell density) suggesting Cassiopea sp. fitness was enhanced by CO2 -stimulated Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity. Indeed, greater CO2 drawdown (elevated pH) was observed within host tissues of symbiotic polyps under acidification regardless of O2 conditions. Hypoxia alone produced 22% fewer polyps than ambient conditions regardless of acidification and symbiont status, suggesting Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity did not mitigate its effects. Combined hypoxia and acidification, however, produced similar numbers of symbiotic polyps compared with aposymbiotic kept under ambient conditions, demonstrating that the presence of Symbiodinium was key for mitigating the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on asexual reproduction. We hypothesize that this mitigation occurred because of reduced photorespiration under elevated CO2 conditions where increased net O2 production ameliorates oxygen debt. We show that Symbiodinium play an important role in facilitating enhanced fitness of Cassiopea sp. ...

Knauer, B., Majka, P., Watkins, K.J., Taylor, A.W.R., Malamanova, D., Paul, B., Yu, H.-.H., Bush, A.I., Hare, D.J. & Reser, D.H. 2017, 'Whole-brain metallomic analysis of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).', Metallomics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 411-423.
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Despite the importance of transition metals for normal brain function, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elemental species across the different tissue compartments of the primate brain. In this study, we employed laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry on PFA-fixed brain sections obtained from two adult common marmosets. Concurrent cytoarchitectonic, myeloarchitectonic, and chemoarchitectonic measurements allowed for identification of the major neocortical, archaecortical, and subcortical divisions of the brain, and precise localisation of iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations within each division. Major findings across tissue compartments included: (1) differentiation of white matter tracts from grey matter based on manganese and zinc distribution; (2) high iron concentrations in the basal ganglia, cortex, and substantia nigra; (3) co-localization of high concentrations of iron and manganese in the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex; and (4) high manganese in the hippocampus. The marmoset has become a model species of choice for connectomic, aging, and transgenic studies in primates, and the application of metallomics to these disciplines has the potential to yield high translational and basic science value.

Kohli, G.S., Campbell, K., John, U., Smith, K.F., Fraga, S., Rhodes, L.L. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Role of Modular Polyketide Synthases in the Production of Polyether Ladder Compounds in Ciguatoxin-Producing Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and G. excentricus (Dinophyceae).', Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, pp. 1-16.
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Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates. In addition, 24 contigs (G. excentricus: 3, G. polynesiensis: 21) encoding multiple PKS domains (forming typical type I PKSs modules) were found. The proposed structure produced by one of these megasynthases resembles a partial carbon backbone of a polyether ladder compound. Seventeen contigs encoding single domain KS, KR, s-malonyltransacylase, dehydratase and enoyl reductase with sequence similarity to type II fatty acid synthases (FAS) in plants were found. Type I PKS and type II FAS genes were distinguished based on the arrangement of domains on the contigs and their sequence similarity and phylogenetic clustering with known PKS/FAS genes in other organisms. This differentiation of PKS and FAS pathways in Gambierdiscus is important, as it will facilitate approaches to investigating toxin biosynthesis pathways in dinoflagellates.

Kordzakhia, N., Novikov, A. & Ycart, B. 2017, 'Approximations for weighted Kolmogorov–Smirnov distributions via boundary crossing probabilities', Statistics and Computing, pp. 1-11.
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© 2016 The Author(s)A statistical application to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis implies calculating the distribution of the maximum of a certain Gaussian process, which is a modification of the standard Brownian bridge. Using the transformation into a boundary crossing problem for the Brownian motion and a piecewise linear boundary, it is proved that the desired distribution can be approximated by an n-dimensional Gaussian integral. Fast approximations are defined and validated by Monte Carlo simulation. The performance of the method for the genomics application is discussed.

Kota, A., Deshpande, D., Haghi, M., Oliver, B. & Sharma, P. 2017, 'Autophagy and airway fibrosis: Is there a link?', F1000 Research, vol. 6, no. 409, pp. 1-10.
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In the past decade, an emerging process named “autophagy” has generated intense interest in many chronic lung diseases. Tissue remodeling and fibrosis is a common feature of many airway diseases, and current therapies do not prevent or reverse these structural changes. Autophagy has evolved as a conserved process for bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components to maintain basal cellular homeostasis and healthy organelle populations in the cell. Furthermore, autophagy serves as a cell survival mechanism and can also be induced by chemical and physical stress to the cell. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays an essential role in vital cellular processes, including tissue remodeling. This review will discuss some of the recent advancements made in understanding the role of this fundamental process in airway fibrosis with emphasis on airway remodeling, and how autophagy can be exploited as a target for airway remodeling in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Kratzer, P., Tawfik, S.A., Cui, C. & Stampfl, C. 2017, 'Detection of adsorbed transition-metal porphyrins by spin-dependent conductance of graphene nanoribbon', RSC Advances, vol. 7, pp. 29112-29121.
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Kretschmer, K., Sun, B., Zhang, J., Xie, X., Liu, H. & Wang, G. 2017, '3D Interconnected Carbon Fiber Network-Enabled Ultralong Life Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 @Carbon Paper Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.', Small, vol. 13, no. 9.
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Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are an emerging technology, which can meet increasing demands for large-scale energy storage. One of the most promising cathode material candidates for sodium-ion batteries is Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 due to its high capacity, thermal stability, and sodium (Na) Superionic Conductor 3D (NASICON)-type framework. In this work, the authors have significantly improved electrochemical performance and cycling stability of Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 by introducing a 3D interconnected conductive network in the form of carbon fiber derived from ordinary paper towel. The free-standing Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 -carbon paper (Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 @CP) hybrid electrodes do not require a metallic current collector, polymeric binder, or conducting additives to function as a cathode material in an NIB system. The Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 @CP cathode demonstrates extraordinary long term cycling stability for 30 000 deep charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 2.5 mA cm(-2) . Such outstanding cycling stability can meet the stringent requirements for renewable energy storage.

Kretzschmar, A.L., Verma, A., Harwood, T., Hoppenrath, M. & Murray, S. 2017, 'Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).', J Phycol, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 283-297.
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Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic. Clonal cultures were assessed using (i) light microscopy; (ii) scanning electron microscopy; (iii) DNA sequencing based on the nuclear encoded ribosomal 18S and D8-D10 28S regions; (iv) toxicity via mouse bioassay; and (v) toxin profile as determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Both the morphological and phylogenetic data indicated that these strains represent a new species of Gambierdiscus, G. lapillus sp. nov. (plate formula Po, 3', 0a, 7″, 6c, 7-8s, 5‴, 0p, 2″″ and distinctive by size and hatchet-shaped 2' plate). Culture extracts were found to be toxic using the mouse bioassay. Using chemical analysis, it was determined that they did not contain maitotoxin (MTX1) or known algal-derived ciguatoxin analogs (CTX3B, 3C, CTX4A, 4B), but that they contained putative MTX3, and likely other unknown compounds.

Kundukad, B., Schussman, M., Yang, K., Seviour, T., Yang, L., Rice, S.A., Kjelleberg, S. & Doyle, P.S. 2017, 'Mechanistic action of weak acid drugs on biofilms.', Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-12.
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Selective permeability of a biofilm matrix to some drugs has resulted in the development of drug tolerant bacteria. Here we studied the efficacy of a weak organic acid drug, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), on the eradication of biofilms formed by the mucoid strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and investigated the commonality of this drug with that of acetic acid. We showed that NAC and acetic acid at pH < pKa can penetrate the matrix and eventually kill 100% of the bacteria embedded in the biofilm. Once the bacteria are killed, the microcolonies swell in size and passively shed bacteria, suggesting that the bacteria act as crosslinkers within the extracellular matrix. Despite shedding of the bacteria, the remnant matrix remains intact and behaves as a pH-responsive hydrogel. These studies not only have implications for drug design but also offer a route to generate robust soft matter materials.

Lapine, M. 2017, 'New degrees of freedom in nonlinear metamaterials', Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research, vol. 254, no. 4.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim This is an overview of the recent achievements in exploiting novel degrees of freedom in metamaterial design, which enable sophisticated nonlinear coupling mechanisms and bring enhancement to nonlinear behavior. One of the novel paradigms makes use of mechanical feedback, achieved by embedding electromagnetic resonators within elastic medium or engineering explicit elastic links between them, such as rotational feedback. These designs provide broad-band self-adjustable resonances, self-oscillations, chaotic regimes, nonlinear chirality and, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. With this respect, a range of implementations has been analyzed, from flexible helices for microwaves to artificial electrostriction in optics. Another concept benefits from multi-frequency operation, where the properties in completely distinct frequency ranges become entangled through specific metamaterial design –for example, direct optical coupling can be introduced between microwave resonators, providing an independent interaction channel. It was also found that hyperbolic metamaterials can bring notable benefits to classical nonlinear processes by imposing unusual phase matching solutions, with a rich choice of matching combinations. Finally, the boundary structure of metamaterials add yet another possibility to control their properties. Overall, the recent progress in these topics suggests a very positive outlook into the future of nonlinear metamaterials.

Larsson, M., Ajani, P.A., Rubio, A.M., Guise, K., MacPherson, R.G., Brett, S.J., Davies, K.P. & Doblin, M. 2017, 'Long-term perspective on the relationship between phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations in a southeastern Australian estuary', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 227-238.
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Leake, J., Zinn, R., Corbit, L. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'Dissociation between complete hippocampal context memory formation and context fear acquisition.', Learn Mem, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 153-157.
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Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related activity. We found that hippocampal Arc expression continued to increase well past the minimal time required for plateau-level fear. This raises the possibility that context fear conditioning occurs more rapidly than complete memory formation. Thus, animals may be able to condition robustly to both complete and incomplete contextual representations.

Lee, J., Wen, B., Carter, E.A., Combes, V., Grau, G.E.R. & Lay, P.A. 2017, 'Infrared spectroscopic characterization of monocytic microvesicles (microparticles) released upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation.', FASEB J, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 2817-2827.
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Microvesicles (MVs) are involved in cell-cell interactions, including disease pathogenesis. Nondestructive Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from MVs were assessed as a technique to provide new biochemical insights into a LPS-induced monocyte model of septic shock. FTIR spectroscopy provided a quick method to investigate relative differences in biomolecular content of different MV populations that was complementary to traditional semiquantitative omics approaches, with which it is difficult to provide information on relative changes between classes (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates) or protein conformations. Time-dependent changes were detected in biomolecular contents of MVs and in the monocytes from which they were released. Differences in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine contents were observed in MVs released under stimulation, and higher relative concentrations of RNA and α-helical structured proteins were present in stimulated MVs compared with MVs from resting cells. FTIR spectra of stimulated monocytes displayed changes that were consistent with those observed in the corresponding MVs they released. LPS-stimulated monocytes had reduced concentrations of nucleic acids, α-helical structured proteins, and phosphatidylcholine compared with resting monocytes but had an increase in total lipids. FTIR spectra of MV biomolecular content will be important in shedding new light on the mechanisms of MVs and the different roles they play in physiology and disease pathogenesis.-Lee, J., Wen, B., Carter, E. A., Combes, V., Grau, G. E. R., Lay, P. A. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of monocytic microvesicles (microparticles) released upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

Lee, R., Comber, B., Abraham, J., Wagner, M., Lennard, C., Spindler, X. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Supporting fingerprint identification assessments using a skin stretch model - A preliminary study.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 272, pp. 41-49.
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To support fingerprint expert opinion, this research proposes an approach that combines subjective human analysis (as currently applied by fingerprint practitioners) with a statistical test of the result. This approach relies on the hypothesis that there are limits to the distortion caused by skin stretch. Such limits can be modelled by applying a multivariate normal probability density function to the distances and angle formed by a marked ridge characteristic and the two closest neighbouring minutiae. This study presents a model tested on 5 donors in total. The "expected range" of distortion in a within-source comparison using 10 minutiae was determined and compared to between-source comparisons. The expected range of log probability densities for within-source comparisons marked with 10 minutiae was determined to be from -33.4 to -60.0, with all between-source data falling outside this range, between -83 and -305. These results suggest that the proposed generated metric could be a powerful tool for the assessment of fingerprint expert opinion in operational casework.

Lees, T. & Lal, S. 2017, 'Stress and its Impact on the Neurocognitive Performance of Australian Nurses.', Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 45-54.
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Nurses function inside a particularly stressful occupation that requires the provision of continuous care to individuals who are often in great need. Stress has been shown to impair performance and specifically shown to impair nursing quality. However, we do not yet know how stress influences the cognitive performance of nurses, and hence, the present study investigated the associations between stress and cognitive performance in nurses using electroencephalography and administered cognitive assessments. Thirty-six nurses (34 women) of mean age 37.77 ± 11.40 years were recruited. Stress was examined using the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire. Broad spectrum electroencephalogram activity at positions Fp1, Fp2, C3 and C4 was recorded for a 5-min baseline and active phase to physiologically assess cognitive performance. Additionally, the Mini-Mental State Exam and Cognistat were also used to measure cognitive performance. Assessed cognitive performance was not associated to stress, however, lifestyle factors, as well as a number of the examined cognitive electroencephalographic variables including changes in theta, alpha activity and gamma reactivity were. Definitively determining how stress affects the cognitive performance of nurses requires additional research; the present study forms a foundation from which future research can further expand the examination of stress exposure in nurses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lees, T., Nassif, N., Simpson, A., Shad-Kaneez, F., Martiniello-Wilks, R., Lin, Y., Jones, A., Qu, X. & Lal, S. 2017, 'Recent advances in molecular biomarkers for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.', Biomarkers, pp. 1-13.
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CONTEXT: Diabetes is a growing global metabolic epidemic. Current research is focussing on exploring how the biological processes and clinical outcomes of diabetes are related and developing novel biomarkers to measure these relationships, as this can subsequently improve diagnostic, therapeutic and management capacity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify the most recent advances in molecular biomarkers of diabetes and directions that warrant further research. METHODS: Using a systematic search strategy, the MEDLINE, CINAHL and OVID MEDLINE databases were canvassed for articles that investigated molecular biomarkers for diabetes. Initial selections were made based on article title, whilst final inclusion was informed by a critical appraisal of the full text of each article. RESULTS: The systematic search returned 246 records, of which 113 were unique. Following screening, 29 records were included in the final review. Three main research strategies (the development of novel technologies, broad biomarker panels, and targeted approaches) identified a number of potential biomarkers for diabetes including miR-126, C-reactive protein, 2-aminoadipic acid and betatrophin. CONCLUSION: The most promising research avenue identified is the detection and quantification of micro RNA. Further, the utilisation of functionalised electrodes as a means to detect biomarker compounds also warrants attention.

Lei, L., Wu, R., Zhou, J., Zhang, S., Xiao, Z., Zhang, J. & Xu, S. 2017, 'The enhanced 1830 nm emission in Yb/Tm:NaYF4@NaYF4 active-core/inert-shell nanocrystals', Materials Letters, vol. 189, pp. 35-37.
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Leigh, A., Sevanto, S., Close, J.D. & Nicotra, A.B. 2017, 'The influence of leaf size and shape on leaf thermal dynamics: does theory hold up under natural conditions?', Plant Cell Environ, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 237-248.
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Laboratory studies on artificial leaves suggest that leaf thermal dynamics are strongly influenced by the two-dimensional size and shape of leaves and associated boundary layer thickness. Hot environments are therefore said to favour selection for small, narrow or dissected leaves. Empirical evidence from real leaves under field conditions is scant and traditionally based on point measurements that do not capture spatial variation in heat load. We used thermal imagery under field conditions to measure the leaf thermal time constant (τ) in summer and the leaf-to-air temperature difference (∆T) and temperature range across laminae (Trange ) during winter, autumn and summer for 68 Proteaceae species. We investigated the influence of leaf area and margin complexity relative to effective leaf width (we ), the latter being a more direct indicator of boundary layer thickness. Normalized difference of margin complexity had no or weak effects on thermal dynamics, but we strongly predicted τ and ∆T, whereas leaf area influenced Trange . Unlike artificial leaves, however, spatial temperature distribution in large leaves appeared to be governed largely by structural variation. Therefore, we agree that small size, specifically we , has adaptive value in hot environments but not with the idea that thermal regulation is the primary evolutionary driver of leaf dissection.

Levin, R.A., Suggett, D.J., Nitschke, M.R., van Oppen, M.J.H. & Steinberg, P.D. 2017, 'Expanding the Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae, Suessiales) Toolkit Through Protoplast Technology.', J Eukaryot Microbiol.
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Dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium are photosymbionts of many tropical reef invertebrates, including corals, making them central to the health of coral reefs. Symbiodinium have therefore gained significant research attention, though studies have been constrained by technical limitations. In particular, the generation of viable cells with their cell walls removed (termed protoplasts) has enabled a wide range of experimental techniques for bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae such as ultrastructure studies, virus infection studies, patch clamping, genetic transformation, and protoplast fusion. However, previous studies have struggled to remove the cell walls from armored dinoflagellates, potentially due to the internal placement of their cell walls. Here, we produce the first Symbiodinium protoplasts from three genetically and physiologically distinct strains via incubation with cellulase and osmotic agents. Digestion of the cell walls was verified by a lack of Calcofluor White fluorescence signal and by cell swelling in hypotonic culture medium. Fused protoplasts were also observed, motivating future investigation into intra- and inter-specific somatic hybridization of Symbiodinium. Following digestion and transfer to regeneration medium, protoplasts remained photosynthetically active, regrew cell walls, regained motility, and entered exponential growth. Generation of Symbiodinium protoplasts opens exciting, new avenues for researching these crucial symbiotic dinoflagellates, including genetic modification.

Levin, R.A., Voolstra, C.R., Agrawal, S., Steinberg, P.D., Suggett, D.J. & van Oppen, M.J.H. 2017, 'Engineering Strategies to Decode and Enhance the Genomes of Coral Symbionts.', Front Microbiol, vol. 8, p. 1220.
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Elevated sea surface temperatures from a severe and prolonged El Niño event (2014-2016) fueled by climate change have resulted in mass coral bleaching (loss of dinoflagellate photosymbionts, Symbiodinium spp., from coral tissues) and subsequent coral mortality, devastating reefs worldwide. Genetic variation within and between Symbiodinium species strongly influences the bleaching tolerance of corals, thus recent papers have called for genetic engineering of Symbiodinium to elucidate the genetic basis of bleaching-relevant Symbiodinium traits. However, while Symbiodinium has been intensively studied for over 50 years, genetic transformation of Symbiodinium has seen little success likely due to the large evolutionary divergence between Symbiodinium and other model eukaryotes rendering standard transformation systems incompatible. Here, we integrate the growing wealth of Symbiodinium next-generation sequencing data to design tailored genetic engineering strategies. Specifically, we develop a testable expression construct model that incorporates endogenous Symbiodinium promoters, terminators, and genes of interest, as well as an internal ribosomal entry site from a Symbiodinium virus. Furthermore, we assess the potential for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing through new analyses of the three currently available Symbiodinium genomes. Finally, we discuss how genetic engineering could be applied to enhance the stress tolerance of Symbiodinium, and in turn, coral reefs.

Levin, R.A., Voolstra, C.R., Weynberg, K.D. & Van Oppen, M.J.H. 2017, 'Evidence for a role of viruses in the thermal sensitivity of coral photosymbionts', ISME Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 808-812.
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© 2017 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved 1751-7362/17. Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0.03% of all transcripts at 27 °C, but at 32 °C, expression levels of +ssRNAV transcripts decreased, while expression levels of anti-viral transcripts increased. In both transcriptomes, expression of NCLDV transcripts increased at 32 °C, but thermal induction of NCLDV transcripts involved in DNA manipulation was restricted to the thermosensitive population. Our findings reveal that viruses infecting Symbiodinium are affected by heat stress and may contribute to Symbiodinium thermal sensitivity.

Li, S., Ao, Z., Zhu, J., Ren, J., Yi, J., Wang, G. & Liu, W. 2017, 'Strain Controlled Ferromagnetic-Antiferromagnetic Transformation in Mn-Doped Silicene for Information Transformation Devices.', J Phys Chem Lett, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1484-1488.
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A reliable control of magnetic states is central to the use of magnetic nanostructures. Here, by using state-of-the-art density-functional theory calculations, we find that Mn atoms decorated silicene has an anomalously fixed magnetic moment and a high Curie temperature. In addition, a tunable magnetic exchange coupling is achieved for Mn-silicene system with the application of biaxial strain, which induces a transformation from the ferromagnetic (FM) to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. As such, an atomic "bit" could be obtained by superimposing strain field once the FM and AFM states are referred to as "1" and "0". Such piezospin nanodevices, which convert mechanical energy into magnetic moment, would offer great potential for future information transmission, as they ultimately combine small size, high-speed operation, and low-power consumption.

Liana, A.E., Marquis, C.P., Gunawan, C., Gooding, J.J. & Amal, R. 2017, 'T4 Bacteriophage Conjugated Magnetic Particles for E. coli Capturing: Influence of Bacteriophage Loading, Temperature and Tryptone', Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 151, pp. 47-57.
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This work demonstrates the use of bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles (Fe3O4) for the rapid capturing and isolation of Escherichia coli. The investigation of T4 bacteriophage adsorption to silane functionalised Fe3O4 with amine (single bondNH2), carboxylic (single bondCOOH) and methyl (single bondCH3) surface functional groups reveals the domination of net electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in governing bacteriophage adsorption. The bare Fe3O4 and Fe3O4-NH2 with high T4 loading captured 3-fold more E. coli (∼70% capturing efficiency) compared to the low loading T4 on Fe3O4-COOH, suggesting the significance of T4 loading in E. coli capturing efficiency. Importantly, it is further revealed that E. coli capture is highly dependent on the incubation temperature and the presence of tryptone in the media. Effective E. coli capturing only occurs at 37 °C in tryptone-containing media with the absence of either conditions resulted in poor bacteria capture. The incubation temperature dictates the capturing ability of Fe3O4/T4, whereby T4 and E. coli need to establish an irreversible binding that occurred at 37 °C. The presence of tryptophan-rich tryptone in the suspending media was also critical, as shown by a 3-fold increase in E. coli capture efficiency of Fe3O4/T4 in tryptone-containing media compared to that in tryptone-free media. This highlights for the first time that successful bacteria capturing requires not only an optimum tailoring of the particle’s surface physicochemical properties for favourable bacteriophage loading, but also an in-depth understanding of how factors, such as temperature and solution chemistry influence the subsequent bacteriophage-bacteria interactions.

Lichtenberg, M., Brodersen, K.E. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'Radiative Energy Budgets of Phototrophic Surface-Associated Microbial Communities and their Photosynthetic Efficiency Under Diffuse and Collimated Light.', Front Microbiol, vol. 8, p. 452.
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We investigated the radiative energy budgets of a heterogeneous photosynthetic coral reef sediment and a compact uniform cyanobacterial biofilm on top of coastal sediment. By combining electrochemical, thermocouple and fiber-optic microsensor measurements of O2, temperature and light, we could calculate the proportion of the absorbed light energy that was either dissipated as heat or conserved by photosynthesis. We show, across a range of different incident light regimes, that such radiative energy budgets are highly dominated by heat dissipation constituting up to 99.5% of the absorbed light energy. Highest photosynthetic energy conservation efficiency was found in the coral sediment under low light conditions and amounted to 18.1% of the absorbed light energy. Additionally, the effect of light directionality, i.e., diffuse or collimated light, on energy conversion efficiency was tested on the two surface-associated systems. The effects of light directionality on the radiative energy budgets of these phototrophic communities were not unanimous but, resulted in local spatial differences in heat-transfer, gross photosynthesis, and light distribution. The light acclimation index, Ek, i.e., the irradiance at the onset of saturation of photosynthesis, was >2 times higher in the coral sediment compared to the biofilm and changed the pattern of photosynthetic energy conservation under light-limiting conditions. At moderate to high incident irradiances, the photosynthetic conservation of absorbed energy was highest in collimated light; a tendency that changed in the biofilm under sub-saturating incident irradiances, where higher photosynthetic efficiencies were observed under diffuse light. The aim was to investigate how the physical structure and light propagation affected energy budgets and light utilization efficiencies in loosely organized vs. compact phototrophic sediment under diffuse and collimated light. Our results suggest that the optical properties and the st...

Lichtenberg, M., Nørregaard, R.D. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'Diffusion or advection? Mass transfer and complex boundary layer landscapes of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.', J R Soc Interface, vol. 14, no. 128.
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The role of hyaline hairs on the thallus of brown algae in the genus Fucus is long debated and several functions have been proposed. We used a novel motorized set-up for two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping with O2 microsensors to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) and O2 flux around single and multiple tufts of hyaline hairs on the thallus of Fucus vesiculosus. Flow was a major determinant of DBL thickness, where higher flow decreased DBL thickness and increased O2 flux between the algal thallus and the surrounding seawater. However, the topography of the DBL varied and did not directly follow the contour of the underlying thallus. Areas around single tufts of hyaline hairs exhibited a more complex mass-transfer boundary layer, showing both increased and decreased thickness when compared with areas over smooth thallus surfaces. Over thallus areas with several hyaline hair tufts, the overall effect was an apparent increase in the boundary layer thickness. We also found indications for advective O2 transport driven by pressure gradients or vortex shedding downstream from dense tufts of hyaline hairs that could alleviate local mass-transfer resistances. Mass-transfer dynamics around hyaline hair tufts are thus more complex than hitherto assumed and may have important implications for algal physiology and plant-microbe interactions.

Lin, B.M.T., Hwang, F.J. & Gupta, J.N.D. 2017, 'Two-machine flowshop scheduling with three-operation jobs subject to a fixed job sequence', Journal of Scheduling, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 293-302.
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Lin, G., Makarov, D. & Schmidt, O.G. 2017, 'Magnetic sensing platform technologies for biomedical applications', Lab on a Chip, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1884-1912.
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© 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Detection and quantification of a variety of micro- and nanoscale entities, e.g. molecules, cells, and particles, are crucial components of modern biomedical research, in which biosensing platform technologies play a vital role. Confronted with the drastic global demographic changes, future biomedical research entails continuous development of new-generation biosensing platforms targeting even lower costs, more compactness, and higher throughput, sensitivity and selectivity. Among a wide choice of fundamental biosensing principles, magnetic sensing technologies enabled by magnetic field sensors and magnetic particles offer attractive advantages. The key features of a magnetic sensing format include the use of commercially available magnetic field sensing elements, e.g. magnetoresistive sensors which bear huge potential for compact integration, a magnetic field sensing mechanism which is free from interference by complex biomedical samples, and an additional degree of freedom for the on-chip handling of biochemical species rendered by magnetic labels. In this review, we highlight the historical basis, routes, recent advances and applications of magnetic biosensing platform technologies based on magnetoresistive sensors.

Lin, H., Chen, Y., Song, Q., Fu, P., Cleverly, J.R., Magliulo, V., Law, B., Gough, C.M., Hörtnagl, L., Di Gennaro, F., Matteucci, G., Montagnani, L., Duce, P., Shao, C., Kato, T., Bonal, D., Paul-Limoges, E., Beringer, J., Grace, J. & Fan, Z. 2017, 'Quantifying deforestation and forest degradation with thermal response', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 607–608, pp. 1286-1292.
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Liu, H., Liu, X., Li, W., Guo, X., Wang, Y., Wang, G. & Zhao, D. 2017, 'Porous Carbon Composites for Next Generation Rechargeable Lithium Batteries', Advanced Energy Materials, pp. 1-24.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Rechargeable lithium batteries have attracted great attention as next generation power systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Lithium ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and lithium-oxygen batteries are all suitable to be the power systems for next generation EVs, but their power densities and cycling performance still need to be improved to match the requirements of practical EVs. Thus, rational design and controllable synthesis of electrode materials with unique microstructure and outstanding electrochemical performance are crucially desired. Porous carbon-based composites have many advantages for energy storage and conversion owing to their unique properties, including high electronic conductivity, high structural stability, high specific surface area, large pore volume for efficient electrolyte flux, and high reactive electrode materials with controllable size confined by porous carbon frameworks. Therefore, porous carbon composites exhibit excellent performance as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and lithium-oxygen batteries. In this review, we summarize research progress on porous carbon composites with enhanced performance for rechargeable lithium batteries. We present the detailed synthesis, physical and chemical properties, and the innovation and significance of porous carbon composites for lithium ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we conclude the perspectives and critical challenges that need to be addressed for the commercialization of rechargeable lithium batteries.

Liu, Y., Lu, Y., Yang, X., Zheng, X., Wen, S., Wang, F., Vidal, X., Zhao, J., Liu, D., Zhou, Z., Ma, C., Zhou, J., Piper, J.A., Xi, P. & Jin, D. 2017, 'Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy', Nature, vol. 543, no. 7644, pp. 229-233.
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Lundgren, E.J., Ramp, D., Ripple, W.J. & Wallach, A.D. 2017, 'Introduced megafauna are rewilding the Anthropocene', Ecography.
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Luo, J., Lv, P., Zhang, J., Fane, A.G., McDougald, D. & Rice, S.A. 2017, 'Succession of biofilm communities responsible for biofouling of membrane bio-reactors (MBRs).', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 7, p. e0179855.
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Biofilm formation is one of the main factors associated with membrane biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). As such, it is important to identify the responsible organisms to develop targeted strategies to control biofouling. This study investigated the composition and changes in the microbial communities fouling MBR membranes over time and correlated those changes with an increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP). Based on qPCR data, bacteria were the dominant taxa of the biofilm (92.9-98.4%) relative to fungi (1.5-6.9%) and archaea (0.03-0.07%). NMDS analysis indicated that during the initial stages of operation, the biofilm communities were indistinguishable from those found in the sludge. However, the biofilm community significantly diverged from the sludge over time and ultimately showed a unique biofilm profile. This suggested that there was strong selection for a group of organisms that were biofilm specialists. This pattern of succession and selection was correlated with the rapid increase in TMP, where bacteria including Rhodospirillales, Sphingomonadales and Rhizobiales dominated the biofilm at this time. While most of the identified fungal OTUs matched Candida sp., the majority of fungal communities were unclassified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. Collectively, the data suggests that bacteria, primarily, along with fungi may play an important role in the rapid TMP increase and loss of system performance.

Luo, L., Bokil, N.J., Wall, A.A., Kapetanovic, R., Lansdaal, N.M., Marceline, F., Burgess, B.J., Tong, S.J., Guo, Z., Alexandrov, K., Ross, I.L., Hibbs, M.L., Stow, J.L. & Sweet, M.J. 2017, 'SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14133.
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Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation.

Lynch, C.R., Murphy, T., Kaplan, D.L., Ireland, M. & Bell, M.E. 2017, 'A search for circularly polarized emission from young exoplanets', MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 467, no. 3, pp. 3447-3453.
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Ma, C., Xu, X., Wang, F., Zhou, Z., Liu, D., Zhao, J., Guan, M., Lang, C.I. & Jin, D. 2017, 'Optimal Sensitizer Concentration in Single Upconversion Nanocrystals.', Nano Lett, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 2858-2864.
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Each single upconversion nanocrystal (UCNC) usually contains thousands of photon sensitizers and hundreds of photon activators to up-convert near-infrared photons into visible and ultraviolet emissions. Though in principle further increasing the sensitizers' concentration will enhance the absorption efficiency to produce brighter nanocrystals, typically 20% of Yb(3+) ions has been used to avoid the so-called "concentration quenching" effect. Here we report that the concentration quenching effect does not limit the sensitizer concentration and NaYbF4 is the most bright host matrix. Surface quenching and the large size of NaYbF4 nanocrystals are the only factors limiting this optimal concentration. Therefore, we further designed sandwich nanostructures of NaYbF4 between a small template core to allow an epitaxial growth of the size-tunable NaYbF4 shell enclosed by an inert shell to minimize surface quenching. As a result, the suspension containing 25.2 nm sandwich structure UCNCs is 1.85 times brighter than the homogeneously doped ones, and the brightness of each single 25.2 nm heterogeneous UCNC is enhanced by nearly 3 times compared to the NaYF4: 20% Yb(3+), 4% Tm(3+) UCNCs in similar sizes. Particularly, the blue emission intensities of the UCNCs with the sandwich structure in the size of 13.6 and 25.2 nm are 1.36 times and 3.78 times higher than that of the monolithic UCNCs in the similar sizes. Maximizing the sensitizer concentration will accelerate the development of brighter and smaller UCNCs as more efficient biomolecule probes or photon energy converters.

Macha, I.J., Ben-Nissan, B., Santos, J., Cazalbou, S., Stamboulis, A., Grossin, D. & Giordano, G. 2017, 'Biocompatibility of a new biodegradable polymer-hydroxyapatite composite for biomedical applications', Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, vol. 38, pp. 72-77.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The rise in the number of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to an increasingly aging population has led to a growing demand for medication to prevent and treat these diseases. An increased interest in the development of new drugs to allow treatment of these diseases in their very early stages is currently observed. The current approach on local direct delivery of medication and key minerals to support bone repair and regeneration at the defect site, from flexible degradable devices, seems to be an effective strategy. Polylactic acid (PLA) and microspheres of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (cHAp) were used to develop PLA thin film composites as drug delivery systems. The PLA provided flexibility and biodegradability of the systems, while coralline hydroxyapatite provided the required calcium and phosphate ions for bone regeneration. These coralline hydroxyapatite microspheres have a unique architecture of interconnected porosity, are bioactive in nature and suitable for drug loading and controlled slow drug release. The cell attachment and morphology of the PLA thin film composites were evaluated in vitro using cell cultures of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSC). It was shown that hADSC cells exhibited a strong attachment and proliferation on PLA thin film-cHAp composites, signifying high biocompatibility and a potential for osteointegration due to the presence of HAp.

Macha, I.J., Cazalbou, S., Shimmon, R., Ben-Nissan, B. & Milthorpe, B. 2017, 'Development and dissolution studies of bisphosphonate (clodronate)-containing hydroxyapatite-polylactic acid biocomposites for slow drug delivery.', Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1723-1731.
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An increase in clinical demand on the controlled release of bisphosphonates (BPs) due to complications associated with systemic administration, has been the current driving force on the development of BP drug-release systems. Bisphosphonates have the ability to bind to divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) , in bone mineral and prevent bone resorption by influencing the apoptosis of osteoclasts. Localized delivery using biodegradable materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), which are ideal in this approach, have been used in this study to investigate the dissolution of clodronate (non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate) in a new release system. The effects of coral structure-derived HAp and the release kinetics of the composites were evaluated. The release kinetics of clodronate from PLA-BP and PLA-HAp-BP systems seemed to follow the power law model described by Korsmeyer-Peppas. Drug release was quantified by (31) P-NMR with detection and quantification limits of 9.2 and 30.7 mM, respectively. The results suggest that these biocomposite systems could be tuned to release clodronate for both relatively short and prolonged period of time. In addition to drug delivery, the degradation of HAp supplies both Ca(2+) and phosphate ions that can help in bone mineralization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Macnamara, S., Henry, B. & Mclean, W. 2017, 'FRACTIONAL EULER LIMITS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS', SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 447-469.
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Macreadie, P.I., Nielsen, D.A., Kelleway, J.J., Atwood, T.B., Seymour, J.R., Petrou, K., Connolly, R.M., Thomson, A.C.G., Trevathan-Tackett, S.M. & Ralph, P.J. 2017, 'Can we manage coastal ecosystems to sequester more blue carbon?', Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 206-213.
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© The Ecological Society of America To promote the sequestration of blue carbon, resource managers rely on best-management practices that have historically included protecting and restoring vegetated coastal habitats (seagrasses, tidal marshes, and mangroves), but are now beginning to incorporate catchment-level approaches. Drawing upon knowledge from a broad range of environmental variables that influence blue carbon sequestration, including warming, carbon dioxide levels, water depth, nutrients, runoff, bioturbation, physical disturbances, and tidal exchange, we discuss three potential management strategies that hold promise for optimizing coastal blue carbon sequestration: (1) reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs, (2) reinstating top-down control of bioturbator populations, and (3) restoring hydrology. By means of case studies, we explore how these three strategies can minimize blue carbon losses and maximize gains. A key research priority is to more accurately quantify the impacts of these strategies on atmospheric greenhouse-gas emissions in different settings at landscape scales.

Maeda, E., Ma, X., Wagner, F., Kim, H., Oki, T., Eamus, D. & Huete, A. 2017, 'Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon basin', Earth System Dynamics Discussions, vol. 8, pp. 438-454.
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Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon basin. We used in-situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (~ 1497 mm year−1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (~ 986 mm year−1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

Maeda, E.E., Ma, X., Wagner, F.H., Kim, H., Oki, T., Eamus, D. & Huete, A. 2017, 'Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin', Earth System Dynamics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 439-454.
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Mahbub, K.R., Bahar, M.M., Labbate, M., Krishnan, K., Andrews, S., Naidu, R. & Mallavarapu, M. 2017, 'Bioremediation of mercury: not properly exploited in contaminated soils!', Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 963-976.
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Mahbub, K.R., Kader, M., Krishnan, K., Labbate, M., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Toxicity of Inorganic Mercury to Native Australian Grass Grown in Three Different Soils', Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 850-855.
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Mahbub, K.R., Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Stuart Andrews & Mallavarapu Megharaj 2017, 'Mercury toxicity to terrestrial biota', Ecological Indicators, vol. 74, pp. 451-462.
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The heavy metal mercury is a non-essential hazardous element which concentrates up the food chain. It is necessary to assess the ecological risk of mercury to establish proper regulatory guideline levels. Most of the toxicological assessment of mercury has been focused on aquatic organisms, however in terrestrial bodies the information is limited. Hence this review critically discusses the toxicity of inorganic mercury to key terrestrial biota from recent literature and evaluate whether these information are adequate to establish safe regulatory limits or precautionary values which is invaluable for risk assessment of mercury in soil. Till date soil microorganisms, plants and invertebrates have been utilized for assessing mercury toxicity; among them, microorganisms have been observed to be the most sensitive indicators to mercury stress. Large inconsistency among the measured toxic concentrations indicates that measuring mercury toxicity in soil may be influenced by soil characteristics and ageing period of contamination. This review warrants more studies to obtain widely acceptable safe limit of soil mercury.

Mahbub, K.R., Krishnan, K., Andrews, S., Venter, H., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Bio-augmentation and nutrient amendment decrease concentration of mercury in contaminated soil', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 576, pp. 303-309.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Four mercury (Hg) contaminated soils with different pH (7.6, 8.5, 4.2 and 7.02) and total organic carbon contents (2.1, 2.2, 4 and 0.9%) were subjected to bioremediation utilizing a Hg volatilizing bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 and nutrient amendment. In a field with ~ 280 mg/kg Hg, 60% of Hg was removed by bio-augmentation in 7 days, and the removal was improved when nutrients were added. Whereas in artificially spiked soils, with ~ 100 mg/kg Hg, removal due to bio-augmentation was 33 to 48% in 14 days. In the field contaminated soil, nutrient amendment alone without bio-augmentation removed 50% of Hg in 28 days. Nutrient amendment also had an impact on Hg remediation in the spiked soils, but the best results were obtained when the strain and nutrients both were applied. The development of longer root lengths from lettuce and cucumber seeds grown in the remediated soils confirmed that the soil quality improved after bioremediation. This study clearly demonstrates the potential of Hg-reducing bacteria in remediation of Hg-contaminated soils. However, it is desirable to trap the volatilized Hg for enhanced bioremediation.

Mahbub, K.R., Krishnan, K., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Development of a whole cell biosensor for the detection of inorganic mercury', Environmental Technology and Innovation, vol. 8, pp. 64-70.
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Mahbub, K.R., Krishnan, K., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Mercury remediation potential of a mercury resistant strain Sphingopyxis sp. SE2 isolated from contaminated soil.', Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 51, pp. 128-137.
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A mercury resistant bacterial strain SE2 was isolated from contaminated soil. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing confirms the strain as Sphingopyxis belongs to the Sphingomonadaceae family of the α-Proteobacteria group. The isolate showed high resistance to mercury with estimated concentrations of Hg that caused 50% reduction in growth (EC50) of 5.97 and 6.22mg/L and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32.19 and 34.95mg/L in minimal and rich media, respectively. The qualitative detection of volatilized mercury and the presence of mercuric reductase enzyme proved that the strain SE2 can potentially remediate mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of the remaining mercury in experimental broths indicated that a maximum of 44% mercury was volatilized within 6hr by live SE2 culture. Furthermore a small quantity (23%) of mercury was accumulated in live cell pellets. While no volatilization was caused by dead cells, sorption of mercury was confirmed. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. Homology was observed among the amino acid sequences of mercuric reductase enzyme of different organisms from α-Proteobacteria and ascomycota groups.

Mahbub, K.R., Krishnan, K., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Mercury toxicity to Eisenia fetida in three different soils.', Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1261-1269.
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Three different soils were spiked with 12 different concentrations of inorganic mercury (Hg). Sub-chronic Hg toxicity tests were carried out with Eisenia fetida in spiked soils by exposing the worms for 28 days following standard procedures. The toxicity studies revealed that Hg exerted less lethal effect on earthworms in acidic soil with higher organic carbon (S-3 soil) where water soluble Hg recovery was very low compared to the water soluble Hg fractions in soils with less organic carbon and higher pH (S-1 and S-2 soils). The concentrations of total Hg that caused 50 % lethality to E. fetida (LC50) after 28 days of exposure in S-1, S-2 and S-3 soils were 152, 294 and 367 mg kg(-1), respectively. The average weight loss of E. fetida in three soils ranged from 5 to 65 %. The worms showed less weight loss in the organic carbon-rich soil (S-3) compared to less organic carbon containing soils (S-1 and S-2). The bioconcentration of Hg in E. fetida increased with increased Hg concentrations. The highest bioaccumulation took place in the acidic soil with higher organic carbon contents with estimated bioaccumulation factors ranging from 2 to 7.7. The findings of this study will be highly useful for deriving a more robust soil ecological guideline value for Hg.

Mahbub, K.R., Subashchandrabose, S.R., Krishnan, K., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Mercury alters the bacterial community structure and diversity in soil even at concentrations lower than the guideline values', Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 2163-2175.
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This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils—neutral, alkaline and acidic—were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg−1 and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils. Among the bacterial groups, Actinobacteria (22.65%) were the most abundant phyla in all samples followed by Proteobacteria (21.95%), Bacteroidetes (4.15%), Firmicutes (2.9%) and Acidobacteria (2.04%). However, the largest group showing increased abundance with higher Hg doses was the unclassified group (45.86%), followed by Proteobacteria. Mercury had a considerable negative impact on key soil functional bacteria such as ammonium oxidizers and nitrifiers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that among the measured soil properties, Hg had a major influence on bacterial community structure. Furthermore, nonlinear regression analysis confirmed that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial alpha diversity in lower organic carbon containing neutral and alkaline soils, whereas in acidic soil with higher organic carbon there was no significant correlation. EC20 values obtained by a nonlinear regression analysis indicated that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial diversity in concentrations lower than several guideline values.

Main, B.J. & Rodgers, K.J. 2017, 'Assessing the Combined Toxicity of BMAA and Its Isomers 2,4-DAB and AEG In Vitro Using Human Neuroblastoma Cells.', Neurotoxicity Research.
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The non-protein amino acid (NPAA) ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by a diverse range of cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, and is present in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems globally. Exposure to BMAA has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). BMAA is often found in nature along with its structural isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and aminoethylglycine (AEG); however, the toxicity of these NPAAs in combination has not been examined. We have previously demonstrated that BMAA induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and increases caspase and cathepsin activity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), effects consistent with proteotoxic stress due to disturbances in protein synthesis, folding or turnover. The current study investigates whether 2,4-DAB and AEG share a similar mechanism of toxicity to BMAA, and if simultaneous exposure of cells to BMAA and its isomers results in increased toxicity in vitro. We show that a 48-h treatment with both 500 μM BMAA and 2,4-DAB decreases cell viability in vitro whereas AEG was not cytotoxic under the same conditions. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with 2,4-DAB did not increase expression of ER stress markers. Combined treatment of cells with BMAA and 2,4-DAB resulted in increased caspase activity and increased apoptosis above that of BMAA or 2,4-DAB on their own. These results suggest that 2,4-DAB does not share the same mechanism of toxicity as BMAA but the presence of 2,4-DAB increases the toxicity of BMAA to human cells in vitro.

Maitre, M., Kirkbride, K.P., Horder, M., Roux, C. & Beavis, A. 2017, 'Current perspectives in the interpretation of gunshot residues in forensic science: A review.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 270, pp. 1-11.
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The traces produced when a firearm is discharged can provide important information in cases when questions regarding a possible association of the firearm with a person of interest (POI), time since discharge or shooting distance are raised. With advances in technology, the forensic challenges presented by these traces, known as gunshot residues (GSR), are moving from the analytical domain to the interpretation of the analytical results. Different interpretation frameworks are currently competing. Formal classification of particles, using standards such as that produced by ASTM, focusses only on evaluation of evidence at the sub-source level. Another approach, based on the application of Bayesian reasoning - namely the case-by-case approach - has been proposed that allows evaluation of evidence in regards to activity-related questions. This alternative approach allows an evaluation of the evidence that is more closely aligned to judicial and investigative aims. This paper critically presents the state of the art in regards to GSR interpretation in a holistic manner.

Mann, R., Mediati, D.G., Duggin, I.G., Harry, E.J. & Bottomley, A.L. 2017, 'Metabolic Adaptations of Uropathogenic E. coli in the Urinary Tract.', Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 1-15.
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Escherichia coli ordinarily resides in the lower gastrointestinal tract in humans, but some strains, known as Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are also adapted to the relatively harsh environment of the urinary tract. Infections of the urine, bladder and kidneys by UPEC may lead to potentially fatal bloodstream infections. To survive this range of conditions, UPEC strains must have broad and flexible metabolic capabilities and efficiently utilize scarce essential nutrients. Whole-organism (or "omics") methods have recently provided significant advances in our understanding of the importance of metabolic adaptation in the success of UPECs. Here we describe the nutritional and metabolic requirements for UPEC infection in these environments, and focus on particular metabolic responses and adaptations of UPEC that appear to be essential for survival in the urinary tract.

Mansfield, D.F. & Dooley, A.H. 2017, 'The critical dimension for G-measures', Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 824-836.
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© 2015 Cambridge University Press. The critical dimension of an ergodic non-singular dynamical system is the asymptotic growth rate of sums of consecutive Radon-Nikodým derivatives. This has been shown to equal the average coordinate entropy for product odometers when the size of individual factors is bounded. We extend this result to G-measures with an asymptotic bound on the size of individual factors. Furthermore, unlike von Neumann-Krieger type, the critical dimension is an invariant property on the class of ergodic G-measures.

Mao, Y., Nguyen, T., Tonkin, R.S., Lees, J.G., Warren, C., O'Carroll, S.J., Nicholson, L.F.B., Green, C.R., Moalem-Taylor, G. & Gorrie, C.A. 2017, 'Characterisation of Peptide5 systemic administration for treating traumatic spinal cord injured rats.', Exp Brain Res.
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Systemic administration of a Connexin43 mimetic peptide, Peptide5, has been shown to reduce secondary tissue damage and improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated safety measures and potential off-target effects of Peptide5 systemic administration. Rats were subjected to a mild contusion SCI using the New York University impactor. One cohort was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of fluorescently labelled Peptide5 and euthanised at 2 or 4 h post-injury for peptide distribution analysis. A second cohort received intraperitoneal injections of Peptide5 or a scrambled peptide and was culled at 8 or 24 h post-injury for the analysis of connexin proteins and systemic cytokine profile. We found that Peptide5 did not cross the blood-spinal cord barrier in control animals, but reached the lesion area in the spinal cord-injured animals without entering non-injured tissue. There was no evidence that the systemic administration of Peptide5 modulates Connexin43 protein expression or hemichannel closure in the heart and lung tissue of SCI animals. The expression levels of other major connexin proteins including Connexin30 in astrocytes, Connexin36 in neurons and Connexin47 in oligodendrocytes were also unaltered by systemic delivery of Peptide5 in either the injured or non-injured spinal cords. In addition, systemic delivery of Peptide5 had no significant effect on the plasma levels of cytokines, chemokines or growth factors. These data indicate that the systemic delivery of Peptide5 is unlikely to cause any off-target or adverse effects and may thus be a safe treatment option for traumatic SCI.

Mao, Y., Tonkin, R.S., Nguyen, T., O'Carroll, S.J., Nicholson, L.F., Green, C.R., Moalem-Taylor, G. & Gorrie, C.A. 2017, 'Systemic administration of Connexin43 mimetic peptide improves functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rats.', Journal of neurotrauma, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 707-719.
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Blocking of Connexin43 hemichannels, the main gap junction protein located on astrocytes in the central nervous system, has been shown to reduce neural injury in a number of models. We previously demonstrated that local administration of a Connexin43 mimetic peptide, Peptide5, reduces secondary tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we investigated whether acute systemic delivery of Peptide5 is also protective in a model of SCI. Rats were subjected to a mild spinal cord contusion using the MASCIS impactor and were injected intraperitoneally with Peptide5 or a scrambled peptide immediately and at 2 and 4 hours post-injury. Rats were tested for locomotor recovery and pain hypersensitivity and euthanised at 8 hours, 24 hours, 2 weeks or 6 weeks post-injury. Compared to control rats, Peptide5 treated rats showed significant improvement in hindlimb locomotor function between 3 and 6 weeks post-injury and reductions in at-level mechanical allodynia from week 1 post-injury. Immunohistochemistry showed that Peptide5 treatment led to a reduction in total Connexin43 and increased phosphorylated Connexin43 at 8 hours compared to scrambled peptide. At 2 and 6 weeks, lesion size, the astrocytic and the activated macrophage and/or microglial response were all decreased in the Peptide5 animals. Additionally, neuronal cell numbers were higher in the Peptide5 animals compared to the scrambled peptide treated rats at 2 and 6 weeks. These results show for the first time that systemic administration of Peptide5 to block the pathological opening of Connexin43 hemichannels is a feasible treatment strategy in this setting, ameliorating the secondary SCI.

Marciniak, L., Pilch, A., Arabasz, S., Jin, D. & Bednarkiewicz, A. 2017, 'Heterogeneously Nd(3+) doped single nanoparticles for NIR-induced heat conversion, luminescence, and thermometry.', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 24, pp. 8288-8297.
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The current frontier in nanomaterials engineering is to intentionally design and fabricate heterogeneous nanoparticles with desirable morphology and composition, and to integrate multiple functionalities through highly controlled epitaxial growth. Here we show that heterogeneous doping of Nd(3+) ions following a core-shell design already allows three optical functions, namely efficient (η > 72%) light-to-heat conversion, bright NIR emission, and sensitive (SR > 0.1% K(-1)) localized temperature quantification, to be built within a single ca. 25 nm nanoparticle. Importantly, all these optical functions operate within the transparent biological window of the NIR spectral region (λexc ∼ 800 nm, λemi ∼ 860 nm), in which light scattering and absorption by tissues and water are minimal. We find NaNdF4 as a core is efficient in absorbing and converting 808 nm light to heat, while NaYF4:1%Nd(3+) as a shell is a temperature sensor based on the ratio-metric luminescence reading but an intermediate inert spacer shell, e.g. NaYF4, is necessary to insulate the heat convertor and thermometer by preventing the possible Nd-Nd energy relaxation. Moreover, we notice that while temperature sensitivity and luminescence intensity are optically stable, increased excitation intensity to generate heat above room temperature may saturate the sensing capacity of temperature feedback. We therefore propose a dual beam photoexcitation scheme as a solution for possible light-induced hyperthermia treatment.

Marquez-Ortiz, R.A., Haggerty, L., Olarte, N., Duarte, C., Garza-Ramos, U., Silva-Sanchez, J., Castro, B.E., Sim, E.M., Beltran, M., Moncada, M.V., Valderrama, A., Castellanos, J.E., Charles, I.G., Vanegas, N., Escobar-Perez, J. & Petty, N.K. 2017, 'Genomic epidemiology of NDM-1-encoding plasmids in Latin American clinical isolates reveals insights into the evolution of multidrug resistance', Genome Biology and Evolution.
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Marquez-Ortiz, R.A., Haggerty, L., Sim, E.M., Duarte, C., Castro-Cardozo, B.E., Beltran, M., Saavedra, S., Vanegas, N., Escobar-Perez, J. & Petty, N.K. 2017, 'First Complete Providencia rettgeri Genome Sequence, the NDM-1-Producing Clinical Strain RB151.', Genome Announc, vol. 5, no. 3.
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Providencia rettgeri is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of clinical significance due to its association with urinary tract infections and multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of P. rettgeri The genome of strain RB151 consists of a 4.8-Mbp chromosome and a 108-kbp blaNDM-1-positive plasmid.

Marsh, J.W. 2017, 'Copper(II)-bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes as anti-chlamydial agents', Pathogens and Disease, vol. 75, no. 7.
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Lipophilic copper (Cu)-containing complexes have shown promising antibacterial activity against a range of bacterial pathogens. To examine the susceptibility of the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis to copper complexes containing bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands [Cu(btsc)], we tested the in vitro effect of CuII-diacetyl- and CuII-glyoxal-bis[N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazonato] (Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm), respectively) on C. trachomatis. Cu(atsm) and to a greater extent, Cu(gtsm), prevented the formation of infectious chlamydial progeny. Impacts on host cell viability and respiration were also observed in addition to the Chlamydia impacts. This work suggests that copper-based complexes may represent a new lead approach for future development of new therapeutics against chlamydial infections, although host cell impacts need to be fully explored.

Marsh, J.W., Hayward, R.J., Shetty, A.C., Mahurkar, A., Humphrys, M.S. & Myers, G.S.A. 2017, 'Bioinformatic analysis of bacteria and host cell dual RNA-sequencing experiments', Briefings in Bioinformatics.
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Marsh, J.W., Ong, V.A., Lott, W.B., Timms, P., Tyndall, J.D.A. & Huston, W.M. 2017, 'CtHtrA: the lynchpin of the chlamydial surface and a promising therapeutic target.', Future Microbiol, vol. 12, pp. 817-829.
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Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness. Reports have emerged of treatment failure, suggesting a need to develop new antibiotics to battle Chlamydia infection. One possible candidate for a new treatment is the protease inhibitor JO146, which is an effective anti-Chlamydia agent that targets the CtHtrA protein. CtHtrA is a lynchpin on the chlamydial cell surface due to its essential and multifunctional roles in the bacteria's stress response, replicative phase of development, virulence and outer-membrane protein assembly. This review summarizes the current understanding of CtHtrA function and presents a mechanistic model that highlights CtHtrA as an effective target for anti-Chlamydia drug development.

Matthijs, M., Fabris, M., Obata, T., Foubert, I., Franco-Zorrilla, M.J., Solano, R., Fernie, A.F., Vyverman, W. & Goossens, A. 2017, 'The transcription factor bZIP14 regulates the TCA cycle in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum', EMBO Journal, vol. e201696392.
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Diatoms are amongst the most important marine microalgae in terms of biomass, but little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate their versatile metabolism. Here, the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was studied at the metabolite and transcriptome level during nitrogen starvation and following imposition of three other stresses that impede growth. The coordinated upregulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle during the nitrogen stress response was the most striking observation. Through co‐expression analysis and DNA binding assays, the transcription factor bZIP14 was identified as a regulator of the TCA cycle, also beyond the nitrogen starvation response, namely in diurnal regulation. Accordingly, metabolic and transcriptional shifts were observed upon overexpression of bZIP14 in transformed P. tricornutum cells. Our data indicate that the TCA cycle is a tightly regulated and important hub for carbon reallocation in the diatom cell during nutrient starvation and that bZIP14 is a conserved regulator of this cycle.

McLaughlin, R.L., Schijven, D., van Rheenen, W., van Eijk, K.R., O'Brien, M., Kahn, R.S., Ophoff, R.A., Goris, A., Bradley, D.G., Al-Chalabi, A., van den Berg, L.H., Luykx, J.J., Hardiman, O., Veldink, J.H., Project MinE GWAS Consortium & Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2017, 'Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14774.
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We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome-wide association study data from over 100,000 unique individuals. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression, we estimate the genetic correlation between ALS and schizophrenia to be 14.3% (7.05-21.6; P=1 × 10(-4)) with schizophrenia polygenic risk scores explaining up to 0.12% of the variance in ALS (P=8.4 × 10(-7)). A modest increase in comorbidity of ALS and schizophrenia is expected given these findings (odds ratio 1.08-1.26) but this would require very large studies to observe epidemiologically. We identify five potential novel ALS-associated loci using conditional false discovery rate analysis. It is likely that shared neurobiological mechanisms between these two disorders will engender novel hypotheses in future preclinical and clinical studies.

McRobb, L.S., McGrath, K.C.Y., Tsatralis, T., Liong, E.C., Tan, J.T.M., Hughes, G., Handelsman, D.J. & Heather, A.K. 2017, 'Estrogen Receptor Control of Atherosclerotic Calcification and Smooth Muscle Cell Osteogenic Differentiation.', Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1127-1137.
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OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. The objective of this work was to examine the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to stimulate calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vivo, using aged apolipoprotein E-null mice with advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and subsequently to explore underlying mechanisms in vitro. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Silastic E2 capsules were implanted into male and female apolipoprotein E-null mice aged 34 weeks. Plaque and calcified area were measured in the aortic sinus and innominate artery after 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis examined expression of the estrogen receptors (estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta [ERβ]). VSMC expression of osteogenic markers was examined using digital polymerase chain reaction. Advanced atherosclerotic lesions were present in all mice at the end of 8 weeks. In both male and female mice, E2 increased calcified area in a site-specific manner in the aortic sinus independently of plaque growth or lipid levels and occurred in association with a site-specific decrease in the proportion of ERβ-positive intimal cells. Calcified lesions expressed collagen I and bone sialoprotein, with decreased matrix Gla protein. In vitro, E2 suppressed ERβ expression and increased VSMC mineralization, demonstrating increased collagen I and II, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, and reduced matrix Gla protein and osteopontin. Antagonism or RNA silencing of estrogen receptor alpha, ERβ, or both further increased VSMC mineralization. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that E2 can drive calcification in advanced atherosclerotic lesions by promoting the differentiation of VSMC to osteoblast-like cells, a process which is augmented by inhibition of estrogen receptor alpha or ERβ activity.

Messer, L.F., Brown, M.V., Furnas, M.J., Carney, R.L., McKinnon, A.D. & Seymour, J.R. 2017, 'Diversity and Activity of Diazotrophs in Great Barrier Reef Surface Waters.', Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 8, pp. 1-16.
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Discrepancies between bioavailable nitrogen (N) concentrations and phytoplankton growth rates in the oligotrophic waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) suggest that undetermined N sources must play a significant role in supporting primary productivity. One such source could be biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation through the activity of "diazotrophic" bacterioplankton. Here, we investigated N2 fixation and diazotroph community composition over 10° S of latitude within GBR surface waters. Qualitative N2 fixation rates were found to be variable across the GBR but were relatively high in coastal, inner and outer GBR waters, reaching 68 nmol L(-1) d(-1). Diazotroph assemblages, identified by amplicon sequencing of the nifH gene, were dominated by the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, γ-proteobacteria from the Gamma A clade, and δ-proteobacterial phylotypes related to sulfate-reducing genera. However, diazotroph communities exhibited significant spatial heterogeneity, correlated with shifts in dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations. Specifically, heterotrophic diazotrophs generally increased in relative abundance with increasing concentrations of phosphate and N, while Trichodesmium was proportionally more abundant when concentrations of these nutrients were low. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of diazotroph community composition and N2 fixation dynamics within the oligotrophic, N-limited surface waters of the GBR. Our observations highlight the need to re-evaluate N cycling dynamics within oligotrophic coral reef systems, to include diverse N2 fixing assemblages as a potentially significant source of dissolved N within the water column.

Miao, S., He, S., Liang, M., Lin, G., Cai, B. & Schmidt, O.G. 2017, 'Microtubular Fuel Cell with Ultrahigh Power Output per Footprint', Advanced Materials.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. A novel realization of microtubular direct methanol fuel cells (μDMFC) with ultrahigh power output is reported by using "rolled-up" nanotechnology. The microtube (Pt-RuO 2 -RUMT) is prepared by rolling up Ru 2 O layers coated with magnetron-sputtered Pt nanoparticles (cat-NPs). The μDMFC is fabricated by embedding the tube in a fluidic cell. The footprint of per tube is as small as 1.5 × 10 -4 cm 2 . A power density of ≈257 mW cm -2 is obtained, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the present microsized DFMCs. Atomic layer deposition technique is applied to alleviate the methanol crossover as well as improve stability of the tube, sustaining electrolyte flow for days. A laminar flow driven mechanism is proposed, and the kinetics of the fuel oxidation depends on a linear-diffusion-controlled process. The electrocatalytic performance on anode and cathode is studied by scanning both sides of the tube wall as an ex situ working electrode, respectively. This prototype μDFMC is extremely interesting for integration with micro- and nanoelectronics systems.

Michelot, H., Fu, S., Stuart, B., Shimmon, R., Raymond, T., Crandell, T. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 106-112.
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In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

Mittra, R., Pavy, M., Subramanian, N., George, A.M., O'Mara, M.L., Kerr, I.D. & Callaghan, R. 2017, 'Location of contact residues in pharmacologically distinct drug binding sites on P-glycoprotein.', Biochem Pharmacol, vol. 123, pp. 19-28.
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The multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is characterised by the ability to bind and/or transport an astonishing array of drugs. This poly-specificity is imparted by at least four pharmacologically distinct binding sites within the transmembrane domain. Whether or not these sites are spatially distinct has remained unclear. Biochemical and structural investigations have implicated a central cavity as the likely location for the binding sites. In the present investigation, a number of contact residues that are involved in drug binding were identified through biochemical assays using purified, reconstituted P-gp. Drugs were selected to represent each of the four pharmacologically distinct sites. Contact residues important in rhodamine123 binding were identified in the central cavity of P-gp. However, contact residues for the binding of vinblastine, paclitaxel and nicardipine were located at the lipid-protein interface rather than the central cavity. A key residue (F978) within the central cavity is believed to be involved in coupling drug binding to nucleotide hydrolysis. Data observed in this investigation suggest the presence of spatially distinct drug binding sites connecting through to a single translocation pore in the central cavity.

Mondal, A.K., Kretschmer, K., Zhao, Y., Liu, H., Fan, H. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Naturally nitrogen doped porous carbon derived from waste shrimp shells for high-performance lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors', Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 246, pp. 72-80.
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© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Transformation of biomass wastes into sustainable low cost carbon materials is now a topic of great interest. Here, we describe porous carbon from biomass derived waste shrimp shells and its application in two different energy storage systems. The unique porous structure with the presence of he teroatoms (O, N) makes it promising material for both lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. When applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared carbon showed a specific capacity as high as 1507 mA h g −1 and 1014 mA h g −1 at current densities of 0.1 A g −1 and 0.5 A g −1 , respectively, good rate performance and superior cycling stability. The porous carbon-based supercapacitor also delivered a specific capacitance of 239 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The specific capacitance retention is 99.4% even after 5000 charge-discharge cycles, indicating excellent cycling stability. The superior electrochemical performances for both lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors could be ascribed to the high specific surface area, porous structure and nitrogen doping effect.

Mondal, A.K., Kretschmer, K., Zhao, Y., Liu, H., Wang, C., Sun, B. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Nanosheets from Eco-Friendly Eucalyptus Leaves as High Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries.', Chemistry - A European Journal, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 3683-3690.
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Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets were prepared from eucalyptus tree leaves by simply mixing the leaf powders with KHCO3 and subsequent carbonisation. Porous carbon nanosheets with a high specific surface area of 2133 m(2)  g(-1) were obtained and applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. For supercapacitor applications, the porous carbon nanosheet electrode exhibited a supercapacitance of 372 F g(-1) at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and excellent cycling stability over 15 000 cycles. In organic electrolyte, the nanosheet electrode showed a specific capacitance of 71 F g(-1) at a current density of 2 Ag(-1) and stable cycling performance. When applied as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared porous carbon nanosheets also demonstrated a high specific capacity of 819 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , good rate capability, and stable cycling performance. The outstanding electrochemical performances for both supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries are derived from the large specific surface area, porous nanosheet structure and nitrogen doping effects. The strategy developed in this paper provides a novel route to utilise biomass-derived materials for low-cost energy storage systems.

Moosavi, S.M., Prabhala, P. & Ammit, A.J. 2017, 'Role and regulation of MKP-1 in airway inflammation.', Respir Res, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 154.
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) is a protein with anti-inflammatory properties and the archetypal member of the dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) family that have emerged over the past decade as playing an instrumental role in the regulation of airway inflammation. Not only does MKP-1 serve a critical role as a negative feedback effector, controlling the extent and duration of pro-inflammatory MAPK signalling in airway cells, upregulation of this endogenous phosphatase has also emerged as being one of the key cellular mechanism responsible for the beneficial actions of clinically-used respiratory medicines, including β2-agonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and corticosteroids. Herein, we review the role and regulation of MKP-1 in the context of airway inflammation. We initially outline the structure and biochemistry of MKP-1 and summarise the multi-layered molecular mechanisms responsible for MKP-1 production more generally. We then focus in on some of the key in vitro studies in cell types relevant to airway disease that explain how MKP-1 can be regulated in airway inflammation at the transcriptional, post-translation and post-translational level. And finally, we address some of the potential challenges with MKP-1 upregulation that need to be explored further to fully exploit the potential of MKP-1 to repress airway inflammation in chronic respiratory disease.

Morelato, M., Barash, M., Blanes, L., Chadwick, S., Dilag, J., Kuzhiumparambil, U., Nizio, K.D., Spindler, X. & Moret, S. 2017, 'Forensic Science: Current State and Perspective by a Group of Early Career Researchers', Foundations of Science, pp. 1-27.
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Forensic science and its influence on policing and the criminal justice system have increased since the beginning of the twentieth century. While the philosophies of the forensic science pioneers remain the pillar of modern practice, rapid advances in technology and the underpinning sciences have seen an explosion in the number of disciplines and tools. Consequently, the way in which we exploit and interpret the remnant of criminal activity are adapting to this changing environment. In order to best exploit the trace, an interdisciplinary approach to both research and investigation is required. In this paper, nine postdoctoral research fellows from a multidisciplinary team discuss their vision for the future of forensic science at the crime scene, in the laboratory and beyond. This paper does not pretend to be exhaustive of all fields of forensic science, but describes a portion of the postdoctoral fellows’ interests and skills.

Murphy, C.D., Ni, G., Li, G., Barnett, A., Xu, K., Grant-Burt, J., Liefer, J.D., Suggett, D.J. & Campbell, D.A. 2017, 'Quantitating active photosystem II reaction center content from fluorescence induction transients', Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 54-69.
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© 2016 The Authors Limnology and Oceanography: Methods published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photosystem II (PSII) is a pigment-protein complex that photochemically extracts electrons from water, generating the reductant that supports biological productivity in all biomes. Estimating the content of active PSII reaction centers in a liquid sample is a key input for estimating aquatic photosynthesis rates, as well as for analyzing phytoplankton stress responses. Established procedures for PSII content quantification based on oxygen evolution are slow, imprecise and require dense cell suspensions, and are thus inapplicable to many laboratory or field studies. A new approach uses baseline chlorophyll fluorescence emission divided by the effective absorbance cross section for PSII photochemistry, with both variables derivable from single turnover fluorescence induction protocols. This approach has not been widely tested and is potentially subject to variation in samples suffering progressive photoinactivation or induction of non-photochemical quenching under variable light. We evaluated the validity of this approach for a marine picocyanobacteria, low and high light Prochlorococcus ecotypes, arctic and temperate prasinophyte green alga and two centric diatoms, generating 209 paired determinations from a range of growth and treatment conditions. We successfully calibrated the fluorescence derived estimator for PSII reaction center content, and demonstrate a modification that corrects for the short term influence of photoinactivation. The modified parameter shows little response to induction of non-photochemical quenching. In doing so we show the potential and limitations of an estimator of active PSII reaction center content that is sufficiently robust to support rapid, time-resolved autonomous measures of primary productivity from lakes and oceans.

Murphy, T., Kaplan, D.L., Bell, M.E., Callingham, J.R., Croft, S., Johnston, S., Dobie, D., Zic, A., Hughes, J., Lynch, C., Hancock, P., Hurley-Walker, N., Lenc, E., Dwarakanath, K.S., For, B.Q., Gaensler, B.M., Hindson, L., Johnston-Hollitt, M., Kapińska, A.D., McKinley, B., Morgan, J., Offringa, A.R., Procopio, P., Staveley-Smith, L., Wayth, R., Wu, C. & Zheng, Q. 2017, 'Low-Frequency Spectral Energy Distributions of Radio Pulsars Detected with the Murchison Widefield Array', Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia.
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Copyright © Astronomical Society of Australia 2017 We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.

Murphy, T., Kaplan, D.L., Croft, S., Lynch, C., Callingham, J.R., Bannister, K., Bell, M.E., Hurley-Walker, N., Hancock, P., Line, J., Rowlinson, A., Lenc, E., Intema, H.T., Jagannathan, P., Ekers, R.D., Tingay, S., Yuan, F., Wolf, C., Onken, C.A., Dwarakanath, K.S., For, B.-.Q., Gaensler, B.M., Hindson, L., Johnston-Hollitt, M., Kapinska, A.D., McKinley, B., Morgan, J., Offringa, A.R., Procopio, P., Staveley-Smith, L., Wayth, R., Wu, C. & Zheng, Q. 2017, 'A search for long-time-scale, low-frequency radio transients', MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 466, no. 2, pp. 1944-1953.
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Murray, B.R., Martin, L.J., Phillips, M.L. & Pyšek, P. 2017, 'Taxonomic perils and pitfalls of dataset assembly in ecology: a case study of the naturalized Asteraceae in Australia', NeoBiota, vol. 34, pp. 1-20.
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The value of plant ecological datasets with hundreds or thousands of species is principally determined by the taxonomic accuracy of their plant names. However, combining existing lists of species to assemble a harmonized dataset that is clean of taxonomic errors can be a difficult task for non-taxonomists. Here, we describe the range of taxonomic difficulties likely to be encountered during dataset assembly and present an easy-to-use taxonomic cleaning protocol aimed at assisting researchers not familiar with the finer details of taxonomic cleaning. The protocol produces a final dataset (FD) linked to a companion dataset (CD), providing clear details of the path from existing lists to the FD taken by each cleaned taxon. Taxa are checked off against ten categories in the CD that succinctly summarize all taxonomic modifications required. Two older, publicly-available lists of naturalized Asteraceae in Australia were merged into a harmonized dataset as a case study to quantify the impacts of ignoring the critical process of taxonomic cleaning in invasion ecology. Our FD of naturalized Asteraceae contained 257 species and infra-species. Without implementation of the full cleaning protocol, the dataset would have contained 328 taxa, a 28% overestimate of taxon richness by 71 taxa. Our naturalized Asteraceae CD described the exclusion of 88 names due to nomenclatural issues (e.g. synonymy), the inclusion of 26 updated currently accepted names and four taxa newly naturalized since the production of the source datasets, and the exclusion of 13 taxa that were either found not to be in Australia or were in fact doubtfully naturalized. This study also supports the notion that automated processes alone will not be enough to ensure taxonomically clean datasets, and that manual scrutiny of data is essential. In the long term, this will best be supported by increased investment in taxonomy and botany in university curricula.

Murray, S.A., Ajani, P., Kretzschmar, A.L. & Verma, A. 2017, 'Response to "More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts form recent toxic marine aerosol formulations, due to centennial alterations or world-wide coastal food webs".', Mar Pollut Bull.
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Nagalingam, G., Vinuesa, C.G., Britton, W.J. & Saunders, B.M. 2017, 'Modulation of Roquin Function in Myeloid Cells Reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Inflammation.', J Immunol.
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Damaging inflammation is a hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and understanding how this is regulated is important for the development of new therapies to limit excessive inflammation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, Roquin, is involved in immune regulation; however, its role in immunity to M. tuberculosis is unknown. To address this, we infected mice with a point mutation in Roquin1/Rc3h1 (sanroque). Aerosol-infected sanroque mice showed enhanced control of M. tuberculosis infection associated with delayed bacterial dissemination and upregulated TNF production in the lungs after 2 wk. However, this early control of infection was not maintained, and by 8 wk postinfection sanroque mice demonstrated an increased bacterial burden and dysregulated inflammation in the lungs. As the inflammation in the lungs of the sanroque mice could have been influenced by emerging autoimmune conditions that are characteristic of the mice aging, the function of Roquin was examined in immune cell subsets in the absence of autoimmune complications. M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin-primed sanroque T cells transferred into Rag1(-/-) mice provided equivalent protection in the spleen and liver. Interestingly, the transfer of mycobacteria-specific (P25 CD4(+) TCR transgenic) wild-type spleen cells into sanroqueRag1(-/-) mice actually led to enhanced protection with reduced bacterial load, decreased chemokine expression, and reduced inflammation in the lungs compared with transfers into Rag1(-)(/-) mice expressing intact Roquin. These studies suggest that modulation of Roquin in myeloid cells may reduce both inflammation and bacterial growth during the chronic phase of M. tuberculosis infection.

Nair, H.A.S., Periasamy, S., Yang, L., Kjelleberg, S. & Rice, S.A. 2017, 'Real Time, Spatial, and Temporal Mapping of the Distribution of c-di-GMP during Biofilm Development.', Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 292, no. 2, pp. 477-487.
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Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a dynamic intracellular signaling molecule that plays a central role in the biofilm life cycle. Current methodologies for the quantification of c-di-GMP are typically based on chemical extraction, representing end point measurements. Chemical methodologies also fail to take into consideration the physiological heterogeneity of the biofilm and thus represent an average c-di-GMP concentration across the entire biofilm. To address these problems, a ratiometric, image-based quantification method has been developed based on expression of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) under the control of the c-di-GMP-responsive cdrA promoter (Rybtke, M. T., Borlee, B. R., Murakami, K., Irie, Y., Hentzer, M., Nielsen, T. E., Givskov, M., Parsek, M. R., and Tolker-Nielsen, T. (2012) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78, 5060-5069). The methodology uses the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) as a biomass indicator and the GFP as a c-di-GMP reporter. Thus, the CFP/GFP ratio gives the effective c-di-GMP per biomass. A binary mask was applied to alleviate background fluorescence, and fluorescence was calibrated against known c-di-GMP concentrations. Using flow cells for biofilm formation, c-di-GMP showed a non-uniform distribution across the biofilm, with concentrated hot spots of c-di-GMP. Additionally, c-di-GMP was found to be localized at the outer boundary of mature colonies in contrast to a uniform distribution in early stage, small colonies. These data demonstrate the application of a method for the in situ, real time quantification of c-di-GMP and show that the amount of this biofilm-regulating second messenger was dynamic with time and colony size, reflecting the extent of biofilm heterogeneity in real time.

Nair, P.M., Starkey, M.R., Haw, T.J., Liu, G., Horvat, J.C., Morris, J.C., Verrills, N.M., Clark, A.R., Ammit, A.J. & Hansbro, P.M. 2017, 'Targeting PP2A and proteasome activity ameliorates features of allergic airway disease in mice.', Allergy.
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BACKGROUND: Asthma is an allergic airway disease (AAD) caused by aberrant immune responses to allergens. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase with anti-inflammatory activity. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) controls many cellular processes, including the initiation of inflammatory responses by protein degradation. We assessed whether enhancing PP2A activity with fingolimod (FTY720) or 2-amino-4-(4-(heptyloxy) phenyl)-2-methylbutan-1-ol (AAL(S) ), or inhibiting proteasome activity with bortezomib (BORT), could suppress experimental AAD. METHODS: Acute AAD was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA) in combination with intranasal (i.n) exposure to OVA. Chronic AAD was induced in mice with prolonged i.n exposure to crude house dust mite (HDM) extract. Mice were treated with vehicle, FTY720, AAL(S) , BORT or AAL(S) +BORT and hallmark features of AAD assessed. RESULTS: AAL(S) reduced the severity of acute AAD by suppressing tissue eosinophils and inflammation, mucus-secreting cell (MSC) numbers, type 2-associated cytokines (interleukin (IL)-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-5 and IL-13), serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). FTY720 only suppressed tissue inflammation and IgE. BORT reduced bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and tissue eosinophils and inflammation, IL-5, IL-13 and AHR. Combined treatment with AAL(S) +BORT had complementary effects and suppressed BALF and tissue eosinophils and inflammation, MSC numbers, reduced the production of type 2 cytokines and AHR. AAL(S) , BORT and AAL(S) +BORT also reduced airway remodelling in chronic AAD. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the potential of combination therapies that enhance PP2A and inhibit proteasome activity as novel therapeutic strategies for asthma.

Najafpour, M.M., Heidari, S., Balaghi, S.E., Hołyńska, M., Sadr, M.H., Soltani, B., Khatamian, M., Larkum, A.W. & Allakhverdiev, S.I. 2017, 'Proposed mechanisms for water oxidation by Photosystem II and nanosized manganese oxides.', Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1858, no. 2, pp. 156-174.
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Plants, algae and cyanobacteria capture sunlight, extracting electrons from H2O to reduce CO2 into sugars while releasing O2 in the oxygenic photosynthetic process. Because of the important role of water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis and many solar fuel systems, understanding the structure and function of this unique biological catalyst forms a requisite research field. Herein the structure of the water-oxidizing complex and its ligand environment are described with reference to the 1.9Å resolution X-ray-derived crystallographic model of the water-oxidizing complex from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Proposed mechanisms for water oxidation by Photosystem II and nanosized manganese oxides are also reviewed and discussed in the paper.

Nasiri, N., Bo, R., Fu, L. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Three-dimensional nano-heterojunction networks: a highly performing structure for fast visible-blind UV photodetectors.', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 2059-2067.
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Visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors are a promising emerging technology for the development of wide bandgap optoelectronic devices with greatly reduced power consumption and size requirements. A standing challenge is to improve the slow response time of these nanostructured devices. Here, we present a three-dimensional nanoscale heterojunction architecture for fast-responsive visible-blind UV photodetectors. The device layout consists of p-type NiO clusters densely packed on the surface of an ultraporous network of electron-depleted n-type ZnO nanoparticles. This 3D structure can detect very low UV light densities while operating with a near-zero power consumption of ca. 4 × 10(-11) watts and a low bias of 0.2 mV. Most notably, heterojunction formation decreases the device rise and decay times by 26 and 20 times, respectively. These drastic enhancements in photoresponse dynamics are attributed to the stronger surface band bending and improved electron-hole separation of the nanoscale NiO/ZnO interface. These findings demonstrate a superior structural design and a simple, low-cost CMOS-compatible process for the engineering of high-performance wearable photodetectors.

Nguyen, L.T., Saad, S., Tan, Y., Pollock, C. & Chen, H. 2017, 'Maternal high-fat diet induces metabolic stress response disorders in offspring hypothalamus.', Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 81-92.
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Maternal obesity has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and related disorders in the offspring, which has been partially attributed to changes of appetite regulators in the offspring hypothalamus. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been implicated in hypothalamic neuropeptide dysregulation, thus may also play important roles in such transgenerational effect. In this study, we show that offspring born to high-fat diet-fed dams showed significantly increased body weight and glucose intolerance, adiposity and plasma triglyceride level at weaning. Hypothalamic mRNA level of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased, while the levels of the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), NPY1 receptor (NPY1R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) were significantly downregulated. In association, the expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) markers including glucose-regulated protein (GRP)94 and endoplasmic reticulum DNA J domain-containing protein (Erdj)4 was reduced. By contrast, protein levels of autophagy-related genes Atg5 and Atg7, as well as mitophagy marker Parkin, were slightly increased. The administration of 4-phenyl butyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone of protein folding and UPR activator, in the offspring from postnatal day 4 significantly reduced their body weight, fat deposition, which were in association with increased activating transcription factor (ATF)4, immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) and Erdj4 mRNA as well as reduced Parkin, PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK)1 and dynamin-related protein (Drp)1 protein expression levels. These results suggest that hypothalamic ER stress and mitophagy are among the regulatory factors of offspring metabolic changes due to maternal obesity.

Nizalapur, S., Kimyon, O., Yee, E., Ho, K., Berry, T., Manefield, M., Cranfield, C.G., Willcox, M., Black, D.S. & Kumar, N. 2017, 'Amphipathic guanidine-embedded glyoxamide-based peptidomimetics as novel antibacterial agents and biofilm disruptors.', Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2033-2051.
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Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is becoming increasingly prevalent, posing a critical challenge to global health. Bacterial biofilm formation is a common resistance mechanism that reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. Thus, the development of compounds that can disrupt bacterial biofilms is a potential strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. We report herein the synthesis of amphipathic guanidine-embedded glyoxamide-based peptidomimetics via ring-opening reactions of N-naphthoylisatins with amines and amino acids. These compounds were investigated for their antibacterial activity by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus and E. coli. Compounds 35, 36, and 66 exhibited MIC values of 6, 8 and 10 μg mL(-1) against S. aureus, respectively, while compounds 55 and 56 showed MIC values of 17 and 19 μg mL(-1) against E. coli, respectively. Biofilm disruption and inhibition activities were also evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most active compound 65 exhibited the greatest disruption of established biofilms by 65% in S. aureus, 61% in P. aeruginosa, and 60% in S. marcescens respectively, at 250 μM concentration, while compound 52 inhibited the formation of biofilms by 72% in S. marcescens at 250 μM. We also report here the in vitro toxicity against MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells. Finally, the pore forming capability of the three most potent compounds were tested using tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM) technology.

Nizio, K.D., Ueland, M., Stuart, B.H. & Forbes, S.L. 2017, 'The analysis of textiles associated with decomposing remains as a natural training aid for cadaver-detection dogs', Forensic Chemistry, vol. 5, pp. 33-45.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Cadaver-detection dogs are employed by law enforcement agencies to locate human remains in cases of missing persons, suspected homicides and following natural or man-made disasters. The ability of cadaver-detection dogs to locate human remains relies heavily on the use of effective and reliable training aids. Cadaver-detection dogs may be trained using a variety of materials ranging from natural scent sources (e.g. flesh, bone, blood or decomposition soil) to synthetic materials (e.g. Pseudo™ Scents). Commercially available synthetic scents often have an overly simplistic chemical composition that is inconsistent with decomposition odour. Therefore, natural scent sources are typically considered to be the most effective training aids; however, there is concern that using individual tissue types as natural training aids may not be indicative of the scent of an intact human cadaver. The objective of this work was to determine how well textiles associated with decomposing remains retain and mimic the odour of natural training aids. To test this, the chemical odour profile of textile samples collected from decomposing porcine remains that were buried clothed in 100% cotton t-shirts was examined. Throughout various stages of decomposition, the pig carcasses were exhumed and cotton samples were obtained. The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of the textiles was collected using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). This study provides evidence that textiles associated with decomposing remains may represent a useful natural training aid with a VOC profile reflective of a large subset of cadaveric decomposition odour. The odour profile is dynamic and changes over time suggesting that obtaining textiles from different postmortem intervals would be useful for providing training aids that represent the full spectrum of dec...

Nolan, R.H., Fairweather, K.A., Tarin, T., Santini, N.S., Cleverly, J., Faux, R. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Divergence in plant water-use strategies in semiarid woody species', Functional Plant Biology.
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Nolan, R.H., Tarin, T., Fairweather, K.A., Cleverly, J. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Variation in photosynthetic traits related to access to water in semiarid Australian woody species', Functional Plant Biology.
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Nolan, T.H. & Wand, M.P. 2017, 'Accurate logistic variational message passing: algebraic and numerical details', Stat, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 102-112.
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Novikov, A., Alexander, S., Khordzakhia, N. & Ling, T. 2017, 'Pricing of Asian-type and basket options via bounds', Theory of Probability and Its Applications, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 53-68.
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This paper sets out to provide a general framework for the pricing of average-type options via lower and upper bounds. This class of options includes Asian, basket, and options on the volume-weighted average price. The use of lower and upper bounds is proposed in response to the inherent difficulty in finding analytical representations for the true price of these options and the requirement for numerical procedures to be fast and efficient. We demonstrate that in some cases lower bounds allow for the dimensionality of the problem to be reduced and that these methods provide reasonable approximations to the price of the option.

Novikov, A., Alexander, S., Kordzakhia, N. & Ling, T. 2017, 'Pricing of asian-type and basket options via bounds', Theory of Probability and Its Applications, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 94-106.
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© 2017 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. This paper sets out to provide a general framework for the pricing of average-type options via lower and upper bounds. This class of options includes Asian, basket, and options on the volume-weighted average price. The use of lower and upper bounds is proposed in response to the inherent difficulty in finding analytical representations for the true price of these options and the requirement for numerical procedures to be fast and efficient. We demonstrate that in some cases lower bounds allow for the dimensionality of the problem to be reduced and that these methods provide reasonable approximations to the price of the option.

O'Brien, R.C., Appleton, A.J. & Forbes, S.L. 2017, 'Comparison of taphonomic progression due to the necrophagic activity of geographically disparate scavenging guilds', Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 42-53.
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© 2016 Canadian Society of Forensic Science. Taphonomy, the study of the progression of living things from death to decay or fossilization, is crucial for understanding and determining the post mortem interval. One of the many factors that influence the taphonomic development of a set of remains is scavenger activity. Animals that feed on a carcass can greatly influence the interpretation of the circumstances which have led to the deposition of the body, thus it is important to be able to characterise how necrophagy impacts decomposition. Because the species of scavengers vary greatly depending on the region, information must be gathered in different areas that can provide generalizations for diverse geographic locations. This study seeks to characterise and compare the decomposition rates of remains in Western Australia and in Ontario, Canada. Domestic pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were placed in four locations near Perth, Western Australia and in two locations in Ontario, Canada. These were observed using trail cameras to document scavenging activity and the progression of decay. The results showed that even when climatic variable are taken into account, the effects of scavenging on decompositional rates are significant. Information from this research provides insight into the influence of distinct scavenging guilds on decomposition and how understanding the necrophagy of local fauna may contribute to the interpretation of a death scene.

Oh, H.-.S., Tan, C.H., Low, J.H., Rzechowicz, M., Siddiqui, M.F., Winters, H., Kjelleberg, S., Fane, A.G. & Rice, S.A. 2017, 'Quorum quenching bacteria can be used to inhibit the biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes', Water Research, vol. 112, pp. 29-37.
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O'Neill, E.S., Kaur, A., Bishop, D.P., Shishmarev, D., Kuchel, P.W., Grieve, S.M., Figtree, G.A., Renfrew, A.K., Bonnitcha, P.D. & New, E.J. 2017, 'Hypoxia-Responsive Cobalt Complexes in Tumor Spheroids: Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies.', Inorg Chem.
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Dense tumors are resistant to conventional chemotherapies due to the unique tumor microenvironment characterized by hypoxic regions that promote cellular dormancy. Bioreductive drugs that are activated in response to this hypoxic environment are an attractive strategy for therapy with anticipated lower harmful side effects in normoxic healthy tissue. Cobalt bioreductive pro-drugs that selectively release toxic payloads upon reduction in hypoxic cells have shown great promise as anticancer agents. However, the bioreductive response in the tumor microenvironment must be better understood, as current techniques for monitoring bioreduction to Co(II) such as X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure provide limited information on speciation and require synchrotron radiation sources. Here, we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an accessible and powerful technique to monitor bioreduction by treating the cobalt complex as an MRI contrast agent and monitoring the change in water signal induced by reduction from diamagnetic Co(III) to paramagnetic Co(II). Cobalt pro-drugs built upon the tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine ligand scaffold with varying charge were investigated for distribution and activity in a 3D tumor spheroid model by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and MRI. In addition, paramagnetic (1)H NMR spectroscopy of spheroids enabled determination of the speciation of activated Co(II)TPAx complexes. This study demonstrates the utility of MRI and associated spectroscopy techniques for understanding bioreductive cobalt pro-drugs in the tumor microenvironment and has broader implications for monitoring paramagnetic metal-based therapies.

Ong, M., Peng, J., Jin, X. & Qu, X. 2017, 'Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.', Am J Chin Med, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 405-422.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Existing pharmaceutical agents such as hormonal therapies have been associated with side effects and are not appropriate for PCOS women with infertility. Additionally, insulin sensitizing agents useful for treating the metabolic abnormalities in PCOS have limited efficacy for treating reproductive aspects of the disorder. Chinese herbal medicines have a long history of treating gynaecological problems and infertility and therefore may be a novel approach to the treatment of PCOS. Current research demonstrates that the compounds isolated from herbs have shown beneficial effects for PCOS and when combined in an herbal formula can target both reproductive and metabolic defects simultaneously. Therefore, further investigation into Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PCOS is warranted.

O'Rourke, M.B. & Padula, M.P. 2017, 'A new standard of visual data representation for imaging mass spectrometry.', PROTEOMICS - Clinical Applications, vol. 11, no. 3-4.
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PURPOSE: MALDI imaging MS (IMS) is principally used for cancer diagnostics. In our own experience with publishing IMS data, we have been requested to modify our protocols with respect to the areas of the tissue that are imaged in order to comply with the wider literature. In light of this, we have determined that current methodologies lack effective controls and can potentially introduce bias by only imaging specific areas of the targeted tissue EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A previously imaged sample was selected and then cropped in different ways to show the potential effect of only imaging targeted areas. RESULTS: By using a model sample, we were able to effectively show how selective imaging of samples can misinterpret tissue features and by changing the areas that are acquired, according to our new standard, an effective internal control can be introduced. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current IMS sampling convention relies on the assumption that sample preparation has been performed correctly. This prevents users from checking whether molecules have moved beyond borders of the tissue due to delocalization and consequentially products of improper sample preparation could be interpreted as biological features that are of critical importance when encountered in a visual diagnostic.

O'Rourke, M.B., Djordjevic, S.P. & Padula, M.P. 2017, 'The Quest for Improved Reproducibility In MALDI Mass Spectrometry', Mass Spectrometry Reviews.
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Reproducibility has been one of the biggest hurdles faced when attempting to develop quantitative protocols for MALDI mass spectrometry. The heterogeneous nature of sample recrystallization has made automated sample acquisition somewhat “hit and miss” with manual intervention needed to ensure that all sample spots have been analyzed. In this review, we explore the last 30 years of literature and anecdotal evidence that has attempted to address and improve reproducibility in MALDI MS. Though many methods have been attempted, we have discovered a significant publication history surrounding the use of nitrocellulose as a substrate to improve homogeneity of crystal formation and therefore reproducibility. We therefore propose that this is the most promising avenue of research for developing a comprehensive and universal preparation protocol for quantitative MALDI MS analysis

O'Rourke, M.B., Raymond, B.B.A. & Padula, M.P. 2017, 'The Characterization of Laser Ablation Patterns and a New Definition of Resolution in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS).', J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 895-900.
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Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a technique that has seen a sharp rise in both use and development. Despite this rapid adoption, there have been few thorough investigations into the actual physical mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of IMS images. We therefore set out to characterize the effect of IMS laser ablation patterns on the surface of a sample. We also concluded that the governing factors that control spatial resolution have not been correctly defined and therefore propose a new definition of resolution. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

Padula, M.P., Berry, I.J., O Rourke, M.B., Raymond, B.B.A., Santos, J. & Djordjevic, S.P. 2017, 'A Comprehensive Guide for Performing Sample Preparation and Top-Down Protein Analysis.', Proteomes, vol. 5, no. 2.
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Methodologies for the global analysis of proteins in a sample, or proteome analysis, have been available since 1975 when Patrick O'Farrell published the first paper describing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). This technique allowed the resolution of single protein isoforms, or proteoforms, into single 'spots' in a polyacrylamide gel, allowing the quantitation of changes in a proteoform's abundance to ascertain changes in an organism's phenotype when conditions change. In pursuit of the comprehensive profiling of the proteome, significant advances in technology have made the identification and quantitation of intact proteoforms from complex mixtures of proteins more routine, allowing analysis of the proteome from the 'Top-Down'. However, the number of proteoforms detected by Top-Down methodologies such as 2D-PAGE or mass spectrometry has not significantly increased since O'Farrell's paper when compared to Bottom-Up, peptide-centric techniques. This article explores and explains the numerous methodologies and technologies available to analyse the proteome from the Top-Down with a strong emphasis on the necessity to analyse intact proteoforms as a better indicator of changes in biology and phenotype. We arrive at the conclusion that the complete and comprehensive profiling of an organism's proteome is still, at present, beyond our reach but the continuing evolution of protein fractionation techniques and mass spectrometry brings comprehensive Top-Down proteome profiling closer.

Pan, S., Sharma, P., Shah, S. & Deshpande, D. 2017, 'Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Alter Mitochondrial Function and Induce Autophagy in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells', American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 313, no. 1, pp. L154-L165.
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Pandey, A.K., Mishra, A.K., Kumar, R., Berwal, S., Devadas, R., Huete, A. & Kumar, K. 2017, 'CO variability and its association with household cooking fuels consumption over the Indo-Gangetic Plains.', Environ Pollut, vol. 222, pp. 83-93.
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This study examines the spatio-temporal trends obtained from decade long (Jan 2003-Dec 2014) satellite observational data of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) on carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region. The time sequence plots of columnar CO levels over the western, central and eastern IGP regions reveal marked seasonal behaviour, with lowest CO levels occurring during the monsoon months and the highest CO levels occurring during the pre-monsoon period. A negative correlation between CO levels and rainfall is observed. CO vertical profiles show relatively high values in the upper troposphere at ∼200 hPa level during the monsoon months, thus suggesting the role of convective transport and advection in addition to washout behind the decreased CO levels during this period. MOPITT and AIRS observations show a decreasing trend of 9.6 × 10(15) and 1.5 × 10(16) molecules cm(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in columnar CO levels over the IGP region. The results show the existence of a spatial gradient in CO from the eastern (higher levels) to western IGP region (lower levels). Data from the Census of India on the number of households using various cooking fuels in the IGP region shows the prevalence of biomass-fuel (i.e. firewood, crop residue, cowdung etc.) use over the eastern and central IGP regions and that of liquefied petroleum gas over the western IGP region. CO emission estimates from cooking activity over the three IGP regions are found to be in the order east > central > west, which support the existence of the spatial gradient in CO from eastern to the western IGP region. Our results support the intervention of present Indian government on limiting the use of biomass-fuels in domestic cooking to achieve the benefits in terms of the better air quality, household health and regional/global climate change mitigation.

Parviz, M., Gaus, K. & Gooding, J.J. 2017, 'Simultaneous impedance spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy for the real-time monitoring of the response of cells to drugs', Chemical Science, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1831-1840.
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© The Royal Society of Chemistry. A dual fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical strategy to investigate how cell-surface interactions influence the cellular responses to cues for the cell-based biosensing of drug efficacy is reported herein. The combined method can be used to not only monitor the importance of controlling the cellular adhesive environment on the cell response to drugs but it also provides biological information on the timescales of downstream outside-in signaling from soluble cues. As an example of the use of the combined method, we show how adhesive cues influence the signalling responses of cells to soluble cues. G-protein-coupled receptors were used as the target for the soluble cues. The changes in cell adhesion, cell morphology and Ca 2+ flux induced by soluble histamine were simultaneously monitored as a function of the spacing of the adhesive ligand RGD on the interdigitated indium tin oxide electrodes. The simultaneous measurements revealed that the timescales of histamine-induced Ca 2+ mobilization and the decrease in cell-cell adhesions are correlated. Furthermore, cells on the surfaces with an RGD spacing of 31 nm were shown to display a faster release of Ca 2+ and change in cell adhesion upon histamine stimulation compared to cells on other surfaces.

Pasin, D., Cawley, A., Bidny, S. & Fu, S. 2017, 'Characterization of hallucinogenic phenethylamines using high-resolution mass spectrometry for non-targeted screening purposes.', Drug Test Anal.
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Hallucinogenic phenethylamines such as 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C-X) and their N-(2-methoxybenzyl) derivatives (25X-NBOMe) have seen an increase in novel analogues in recent years. These rapidly changing analogues make it difficult for laboratories to rely on traditional targeted screening methods to detect unknown new psychoactive substances (NPS). In this study, twelve 2C-X, six 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines (DOX), and fourteen 25X-NBOMe derivatives, including two deuterated derivatives (2C-B-d6 and 25I-NBOMe-d9 ), were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed using collision energies set at 10, 20, and 40 eV. For 2C-X and DOX derivatives, common losses were observed including neutral and radical losses such as NH3 (17.0265 Da), •CH6 N (32.0500 Da), C2 H7 N (45.0578 Da) and C2 H9 N (47.0735 Da). 2C-X derivatives displayed common product ions at m/z 164.0837 ([C10 H12 O2 ](+•) ), 149.0603 ([C9 H9 O2 ](+) ), and 134.0732 ([C9 H10 O](+•) ) while DOX derivatives had common product ions at m/z 178.0994 ([C11 H14 O2 ](+•) ), 163.0754 ([C10 H11 O2 ](+) ), 147.0804 ([C10 H11 O](+) ), and 135.0810 ([C9 H11 O](+) ). 25X-NBOMe had characteristic product ions at m/z 121.0654 ([C8 H9 O](+) ) and 91.0548 ([C7 H7 ](+) ) with minor common losses corresponding to 2-methylanisole (C8 H10 O, 122.0732 Da), 2-methoxybenzylamine (C8 H11 NO, 137.0847 Da), and •C9 H14 NO (152.1074 Da). Novel analogues of the selected classes can be detected by applying neutral loss filters (NLFs) and extracting the common product ions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pasin, D., Cawley, A., Bidny, S. & Fu, S. 2017, 'Current applications of high-resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of new psychoactive substances: a critical review.', Anal Bioanal Chem.
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The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years has resulted in the development of numerous analytical methods for the detection and identification of known and unknown NPS derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been identified as the method of choice for broad screening of NPS in a wide range of analytical contexts because of its ability to measure accurate masses using data-independent acquisition (DIA) techniques. Additionally, it has shown promise for non-targeted screening strategies that have been developed in order to detect and identify novel analogues without the need for certified reference materials (CRMs) or comprehensive mass spectral libraries. This paper reviews the applications of HRMS for the analysis of NPS in forensic drug chemistry and analytical toxicology. It provides an overview of the sample preparation procedures in addition to data acquisition, instrumental analysis, and data processing techniques. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the current state of non-targeted screening strategies with discussion on future directions and perspectives of this technique. Graphical Abstract Missing the bullseye - a graphical respresentation of non-targeted screening. Image courtesy of Christian Alonzo.

Patel, B.S., Kugel, M.J., Baehring, G. & Ammit, A.J. 2017, 'Doxofylline does not increase formoterol-induced cAMP nor MKP-1 expression in ASM cells resulting in lack of anti-inflammatory effect.', Pulm Pharmacol Ther, vol. 45, pp. 34-39.
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The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 'novofylline' doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether doxofylline has anti-inflammatory impact on primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. We conduct a series of investigations comparing and contrasting doxofylline with the archetypal xanthine, theophylline, and the specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, cilomilast. We confirm that the xanthine drugs do not have action as PDE inhibitors in ASM cells. Unlike cilomilast, doxofylline (and theophylline) do not increase cAMP production in ASM cells induced by long-acting β2-agonist formoterol. Similar to theophylline, and consistent with the lack of cAMP potentiation, doxofylline does not augment formoterol-induced upregulation of the anti-inflammatory protein mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). However, when we examine the effect of doxofylline on secretion of the interleukin 8 from ASM cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor (an in vitro surrogate measure of inflammation), there was no repression of inflammation. This is in contrast to the anti-inflammatory impact exerted by theophylline and cilomilast in confirmatory experiments. In summary, our study is the first to examine the effect of doxofylline on ASM cells in vitro and highlights some distinct differences between two key members of xanthine drug family, doxofylline and theophylline.

Patel, B.S., Rahman, M.M., Baehring, G., Xenaki, D., Tang, F.S.-.M., Oliver, B.G. & Ammit, A.J. 2017, 'Roflumilast N-Oxide in Combination with Formoterol Enhances the Antiinflammatory Effect of Dexamethasone in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.', American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 532-538.
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Roflumilast is an orally active phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor approved for use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Roflumilast N-oxide (RNO) is the active metabolite of roflumilast and has a demonstrated antiinflammatory impact in vivo and in vitro. To date, the effect of RNO on the synthetic function of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells is unknown. We address this herein and investigate the effect of RNO on β2-adrenoceptor-mediated, cAMP-dependent responses in ASM cells in vitro, and whether RNO enhances steroid-induced repression of inflammation. RNO (0.001-1,000 nM) alone had no effect on AMP production from ASM cells, and significant potentiation of the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol-induced cAMP could only be achieved at the highest concentration of RNO tested (1,000 nM). At this concentration, RNO exerted a small, but not significantly different, potentiation of formoterol-induced expression of antiinflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1. Consequently, tumor necrosis factor-induced IL-8 secretion was unaffected by RNO in combination with formoterol. However, because there was the potential for phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors and long-acting β2-agonists to interact with corticosteroids to achieve superior antiinflammatory efficacy, we examined whether RNO, alone or in combination with formoterol, enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of dexamethasone by measuring the impact on IL-8 secretion. Although RNO alone did not significantly enhance the cytokine repression achieved with steroids, RNO in combination with formoterol significantly enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of dexamethasone in ASM cells. This was linked to increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 expression in ASM cells, suggesting that a molecular mechanism is responsible for augmented antiinflammatory actions of combination therapeutic approaches that include RNO.

Paul, B., Kim, H.S., Kerr, M.C., Huston, W.M., Teasdale, R.D. & Collins, B.M. 2017, 'Structural basis for the hijacking of endosomal sorting nexin proteins by Chlamydia trachomatis.', Elife, vol. 6.
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During infection chlamydial pathogens form an intracellular membrane-bound replicative niche termed the inclusion, which is enriched with bacterial transmembrane proteins called Incs. Incs bind and manipulate host cell proteins to promote inclusion expansion and provide camouflage against innate immune responses. Sorting nexin (SNX) proteins that normally function in endosomal membrane trafficking are a major class of inclusion-associated host proteins, and are recruited by IncE/CT116. Crystal structures of the SNX5 phox-homology (PX) domain in complex with IncE define the precise molecular basis for these interactions. The binding site is unique to SNX5 and related family members SNX6 and SNX32. Intriguingly the site is also conserved in SNX5 homologues throughout evolution, suggesting that IncE captures SNX5-related proteins by mimicking a native host protein interaction. These findings thus provide the first mechanistic insights both into how chlamydial Incs hijack host proteins, and how SNX5-related PX domains function as scaffolds in protein complex assembly.

Pellegrino, G., Taraschi, V., Vercellotti, T., Ben-Nissan, B. & Marchetti, C. 2017, 'Three-dimensional implant positioning with a piezosurgery implant site preparation technique and an intraoral surgical navigation system: Case report', International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. e161-e165.
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© 2017 by Quintessence Publishing Co Inc. This case report describes new implant site preparation techniques joining the benefits of using an intraoral navigation system to optimize three-dimensional implant site positioning in combination with an ultrasonic osteotomy. A report of five patients is presented, and the implant positions as planned in the navigation software with the postoperative scan image were compared. The preliminary results are useful, although further clinical studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these findings.

Penfold, S., Dayananda, B. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Chemical cues influence retreat-site selection by flat rock spiders', Behaviour, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 149-161.
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© 2017 Copyright 2017 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Many animals use chemical cues to detect conspecifics and predators. On sandstone outcrops, flat rock spiders Morebilus plagusius and Polyrachis ants use sun-exposed rocks as nest sites, and defend rocks from intruders. We investigated whether chemical cues influenced retreat-site selection by spiders. In the field, spiders showed significant avoidance of rocks used by ants. In laboratory trials, we gave spiders the choice between conspecific-scented and unscented refuges, and ant-scented and unscented refuges. In conspecific scent trials, spiders showed no avoidance of spider scented refuges during the night, but significantly more spiders chose unscented refuges as their diurnal retreat-site. In ant scent trials, spiders made more visits to unscented refuges than ant-scented refuges during the night, and significantly more spiders chose unscented refuges as their diurnal retreat site. Our results demonstrate that spiders can detect chemical cues from ants and conspecifics, and that such cues influence retreat-site selection.

Peng, D., Zhang, B., Wu, C., Huete, A.R., Gonsamo, A., Lei, L., Ponce-Campos, G.E., Liu, X. & Wu, Y. 2017, 'Country-level net primary production distribution and response to drought and land cover change', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 574, pp. 65-77.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can offset emissions and thereby offers an alternative way of achieving the target of reducing the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Net primary production (NPP) is the first step in the sequestration of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems. This study quantifies moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP from 2000 to 2014 at the country level along with its response to drought and land cover change. Our results indicate that the combined NPP for 53 countries represents >  90% of global NPP. From 2000 to 2014, 29 of these 53 countries had increasing NPP trends, most notably the Central African Republic (23 g C/m 2 /y). The top three and top 12 countries accounted for 30% and 60% of total global NPP, respectively, whereas the mean national NPP per unit area in the countries with the 12 lowest values was only around ~ 300 g C/m 2 /y - the exception to this was Brazil, which had an NPP of 850 g C/m 2 /y. Large areas of Russia, Argentina, Peru and several countries in southeast Asia showed a marked decrease in NPP (~ 15 g C/m 2 /y). About 37% of the NPP decrease was caused by drought while ~ 55% of NPP variability was attributed to changes in water availability. Land cover change explained about 20% of the NPP variability. Our findings support the idea that government policies should aim primarily to improve water management in drought-afflicted countries; land use/land cover change policy could also be used as an alternative method of increasing NPP.

Peng, D., Zhang, X., Wu, C., Huang, W., Gonsamo, A., Huete, A.R., Didan, K., Tan, B., Liu, X. & Zhang, B. 2017, 'Intercomparison and evaluation of spring phenology products using National Phenology Network and AmeriFlux observations in the contiguous United States', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 242, pp. 33-46.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Many remote sensing based spring phenology products have been developed to monitor and study vegetation phenology at regional and global scales. It is important to understand how these products perform relative to each other and to ground observations. In this study, we extracted spring green-up onset dates (GUD) over the contiguous United States (CONUS) from six major land surface phenology (LSP) products: (1) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Cover Dynamics Phenology (MCD12Q2); (2) Vegetation Index and Phenology Multi-sensor Phenology (VIPPHENEVI2); (3) Global Long-Term Climate Modeling Grid Land Surface Phenology (CMGLSP); (4 and 5) North American Carbon Program (NACP) Phenology (MOD09Q1PEVI and MOD15PHN); and (6) USGS/EROS advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) phenology (AVHRRP). We characterized and compared the GUD data in these LSP products, and evaluated their accuracy using ground-based phenology observations [i.e., human observations of first leaf and sensor readings of gross primary productivity (GPP)] from the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) and AmeriFlux. The results revealed the consistencies and discrepancies of GUD estimates among LSP products. Intercomparison of the six products indicated that the root mean square error (RMSE) of these products range from 17.8 days to 31.5 days, whereas AVHRRP GUD has the lowest correlation and largest RMSE (∼30 days) relative to other products. When compared to ground observations, GUD estimates in six LSP products generally have RMSE values of ∼20 days and significant correlations (p  <  0.001). For the products (MCD12Q2, AVHRRP, MOD09Q1PEVI, and MOD15PHN) available for comparisons in the short-term period (from 2001–2007), AVHRRP GUD presented relatively weaker correlations and a lower index of agreement (IOA), however, MCD12Q2 GUD showed overall slightly better consistencies with ground observations. In the two long-term products (CMGLSP and VI...

Peng, K., Parkinson, P., Gao, Q., Boland, J.L., Li, Z., Wang, F., Mokkapati, S., Fu, L., Johnston, M.B., Tan, H.H. & Jagadish, C. 2017, '[title field missing]', Nanotechnology, vol. 28.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. Developing single-nanowire terahertz (THz) electronics and employing them as sub-wavelength components for highly-integrated THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) applications is a promising approach to achieve future low-cost, highly integrable and high-resolution THz tools, which are desirable in many areas spanning from security, industry, environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics to fundamental science. In this work, we present the design and growth of n + -i-n + InP nanowires. The axial doping profile of the n + -i-n + InP nanowires has been calibrated and characterized using combined optical and electrical approaches to achieve nanowire devices with low contact resistances, on which the highly-sensitive InP single-nanowire photoconductive THz detectors have been demonstrated. While the n + -i-n + InP nanowire detector has a only pA-level response current, it has a 2.5 times improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with the undoped InP nanowire detector and is comparable to traditional bulk THz detectors. This performance indicates a promising path to nanowire-based THz electronics for future commercial applications.

Petrou, K., Ralph, P.J. & Nielsen, D.A. 2017, 'A novel mechanism for host-mediated photoprotection in endosymbiotic foraminifera.', ISME J, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 453-462.
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Light underpins the health and function of coral reef ecosystems, where symbiotic partnerships with photosynthetic algae constitute the life support system of the reef. Decades of research have given us detailed knowledge of the photoprotective capacity of phototrophic organisms, yet little is known about the role of the host in providing photoprotection in symbiotic systems. Here we show that the intracellular symbionts within the large photosymbiotic foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis exhibit phototactic behaviour, and that the phototactic movement of the symbionts is accomplished by the host, through rapid actin-mediated relocation of the symbionts deeper into the cavities within the calcium carbonate test. Using a photosynthetic inhibitor, we identified that the infochemical signalling for host regulation is photosynthetically derived, highlighting the presence of an intimate communication between the symbiont and the host. Our results emphasise the central importance of the host in photosymbiotic photoprotection via a new mechanism in foraminifera that can serve as a platform for exploring host-symbiont communication in other photosymbiotic organisms.

Pfeiffer, R.M., Redd, A. & Carroll, R.J. 2017, 'On the impact of model selection on predictor identification and parameter inference', Computational Statistics, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 667-690.
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© 2016 The Author(s)We assessed the ability of several penalized regression methods for linear and logistic models to identify outcome-associated predictors and the impact of predictor selection on parameter inference for practical sample sizes. We studied effect estimates obtained directly from penalized methods (Algorithm 1), or by refitting selected predictors with standard regression (Algorithm 2). For linear models, penalized linear regression, elastic net, smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD), least angle regression and LASSO had a low false negative (FN) predictor selection rates but false positive (FP) rates above 20 % for all sample and effect sizes. Partial least squares regression had few FPs but many FNs. Only relaxo had low FP and FN rates. For logistic models, LASSO and penalized logistic regression had many FPs and few FNs for all sample and effect sizes. SCAD and adaptive logistic regression had low or moderate FP rates but many FNs. 95 % confidence interval coverage of predictors with null effects was approximately 100 % for Algorithm 1 for all methods, and 95 % for Algorithm 2 for large sample and effect sizes. Coverage was low only for penalized partial least squares (linear regression). For outcome-associated predictors, coverage was close to 95 % for Algorithm 2 for large sample and effect sizes for all methods except penalized partial least squares and penalized logistic regression. Coverage was sub-nominal for Algorithm 1. In conclusion, many methods performed comparably, and while Algorithm 2 is preferred to Algorithm 1 for estimation, it yields valid inference only for large effect and sample sizes.

Pierangelini, M., Raven, J.A. & Giordano, M. 2017, 'The relative availability of inorganic carbon and inorganic nitrogen influences the response of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum to elevated CO2.', Journal of phycology.
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This work originates from three facts: 1) changes in CO2 availability influence metabolic processes in algal cells. 2) Spatial and temporal variations of nitrogen availability cause repercussions on phytoplankton physiology. 3) Growth and cell composition are dependent on the stoichiometry of nutritional resources. In this study we assess whether the impact of rising pCO2 is influenced by N availability, through the impact that it would have on the C/N stoichiometry, in condition of N sufficiency. Our experiments used the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum, which we cultured under three CO2 regimes (400, 1000 and 5000 ppmv, pH of 8.1) and either variable (the NO3 (-) concentration was always 2.5 mmol • L(-1) ) or constant (NO3 (-) concentration varied to maintain the same Ci /NO3 (-) ratio at all pCO2 ) Ci  /NO3 (-) ratio. Regardless of N availability, cells had higher specific growth rates, but lower cell dry weight and C and N quotas, at elevated CO2 . The carbohydrate pool size and the C/N was unaltered in all treatments. The lipid content only decreased at high pCO2 at constant Ci  /NO3 (-) ratio. In the variable Ci  /NO3 (-) conditions, the relative abundance of Rubisco (and other proteins) also changed; this did not occur at constant Ci  /NO3 (-) . Thus, the biomass quality of P. reticulatum for grazers was affected by the Ci  /NO3 (-) ratio in the environment and not only by the pCO2 , both with respect to the size of the main organic pools and the composition of the expressed proteome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Poh, W.H., Barraud, N., Guglielmo, S., Lazzarato, L., Rolando, B., Fruttero, R. & Rice, S.A. 2017, 'Furoxan Nitric Oxide Donors Disperse Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms, Accelerate Growth, and Repress Pyoverdine Production.', ACS Chemical Biology.
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The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development, and dispersal were also characterized. Compound LL4254, which showed a fast rate of NO release, induced biofilm dispersal at approximately 200 μM. While LL4212 and LL4216 have a slower rate of NO release, both compounds could induce biofilm dispersal, under the same treatment conditions, when used at higher concentrations. In addition, LL4212 and LL4216 were found to promote P. aeruginosa growth in iron-limited minimal medium, leading to a faster rate of biofilm formation and glucose utilization, and ultimately resulted in early dispersal of biofilm cells through carbon starvation. High concentrations of LL4216 also repressed production of the siderophore pyoverdine by more than 50-fold, via both NOx-dependent and NOx-independent mechanisms. The effects on growth and pyoverdine levels exerted by the furoxans appeared to be mediated by NO-independent mechanisms, suggesting functional activities of furoxans in addition to their release of NO and nitrite. Overall, this study reveals that secondary effects of furoxans are important considerations for their use as NO-releasing dispersal agents and that these compounds could be potentially redesigned as pyoverdine inhibitors.

Portbury, S.D., Hare, D.J., Sgambelloni, C.J., Bishop, D.P., Finkelstein, D.I., Doble, P.A. & Adlard, P.A. 2017, 'Age modulates the injury-induced metallomic profile in the brain.', Metallomics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 402-410.
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The biological transition metals iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are thought to contribute to the neuronal pathologies that occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and indeed our previously published work in young (3 month-old) mice clearly demonstrates a significant spatiotemporal modulation of metals following TBI. Of note, however, is the literature observation that there is both an apparent detrimental effect of aging on TBI outcomes and an alteration in metals and their various transporters with normal advancing age. Therefore, to determine whether there was an interaction between aging, metals and TBI, we have utilised laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of Fe, Zn and Cu following an acute controlled cortical impact brain injury in aged (24 months) rodents. The relative abundance of metals in corresponding regions within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres as well as the hippocampus was assessed. Substantial region and time point specific alterations in Fe, Zn and Cu were identified immediately and up to 28 days post-TBI. The data from this follow-up study has also been compared to our previous data from young animals, and aged mice exhibit an appreciably enhanced and persistent elevation of all metals in every region surveyed, with individual metal disparities at various time points observed post-injury. This may potentially contribute to the acceleration in the onset of cognitive decline and neurological disease that has been observed in the aged population following head trauma.

Prakash, Y.S., Halayko, A.J., Gosens, R., Panettieri, R.A., Camoretti-Mercado, B., Penn, R.B. & ATS Assembly on Respiratory Structure and Function 2017, 'An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling.', American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 195, no. 2, pp. e4-e19.
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BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulatory issues that deter progress of AR research and development of therapeutics targeting AR and to propose approaches and solutions to these specific problems. This Statement is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on any disease in which AR is observed and/or plays a role. METHODS: An international multidisciplinary group from within academia, industry, and the National Institutes of Health, with expertise in multimodal approaches to the study of airway structure and function, pulmonary research and clinical practice in obstructive lung disease, and drug discovery platforms was invited to participate in one internet-based and one face-to-face meeting to address the above-stated goals. Although the majority of the analysis related to AR was in asthma, AR in other diseases was also discussed and considered in the recommendations. A literature search of PubMed was performed to support conclusions. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. RESULTS: Multiple conceptual, logistical, economic, and regulatory deterrents were identified that limit the performance of AR research and impede accelerated, intensive development of AR-focused therapeutics. Complementary solutions that leverage expertise of academia and industry were proposed to address them. CONCLUSIONS: To date, numerous factors related to the intrinsic difficulty in performing AR research, and economic forces that are disincentives for the pursuit of AR treatments, have thwarted the ability to understand AR pathology and mechanisms and to address it clinically. This ATS Research Statement identifies potential solutions for each of these factors and emphasizes the importance of educ...

Pyke, G.H. 2017, 'Graham H. Pyke: Sustainability for Humanity: It's Time To Preach Beyond the Converted', TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 391-394.
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Pyke, G.H. & Szabo, J.K. 2017, 'Conservation and the four Rs, which are rescue, rehabilitation, release, and research.', Conserv Biol.
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Vertebrate animals can be injured or threatened with injury through human activities, thus warranting their 'rescue'. Details of wildlife Rescue, Rehabilitation, Release, and associated Research (our 4 R's) are often recorded in large databases, resulting in a wealth of information. This information has huge research potential and can contribute to our understanding of animal biology, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife, and species conservation. However, such databases have been little used, few studies have evaluated factors influencing success of rehabilitation and/or release, recommended actions to conserve threatened species have rarely arisen, and direct benefits for species conservation are yet to be demonstrated. We therefore recommend additional research based on rescue, rehabilitation and release of animals, broader in scope than previously carried out, which would also maintain support from the general human community. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

R Cardoso, B., Hare, D.J., Lind, M., McLean, C.A., Volitakis, I., Laws, S.M., Masters, C.L., Bush, A.I. & Roberts, B.R. 2017, 'The APOE ε4 Allele Is Associated with Lower Selenium Levels in the Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.', ACS Chemical Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1459-1464.
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The antioxidant activity of selenium, which is mainly conferred by its incorporation into dedicated selenoproteins, has been suggested as a possible neuroprotective approach for mitigating neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. However, there is inconsistent information with respect to selenium levels in the Alzheimer's disease brain. We examined the concentration and cellular compartmentalization of selenium in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer's disease and control brain tissue. We found that Alzheimer's disease was associated with decreased selenium concentration in both soluble (i.e., cytosolic) and insoluble (i.e., plaques and tangles) fractions of brain homogenates. The presence of the APOE ε4 allele correlated with lower total selenium levels in the temporal cortex and a higher concentration of soluble selenium. Additionally, we found that age significantly contributed to lower selenium concentrations in the peripheral membrane-bound and vesicular fractions. Our findings suggest a relevant interaction between APOE ε4 and selenium delivery into brain, and show changes in cellular selenium distribution in the Alzheimer's disease brain.

Rahman, M.A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Efficient multi-coloured Li-doped ZnO thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis', JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, vol. 691, pp. 339-342.
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Rahman, M.A., Westerhausen, M.T., Nenstiel, C., Choi, S., Hoffmann, A., Gentle, A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Charge state switching of Cu acceptors in ZnO nanorods', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 110, no. 12.
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© 2017 Author(s). Undoped and Ga-doped ZnO nanorods both exhibit an intense green luminescence (GL) band centered at ∼2.4 eV. Unlike the defect-related GL in undoped nanorods, the GL band in Ga-doped nanorods displays a periodic fine structure separated by 72 meV, which consists of doublets with an energy spacing of 30 ± 3 meV. The emergence of the structured GL is due to the Cu + state being stabilized by the rise in the Fermi level above the 0/- (Cu 2+ /Cu + ) charge transfer level as a result of Ga donor incorporation. From a combination of optical characterization and simulation using the Brownian oscillator model, the doublet fine structures are shown to originate from two hole transitions with the Cu + state located at 390 meV above the valence band.

Rahmati-Najarkolaei, F., Pakpour, A.H., Saffari, M., Hosseini, M.S., Hajizadeh, F., Chen, H. & Yekaninejad, M.S. 2017, 'Determinants of Lifestyle Behavior in Iranian Adults with Prediabetes: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior.', Arch Iran Med, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 198-204.
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OBJECTIVE: Prediabetic condition can lead to development of type 2 diabetes, especially in individuals who do not adhere to a healthy lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to investigate the socio-cognitive factors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that may be associated with the choice of lifestyle in prediabetic patients. METHODS: A prospective study with one-month follow up was designed to collect data from 350 individuals with prediabetic conditions. A questionnaire was used to collect the information, including demographic variables, exercise behavior, food consumption, as well as the constructs of the TPB (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention) regarding physical activity and dietary choice. The correlations between TPB variables and the dependent variables (dietary choice, physical activity) were assessed using Spearman correlation and multiple regression models. RESULT: In total, 303 people participated. The mean age of the participants was 53.0 (SD 11.5) years and 42% were males. Significant correlations were found between all TPB constructs and both dependent variables (healthy eating and exercise behaviors) both at baseline and after one month (P < 0.01). The predictive validity of the TPB over time was proved for both dependent variables where past and future behaviors were significantly correlated with the constructs. Nearly 87% of the variance in exercise behavior and 72% of the variance in healthy eating behavior were explainable by TPB constructs. CONCLUSION: The TPB may be a useful model to predict behaviors of physical activity and dietary choice among prediabetic people. Therefore, it may be used to monitor lifestyle modification to prevent development of diabetes among people with prediabetic conditions.

Raina, J.-.B., Clode, P.L., Cheong, S., Bougoure, J., Kilburn, M.R., Reeder, A., Forêt, S., Stat, M., Beltran, V., Thomas-Hall, P., Tapiolas, D., Motti, C.M., Gong, B., Pernice, M., Marjo, C.E., Seymour, J.R., Willis, B.L. & Bourne, D.G. 2017, 'Subcellular tracking reveals the location of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in microalgae and visualises its uptake by marine bacteria.', eLife, vol. 6, pp. 1-17.
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Phytoplankton-bacteria interactions drive the surface ocean sulfur cycle and local climatic processes through the production and exchange of a key compound: dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Despite their large-scale implications, these interactions remain unquantified at the cellular-scale. Here we use secondary-ion mass spectrometry to provide the first visualization of DMSP at sub-cellular levels, tracking the fate of a stable sulfur isotope ((34)S) from its incorporation by microalgae as inorganic sulfate to its biosynthesis and exudation as DMSP, and finally its uptake and degradation by bacteria. Our results identify for the first time the storage locations of DMSP in microalgae, with high enrichments present in vacuoles, cytoplasm and chloroplasts. In addition, we quantify DMSP incorporation at the single-cell level, with DMSP-degrading bacteria containing seven times more (34)S than the control strain. This study provides an unprecedented methodology to label, retain, and image small diffusible molecules, which can be transposable to other symbiotic systems.

Ramírez-Guadiana, F.H., Meeske, A.J., Wang, X., Rodrigues, C.D.A. & Rudner, D.Z. 2017, 'The Bacillus subtilis germinant receptor GerA triggers premature germination in response to morphological defects during sporulation.', Mol Microbiol.
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During sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, germinant receptors assemble in the inner membrane of the developing spore. In response to specific nutrients, these receptors trigger germination and outgrowth. In a transposon-sequencing screen, we serendipitously discovered that loss of function mutations in the gerA receptor partially suppress the phenotypes of > 25 sporulation mutants. Most of these mutants have modest defects in the assembly of the spore protective layers that are exacerbated in the presence of a functional GerA receptor. Several lines of evidence indicate that these mutants inappropriately trigger the activation of GerA during sporulation resulting in premature germination. These findings led us to discover that up to 8% of wild-type sporulating cells trigger premature germination during differentiation in a GerA-dependent manner. This phenomenon was observed in domesticated and undomesticated wild-type strains sporulating in liquid and on solid media. Our data indicate that the GerA receptor is poised on a knife's edge during spore development. We propose that this sensitized state ensures a rapid response to nutrient availability and also elicits premature germination of spores with improperly assembled protective layers resulting in the elimination of even mildly defective individuals from the population.

Rapin, W., Meslin, P.Y., Maurice, S., Wiens, R.C., Laporte, D., Chauviré, B., Gasnault, O., Schröder, S., Beck, P., Bender, S., Beyssac, O., Cousin, A., Dehouck, E., Drouet, C., Forni, O., Nachon, M., Melikechi, N., Rondeau, B., Mangold, N. & Thomas, N.H. 2017, 'Quantification of water content by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy on Mars', Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 130, pp. 82-100.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as performed by the ChemCam instrument, provides a new technique to measure hydrogen at the surface of Mars. Using a laboratory replica of the LIBS instrument onboard the Curiosity rover, different types of hydrated samples (basalts, calcium and magnesium sulfates, opals and apatites) covering a range of targets observed on Mars have been characterized and analyzed. A number of factors related to laser parameters, atmospheric conditions and differences in targets properties can affect the standoff LIBS signal, and in particular the hydrogen emission peak. Dedicated laboratory tests were run to identify a normalization of the hydrogen signal which could best compensate for these effects and enable the application of the laboratory calibration to Mars data. We check that the hydrogen signal increases linearly with water content; and normalization of the hydrogen emission peak using to oxygen and carbon emission peaks (related to the breakdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide) constitutes a robust approach. Moreover, the calibration curve obtained is relatively independent of the samples types.

Raven, J.A. 2017, 'Chloride: essential micronutrient and multifunctional beneficial ion.', J Exp Bot, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 359-367.
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Cl(-) is an essential micronutrient for oxygenic photolithotrophs. About half of global primary productivity is carried out by oxygenic photolithotrophs exposed to saline waters with Cl(-) concentrations orders of magnitude higher than that needed to satisfy the micronutrient requirement. The other half of primary productivity involves terrestrial and freshwater glycophytes sometimes in environments containing significantly more Cl(-) than is needed for the micronutrient requirement, but less than the toxic Cl(-) concentration for glycophytes. Intracellular Cl(-) acts in regulation of cell turgor and volume, including that of stomatal and pulvinar nastic movements, is a major ion in streptophyte and ulvophycean action potentials, and is involved in ion currents flowing around apices of pollen tubes and Acetabularia cells. More work is needed on the essentiality of Cl(-) in these processes, as well as the recent finding that Cl(-) at 1-5 mol m(-3) increases water use efficiency of growth and leaf area in Nicotiana tabacum.

Razavy, S., Gadau, M., Zhang, S.P., Wang, F.C., Bangrazi, S., Berle, C., Harahap, M., Li, T., Li, W.H. & Zaslawski, C. 2017, 'Investigation of the Phenomenon of Propagated Sensation along the Channels in the Upper Limb Following Administration of Acupuncture and Mock Laser', JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies.
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© 2017. Background: Similar to De Qi psychophysical responses, propagated sensation along the channels (PSC) is considered an important phenomenon in traditional Chinese acupuncture. In acupuncture clinical trials, different acupuncture manipulation techniques are used to enhance the propagation of sensation along the channels to facilitate an optimum therapeutic result. Aim: To examine and compare the PSC reported by participants in a clinical trial following the administration of acupuncture and inactive mock laser. Methods: The study was embedded in a two-arm parallel design multicenter, randomized clinical trial, the Tennis Elbow Acupuncture-International Study-China, Hong Kong, Australia, Italy (TEA IS CHAI). Needle sensations were measured using a validated instrument, the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Spreading Scale. Ninety-six participants with lateral elbow pain were randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio; the acupuncture treatment group (n = 47) and the mock laser control group (n = 49). Participants in both groups received the intervention at two acupoints, LI10 and LI11, consisting of 2 minutes of either standardized needle manipulation or mock laser at each acupoint with a rest period between each intervention period. Data were collected immediately following the interventions at the first and the ninth session within the clinical trial. Results: Although participants in both groups perceived PSC radiating to similar sites along the upper limb, the frequency of the reported radiation sites among the two intervention groups for both radiation up the limb (p < 0.05) and radiation down the limb (p < 0.001) were statistically significantly different. Among the radiating sensation sites recorded within the two study groups, the sensations were reported as radiating a greater distance down the forearm to the wrist compared to up the arm. Evaluation of PSC across the four study sites revealed a statistically significan...

Razavy, S., Gadau, M., Zhang, S.P., Wang, F.C., Bangrazi, S., Berle, C., Harahap, M., Li, T., Li, W.H. & Zaslawski, C. 2017, 'Psychophysical responses in patients receiving a mock laser within context of an acupuncture clinical trial: an interoceptive perspective.', BMC Complement Altern Med, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 348.
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BACKGROUND: The psychophysical responses induced by verum acupuncture are characterized by a constellation of unique subjective sensory responses commonly termed De Qi. Furthermore, a variety of sham interventions have been used as a control for acupuncture clinical trials. Indeed, one such control has been mock laser which has been used as control intervention in several acupuncture clinical controlled trials. The current study aim was to examine the De Qi sensory responses and its related characteristics elicited from acupuncture and compare them to those reported following sham laser in participants enrolled in a clinical trial. METHODS: The study was embedded in a multi-center, two-arm randomised clinical trial, which evaluated the effect of acupuncture on lateral elbow pain. De Qi was assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS). Ninety-six participants were randomly allocated to receive either acupuncture (n = 47) or mock laser (n = 49) at the acupoints LI 10 and LI 11. RESULTS: Participants in both intervention groups reported similar De Qi psychophysical characteristics; however, both intensity and frequency of the individually perceived De Qi characteristics were significantly higher in the acupuncture group. 'Soreness', 'deep pressure', and 'fullness-distension' in the acupuncture group and 'tingling', and 'sharp pain' in mock laser group, were identified as the leading characteristics. Similar level of MASS De Qi Index (MDI) scores were reported for 'Hong Kong-China' and 'Australia-Italy' with a significantly higher level of De Qi reported by 'Hong Kong-China'. Furthermore, two distinct De Qi categories were identified, namely De Qi (in line with classical sensory responses of Suan, Ma, Zhang, and Zhong) and pain. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective 'somatic or interoceptive awareness' should be taken into account when De Qi psychophysical responses are examined. The study accentuates the necessity and the significance of fu...

Ren, J., Song, J., Ellis, J. & Li, J. 2017, 'Staged heterogeneity learning to identify conformational B-cell epitopes from antigen sequences.', BMC Genomics, vol. 18, no. Suppl 2, p. 113.
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BACKGROUND: The broad heterogeneity of antigen-antibody interactions brings tremendous challenges to the design of a widely applicable learning algorithm to identify conformational B-cell epitopes. Besides the intrinsic heterogeneity introduced by diverse species, extra heterogeneity can also be introduced by various data sources, adding another layer of complexity and further confounding the research. RESULTS: This work proposed a staged heterogeneity learning method, which learns both characteristics and heterogeneity of data in a phased manner. The method was applied to identify antigenic residues of heterogenous conformational B-cell epitopes based on antigen sequences. In the first stage, the model learns the general epitope patterns of each kind of propensity from a large data set containing computationally defined epitopes. In the second stage, the model learns the heterogenous complementarity of these propensities from a relatively small guided data set containing experimentally determined epitopes. Moreover, we designed an algorithm to cluster the predicted individual antigenic residues into conformational B-cell epitopes so as to provide strong potential for real-world applications, such as vaccine development. With heterogeneity well learnt, the transferability of the prediction model was remarkably improved to handle new data with a high level of heterogeneity. The model has been tested on two data sets with experimentally determined epitopes, and on a data set with computationally defined epitopes. This proposed sequence-based method achieved outstanding performance - about twice that of existing methods, including the sequence-based predictor CBTOPE and three other structure-based predictors. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method uses only antigen sequence information, and thus has much broader applications.

Ren, N., Chen, H., McGowan, E., Li, Y. & Lin, Y. 2017, 'A clinical study on the effect of nattokinase on carotid artery atherosclerosis and hyperlipidaemia', National medical Journal of China, vol. 97, no. 26, pp. 2038-2043.
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A clinical study on the effect of nattokinase on carotid artery atherosclerosis and hyperlipidaemia Ren Nina*, Chen Hongjie#, Li Yue, Mcgowan Eileen, Lin Yiguang.* Guangdong Online Hospital Clinic, Guangdong 2nd Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangzhou 510317,China;#Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630,China Corresponding author: Lin Yiguang, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia,Email: yiguang.lin@uts.edu.au [Abstract] Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of oral nattokinase (NK) in the reduction of common carotid artery intimal medial thickness (CCA-IMT) and carotid artery plaque size and in lowering blood lipids, and to explore the underlying mechanism of actions of NK and its potential clinical use. Methods All enrolled patients were from the Out-Patient Clinic of the Department of TCM at the 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Using randomised picking method, all patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, NK and Statin (ST). NK Group-patients were given NK at a daily dose of 6000 FU and ST Group-patients were treated with statin (simvastatin 20 mg) daily. The treatment course was 26 weeks. CCA-IMT, carotid plaque size and blood lipid profile of the patients were measured before and after treatment. Results A total of 82 patients were enrolled in the study and 76 patients (NK=39, ST=37) completed the study. Following the treatments for 26 weeks, there was a significant reduction in CCA-IMT and carotid plaque size in both groups compared with the baseline before treatment. The carotid plaque size and CCA-IMT reduced from 0.25±0.12cm2 to 0.16±0.10cm2 and from 1.13±0.12mm to 1.01±0.11mm,repectively. The reduction in the NK group was significantly profound (P<0.01, 36.6% reduction in plaque size in NK group versus 11.5% change in ST group). Both treatments reduced total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein c...

Restrepo-Coupe, N., Levine, N., Christoffersen, B.O., Albert, L.P., Wu, J., Costa, M.H., Galbraith, D., Imbuzeiro, H., Martins, G., da Araujo, A.C., Malhi, Y.S., Zeng, X., Moorcroft, P. & Saleska, S.R. 2017, 'Do dynamic global vegetation models capture the seasonality of carbon fluxes in the Amazon basin? A data-model intercomparison.', Global Change Biology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 191-208.
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To predict forest response to long-term climate change with high confidence requires that dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) be successfully tested against ecosystem response to short-term variations in environmental drivers, including regular seasonal patterns. Here, we used an integrated dataset from four forests in the Brasil flux network, spanning a range of dry season intensities and lengths, to determine how well four state-of-the-art models (IBIS, ED2, JULES, and CLM3.5) simulated the seasonality of carbon exchanges in Amazonian tropical forests. We found that most DGVMs poorly represented the annual cycle of gross primary productivity (GPP), of photosynthetic capacity (Pc), and of other fluxes and pools. Models simulated consistent dry season declines in GPP in the equatorial Amazon (Manaus K34, Santarem K67, and Caxiuanã CAX); a contrast to observed GPP increases. Model simulated dry season GPP reductions were driven by an external environmental factor, "soil water stress" and consequently by a constant or decreasing photosynthetic infrastructure (Pc), while observed dry-season GPP resulted from a combination of internal biological (leaf-flush and abscission and increased Pc) and environmental (incoming radiation) causes. Moreover, we found models generally overestimated observed seasonal net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and respiration (Re) at equatorial locations. In contrast, a southern Amazon forest (Jarú RJA) exhibited dry season declines in GPP and Re consistent with most DGVMs simulations. While water-limitation was represented in models and the primary driver of seasonal photosynthesis in southern Amazonia, changes in internal biophysical processes, light harvesting adaptations (e.g. variations in leaf area index (LAI) and increasing leaf-level assimilation rate related to leaf demography), and allocation lags between leaf and wood, dominated equatorial Amazon carbon flux dynamics and were deficient or absent from current model formulations. Co...

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Ovarian Follicular Waves in Alpacas and Implications for Embryo Transfer Programs', Alpaca Culture Magazine, vol. 6, no. 1 (March).
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Alpaca female reproductive physiology, in comparison with other domestic species (cattle and sheep), is still considered to be under-researched and in its infancy. Nevertheless, there are commercial embryo transfer protocols available, but the ovarian response is characterised by being extremely variable and unpredictable. Embryo transfer in alpacas has not been critically and systematically studied. The reason behind is attributed to a lack funding and promotion of investigations in Peru and internationally. The aim of this article is to present a simple explanation on how ovarian follicular waves occur in alpacas. Understanding reproductive physiology is crucial for any reproductive program such as embryo transfer and artificial insemination.

Rhodes, L., Smith, K.F., Verma, A., Curley, B.G., Harwood, D.T., Murray, S., Kohli, G.S., Solomona, D., Rongo, T., Munday, R. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'A new species of Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) from the south-west Pacific: Gambierdiscus honu sp. nov.', Harmful Algae, vol. 65, pp. 61-70.
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Two isolates of a new tropical, epiphytic dinoflagellate species, Gambierdiscus honu sp. nov., were obtained from macroalgae sampled in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and from North Meyer Island, Kermadec Islands. Gambierdiscus honu sp. nov. had the common Gambierdiscus Kofoidian plate formula: Po, 3', 6″, 6C?, 6 or 7S, 5‴, 1p and 2⁗. The characteristic morphological features of this species were its relatively small short dorsoventral length and width and the shape of individual plates, in particular the combination of the hatchet-shaped 2' and pentagonal 3' plates and the length to width ratio of the antapical 1p plate. The combination of these characteristics plus the smooth thecal surface and equal sized 1⁗ and 2⁗ plates differentiated this species from other Gambierdiscus species. The phylogenetic analyses supported the unique description. Both isolates of G. honu produced the putative maitotoxin (MTX)-3 analogue, but neither produced ciguatoxin (CTX) or MTX. Extracts of G. honu were shown to be highly toxic to mice by intraperitoneal injection (0.2mg/kg), although less toxic by gavage. It is possible that toxins other than putative MTX-3 are produced.

Ribaux, O., Roux, C. & Crispino, F. 2017, 'Expressing the value of forensic science in policing', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, pp. 1-13.
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© 2016 Australian Academy of Forensic SciencesOnly a small part of forensic science activities scattered across criminal justice systems is the object of scientific scrutiny, and is taken into account when evaluating the added-value brought by this discipline. Even in its more restricted definition, forensic science faces many embarrassing questions about its capacity to provide valid and reliably interpreted information in court. The inflation of control mechanisms increases costs and reduces the scope or availability of forensic information. The viability of forensic science, viewed through this lens, is questioned. To address this challenge, it is imperative to validly express forensic science contributions that are otherwise diluted across earlier processes. These include abductive and inductive species of inferences used in crime investigation, crime analysis and criminal intelligence. The ‘scientificity’ of these processes may be questioned, but it is not contested that they largely determine the global outcome of justice systems. As a result, they cannot be ignored. To unlock the debate, it is proposed to turn the forensic science focus from means (instruments, techniques, methods) to ends (what is the problem, what are the objectives?). This perspective naturally leads to proactive models of policing. It also provides possible frameworks to express various uses of the information conveyed by traces for solving problems. Reframed forensic science contributions are more validly expressed and the current debate can ultimately be transcended.

Robinson, C.M., Cherukuru, N., Hardman-Mountford, N.J., Everett, J.D., McLaughlin, M.J., Davies, K.P., Van Dongen-Vogels, V., Ralph, P.J. & Doblin, M.A. 2017, 'Phytoplankton absorption predicts patterns in primary productivity in Australian coastal shelf waters', Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 192, pp. 1-16.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The phytoplankton absorption coefficient (a PHY ) has been suggested as a suitable alternate first order predictor of net primary productivity (NPP). We compiled a dataset of surface bio-optical properties and phytoplankton NPP measurements in coastal waters around Australia to examine the utility of an in-situ absorption model to estimate NPP. The magnitude of surface NPP (0.20–19.3 mmol C m −3 d −1 ) across sites was largely driven by phytoplankton biomass, with higher rates being attributed to the microplankton ( > 20 μm) size class. The phytoplankton absorption coefficient a PHY for PAR (photosynthetically active radiation; ā PHY )) ranged from 0.003 to 0.073 m -1 , influenced by changes in phytoplankton community composition, physiology and environmental conditions. The a PHY coefficient also reflected changes in NPP and the absorption model-derived NPP could explain 73% of the variability in measured surface NPP (n = 41; RMSE = 2.49). The absorption model was applied to two contrasting coastal locations to examine NPP dynamics: a high chlorophyll-high variation (HCHV; Port Hacking National Reference Station) and moderate chlorophyll-low variation (MCLV; Yongala National Reference Station) location in eastern Australia using the GIOP-DC satellite a PHY product. Mean daily NPP rates between 2003 and 2015 were higher at the HCHV site (1.71 ± 0.03 mmol C m −3 d −1 ) with the annual maximum NPP occurring during the austral winter. In contrast, the MCLV site annual NPP peak occurred during the austral wet season and had lower mean daily NPP (1.43 ± 0.03 mmol C m −3 d −1 ) across the time-series. An absorption-based model to estimate NPP is a promising approach for exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics in phytoplankton NPP around the Australian continental shelf.

Rodgers, K.J., Main, B.J. & Samardzic, K. 2017, 'Cyanobacterial Neurotoxins: Their Occurrence and Mechanisms of Toxicity.', Neurotox Res.
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Cyanobacteria are some of the oldest organisms on earth, and have evolved to produce a battery of toxic metabolites, including hepatotoxins, dermatoxins, and neurotoxins. In this review, we focus on the occurrence and mechanisms of toxicity of a number of neurotoxins synthesised by these ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes. We discuss the evidence linking β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid, to an unusual neurological disease complex reported on the island of Guam in the 1950s, and how 60 years later, the role that BMAA plays in human disease is still unclear. There is now evidence that BMAA is also produced by some eukaryotes, and can bioaccumulate in food chains; this combined with higher frequency of cyanobacterial blooms globally, increases the potential for human exposure. Three BMAA isomers that often co-occur with BMAA have been identified, and the current knowledge on the toxicity of these molecules is presented. The acute alkaloid toxins; anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and the saxitoxins, and the organophosphate neurotoxin anatoxin-a(S) are also discussed. In many cases, human exposure to a cocktail of cyanobacterial neurotoxins is likely; however, the implications of combined exposure to these toxins have not been fully explored. Increased understanding of the combined effects of cyanobacterial neurotoxins is required to fully understand how these molecules impact on human health.

Rychener, L., InAlbon, S., Djordjevic, S.P., Chowdhury, P.R., Ziech, R.E., de Vargas, A.C., Frey, J. & Falquet, L. 2017, 'Clostridium chauvoei, an Evolutionary Dead-End Pathogen.', Front Microbiol, vol. 8, p. 1054.
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Full genome sequences of 20 strains of Clostridium chauvoei, the etiological agent of blackleg of cattle and sheep, isolated from four different continents over a period of 64 years (1951-2015) were determined and analyzed. The study reveals that the genome of the species C. chauvoei is highly homogeneous compared to the closely related species C. perfringens, a widespread pathogen that affects human and many animal species. Analysis of the CRISPR locus is sufficient to differentiate most C. chauvoei strains and is the most heterogenous region in the genome, containing in total 187 different spacer elements that are distributed as 30 - 77 copies in the various strains. Some genetic differences are found in the 3 allelic variants of fliC1, fliC2 and fliC3 genes that encode structural flagellin proteins, and certain strains do only contain one or two alleles. However, the major virulence genes including the highly toxic C.chauvoei toxin A, the sialidase and the two hyaluronidases are fully conserved as are the metabolic and structural genes of C. chauvoei. These data indicate that C. chauvoei is a strict ruminant-associated pathogen that has reached a dead end in its evolution.

Saffari, M., Pakpour, A.H. & Chen, H. 2017, 'Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study.', Health Promot Perspect, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 34-41.
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Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status.

Schell, A.W., Takashima, H., Tran, T.T., Aharonovich, I. & Takeuchi, S. 2017, 'Coupling Quantum Emitters in 2D Materials with Tapered Fibers', ACS Photonics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 761-767.
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© 2017 American Chemical Society. Realization of integrated photonic circuits on a single chip requires controlled manipulation and integration of solid-state quantum emitters with nanophotonic components. Previous works focused on emitters embedded in a three-dimensional crystal, such as nanodiamonds or quantum dots. In contrast, in this work we demonstrate coupling of a single emitter in a two-dimensional (2D) material, namely, hexagonal boron nitride, with a tapered optical fiber and find a collection efficiency of the system of 10%. Furthermore, due to the single dipole character of the emitter, we were able to analyze the angular emission pattern of the coupled system via back focal plane imaging. The good coupling efficiency to the tapered fiber even allows excitation and detection in a fully fiber coupled way, yielding a true integrated system. Our results provide evidence of the feasibility to efficiently integrate quantum emitters in 2D materials with photonic structures.

Scott, P.D., Coleman, H.M., Colville, A., Lim, R., Matthews, B., McDonald, J.A., Miranda, A., Neale, P.A., Nugegoda, D., Tremblay, L.A. & Leusch, F.D.L. 2017, 'Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 185, pp. 105-120.
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In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p<0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p=0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a low risk to fish in most Australian rivers monitored to-date except for some species of fish at the most polluted sites.

Seo, D.H., Pineda, S., Fang, J., Gozukara, Y., Yick, S., Bendavid, A., Lam, S.K.H., Murdock, A.T., Murphy, A.B., Han, Z.J. & Ostrikov, K.K. 2017, 'Single-step ambient-air synthesis of graphene from renewable precursors as electrochemical genosensor.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14217.
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Thermal chemical vapour deposition techniques for graphene fabrication, while promising, are thus far limited by resource-consuming and energy-intensive principles. In particular, purified gases and extensive vacuum processing are necessary for creating a highly controlled environment, isolated from ambient air, to enable the growth of graphene films. Here we exploit the ambient-air environment to enable the growth of graphene films, without the need for compressed gases. A renewable natural precursor, soybean oil, is transformed into continuous graphene films, composed of single-to-few layers, in a single step. The enabling parameters for controlled synthesis and tailored properties of the graphene film are discussed, and a mechanism for the ambient-air growth is proposed. Furthermore, the functionality of the graphene is demonstrated through direct utilization as an electrode to realize an effective electrochemical genosensor. Our method is applicable to other types of renewable precursors and may open a new avenue for low-cost synthesis of graphene films.

Seymour, J.R., Amin, S.A., Raina, J. & Stocker, R. 2017, 'Zooming in on the phycosphere: the ecological interface for phytoplankton–bacteria relationships', Nature Microbiology, vol. 2, pp. 1-12.
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By controlling nutrient cycling and biomass production at the base of the food web, interactions between phytoplankton and bacteria represent a fundamental ecological relationship in aquatic environments. Although typically studied over large spatiotemporal scales, emerging evidence indicates that this relationship is often governed by microscale interactions played out within the region immediately surrounding individual phytoplankton cells. This microenvironment, known as the phycosphere, is the planktonic analogue of the rhizosphere in plants. The exchange of metabolites and infochemicals at this interface governs phytoplankton–bacteria relationships, which span mutualism, commensalism, antagonism, parasitism and competition. The importance of the phycosphere has been postulated for four decades, yet only recently have new technological and conceptual frameworks made it possible to start teasing apart the complex nature of this unique microbial habitat. It has subsequently become apparent that the chemical exchanges and ecological interactions between phytoplankton and bacteria are far more sophisticated than previously thought and often require close proximity of the two partners, which is facilitated by bacterial colonization of the phycosphere. It is also becoming increasingly clear that while interactions taking place within the phycosphere occur at the scale of individual microorganisms, they exert an ecosystem-scale influence on fundamental processes including nutrient provision and regeneration, primary production, toxin biosynthesis and biogeochemical cycling. Here we review the fundamental physical, chemical and ecological features of the phycosphere, with the goal of delivering a fresh perspective on the nature and importance of phytoplankton–bacteria interactions in aquatic ecosystems.

Sharma, P., Yi, R., Nayak, A., Wang, N., Knight, M.J., Pan, S., Oliver, B. & Deshpande, D.A. 2017, 'Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice.', Scientific Reports, vol. 7, pp. 1-14.
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Shi, H., Li, L., Eamus, D., Huete, A., Cleverly, J., Tian, X., Yu, Q., Wang, S., Montagnani, L., Magliulo, V., Rotenberg, E., Pavelka, M. & Carrara, A. 2017, 'Assessing the ability of MODIS EVI to estimate terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production of multiple land cover types', Ecological Indicators, vol. 72, pp. 153-164.
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tTerrestrial ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) is the largest component in the global carbon cycle.The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) has been proven to be strongly correlated with annual GPP withinseveral biomes. However, the annual GPP-EVI relationship and associated environmental regulationshave not yet been comprehensively investigated across biomes at the global scale. Here we exploredrelationships between annual integrated EVI (iEVI) and annual GPP observed at 155 flux sites, whereGPP was predicted with a log-log model: ln(GPP) = a × ln(iEVI) + b. iEVI was computed from MODISmonthly EVI products following removal of values affected by snow or cold temperature and withoutcalculating growing season duration. Through categorisation of flux sites into 12 land cover types, theability of iEVI to estimate GPP was considerably improved (R2from 0.62 to 0.74, RMSE from 454.7 to368.2 g C m−2yr−1). The biome-specific GPP-iEVI formulae generally showed a consistent performancein comparison to a global benchmarking dataset (R2= 0.79, RMSE = 387.8 g C m−2yr−1). Specifically, iEVIperformed better in cropland regions with high productivity but poorer in forests. The ability of iEVI inestimating GPP was better in deciduous biomes (except deciduous broadleaf forest) than in evergreendue to the large seasonal signal in iEVI in deciduous biomes. Likewise, GPP estimated from iEVI was ina closer agreement to global benchmarks at mid and high-latitudes, where deciduous biomes are morecommon and cloud cover has a smaller effect on remote sensing retrievals. Across biomes, a significant andnegative correlation (R2= 0.37, p < 0.05) was observed between the strength (R2) of GPP-iEVI relationshipsand mean annual maximum leaf area index (LAImax), and the relationship between the strength andmean annual precipitation followed a similar trend. LAImaxalso revealed a scaling effect on GPP-iEVIrelationships. Our results suggest that iEVI provides a very simple but robust approach to ...

Smith, C.A., Zaslawski, C.J., Cochrane, S., Zhu, X., Zheng, Z., Loyeung, B., Meier, P.C., Walsh, S., Xue, C.C., Zhang, A.L., Fahey, P.P. & Bensoussan, A. 2017, 'Reliability of the NICMAN Scale: An Instrument to Assess the Quality of Acupuncture Administered in Clinical Trials.', Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, vol. 2017, p. 5694083.
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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of a scale to assess the methodological quality of acupuncture administered in clinical research. METHODS: We invited 36 acupuncture researchers and postgraduate students to participate in the study. Firstly, participants rated two articles using the scale. Following this initial stage, modifications were made to scale items and the exercise was repeated. Interrater reliability was assessed for individual items using the Fleiss kappa statistic, whilst the overall scale used the intraclass correlation coefficient statistic. A threshold agreement of ≥0.61 was acceptable. RESULTS: We received 26 responses and a 72% response rate. The first phase of testing found moderate reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.46 and 0.55 for the articles. The interrater reliability of the scales varied between and within the researchers (0.35, 0.60) and was more consistent with the postgraduate students (0.54, 0.54). Five items on the scale scored below the threshold and were revised for further testing. In this phase the intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated variability between articles but improved to achieve reliability above the agreed threshold. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of the reliability of the NICMAN scale although improvements to a small number of items remain.

Smith, J.J., Herzig, V., Ikonomopoulou, M.P., Dziemborowicz, S., Bosmans, F., Nicholson, G.M. & King, G.F. 2017, 'Insect-Active Toxins with Promiscuous Pharmacology from the African Theraphosid Spider Monocentropus balfouri.', Toxins (Basel), vol. 9, no. 5.
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Many chemical insecticides are becoming less efficacious due to rising resistance in pest species, which has created much interest in the development of new, eco-friendly bioinsecticides. Since insects are the primary prey of most spiders, their venoms are a rich source of insect-active peptides that can be used as leads for new bioinsecticides or as tools to study molecular receptors that are insecticidal targets. In the present study, we isolated two insecticidal peptides, µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b, from venom of the African tarantula Monocentropus balfouri. Recombinant µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b paralyzed both Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly) and Musca domestica (housefly), but neither peptide affected larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworms). Both peptides inhibited currents mediated by voltage-gated sodium (NaV) and calcium channels in Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) dorsal unpaired median neurons, and they also inhibited the cloned Blattella germanica (German cockroach) NaV channel (BgNaV1). An additional effect seen only with Mb1a on BgNaV1 was a delay in fast inactivation. Comparison of the NaV channel sequences of the tested insect species revealed that variations in the S1-S2 loops in the voltage sensor domains might underlie the differences in activity between different phyla.

Smith, K.F., Kohli, G.S., Murray, S.A. & Rhodes, L.L. 2017, 'Assessment of the metabarcoding approach for community analysis of benthic-epiphytic dinoflagellates using mock communities', New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, pp. 1-22.
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© 2017 The Royal Society of New Zealand In this study, we assessed the use of DNA metabarcoding as a method for biodiversity assessment of benthic-epiphytic dinoflagellate communities and for detecting rare, toxin-producing taxa. Mock communities and three primer pairs were used to establish the recovery of species signal and quantitative representation of species in the samples, as well as to determine primer biases, bioinformatic filtering steps, and threshold levels. Samples were analysed using high-throughput sequencing Illumina ™ MiSeq technology. We did not find a relationship between read number and cell abundance for all treatments. However, the method was extremely sensitive, with two of the primer pairs detecting a single cell representing less than 0.001% of the cells in the sample. Benthic and epiphytic dinoflagellate communities were also collected from the Bay of Islands (Northland, New Zealand). Dinophyceae species richness was much higher when samples were analysed using metabarcoding than when analysed by microscopy, and we detected several new taxonomic records for New Zealand.

Solntsev, A.S. & Sukhorukov, A.A. 2017, 'Path-entangled photon sources on nonlinear chips', Reviews in Physics, vol. 2, pp. 19-31.
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© 2016 The Authors Photon entanglement has a range of applications from secure communication to the tests of quantum mechanics. Utilizing optical nonlinearity for the generation of entangled photons remains the most widely used approach due to its quality and simplicity. The on-chip integration of entangled light sources has enabled the increase of complexity and enhancement of stability compared to bulk optical implementations. Entanglement over different optical paths is uniquely suited for photonic chips, since waveguides are typically optimized for particular wavelength and polarization, making polarization- and frequency-entanglement less practical. In this review we focus on the latest developments in the field of on-chip nonlinear path-entangled photon sources. We provide a review of recent implementations and compare various approaches to tunability, including thermo-optical, electro-optical and all-optical tuning. We also discuss a range of important technical issues, in particular the on-chip separation of the pump and generated entangled photons. Finally, we review different quality control methods, including on-chip quantum tomography and recently discovered classical-quantum analogy that allows to characterize entangled photon sources by performing simple nonlinear measurements in the classical regime.

Sønderholm, M., Kragh, K.N., Koren, K., Jakobsen, T.H., Darch, S.E., Alhede, M., Jensen, P.Ø., Whiteley, M., Kühl, M. & Bjarnsholt, T. 2017, 'Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregate Formation in an Alginate Bead Model System Exhibits In Vivo-Like Characteristics.', Appl Environ Microbiol, vol. 83, no. 9.
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Alginate beads represent a simple and highly reproducible in vitro model system for diffusion-limited bacterial growth. In this study, alginate beads were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and followed for up to 72 h. Confocal microscopy revealed that P. aeruginosa formed dense clusters similar in size to in vivo aggregates observed ex vivo in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. Bacterial aggregates primarily grew in the bead periphery and decreased in size and abundance toward the center of the bead. Microsensor measurements showed that the O2 concentration decreased rapidly and reached anoxia ∼100 μm below the alginate bead surface. This gradient was relieved in beads supplemented with NO3(-) as an alternative electron acceptor allowing for deeper growth into the beads. A comparison of gene expression profiles between planktonic and alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa confirmed that the bacteria experienced hypoxic and anoxic growth conditions. Furthermore, alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa exhibited a lower respiration rate than the planktonic counterpart and showed a high tolerance toward antibiotics. The inoculation and growth of P. aeruginosa in alginate beads represent a simple and flexible in vivo-like biofilm model system, wherein bacterial growth exhibits central features of in vivo biofilms. This was observed by the formation of small cell aggregates in a secondary matrix with O2-limited growth, which was alleviated by the addition of NO3(-) as an alternative electron acceptor, and by reduced respiration rates, as well as an enhanced tolerance to antibiotic treatment.IMPORTANCEPseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied intensively for decades due to its involvement in chronic infections, such as cystic fibrosis and chronic wounds, where it forms biofilms. Much research has been dedicated to biofilm formation on surfaces; however, in chronic infections, most biofilms form small aggregates of cells not attached to a surface, but embedded in hos...

Stayte, S. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'New hope for devastating neurodegenerative disease', Brain, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 1177-1179.
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Stayte, S., Rentsch, P., Tröscher, A.R., Bamberger, M., Li, K.M. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo.', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. e0167211-e0167211.
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Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta region and a subsequent loss of dopamine within the striatum. A promising avenue of research has been the administration of growth factors to promote the survival of remaining midbrain neurons, although the mechanism by which they provide neuroprotection is not understood. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory following acute brain injury and has been demonstrated to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against MPP+-induced degeneration in vitro. We hypothesized that activin A may offer similar anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vivo mouse models of Parkinson's disease. We found that activin A significantly attenuated the inflammatory response induced by both MPTP and intranigral administration of lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6 mice. We found that administration of activin A promoted survival of dopaminergic and total neuron populations in the pars compacta region both 8 days and 8 weeks after MPTP-induced degeneration. Surprisingly, no corresponding protection of striatal dopamine levels was found. Furthermore, activin A failed to protect against loss of striatal dopamine transporter expression in the striatum, suggesting the neuroprotective action of activin A may be localized to the substantia nigra. Together, these results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects in the MPTP and lipopolysaccharide mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

Stevens, B.J., Hare, D.J., Volitakis, I., Cherny, R.A. & Roberts, B.R. 2017, 'Direct determination of zinc in plasma by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using palladium/magnesium and EDTA matrix modification with high temperature pyrolysis', Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 843-847.
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© The Royal Society of Chemistry. High prevalence of zinc deficiency stemming from malnutrition, gastrointestinal diseases and low dietary intake accounts for detection of zinc in plasma being a frequently requested clinical pathology assay. Serum and plasma zinc determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) has previously been hampered by significant interfering species and intolerance to high pyrolysis temperatures. In this Technical Note, we report a GFAAS method developed to overcome these restrictions by employing two matrix modifiers and a high pyrolysis temperature. Serum and plasma samples were diluted twenty times with an Antifoam/Triton-X-100 diluent and measured against aqueous standards similarly diluted, without the use of Zeeman correction. Interference from chloride was eliminated using a combination of two matrix modifiers: a magnesium/palladium mixture combined with 1% (w/v) aqueous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This allowed a pyrolysis temperature of 1000 °C to be used, which resulted in the complete removal of chloride interference. The accuracy of the method was verified by direct comparison with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); analysis of a commercial reference material (Seronorm); and by analytical recovery studies.

Stroud, L.J., Šlapeta, J., Padula, M.P., Druery, D., Tsiotsioras, G., Coorssen, J.R. & Stack, C.M. 2017, 'Comparative proteomic analysis of two pathogenic Tritrichomonas foetus genotypes: there is more to the proteome than meets the eye.', Int J Parasitol, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 203-213.
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Certain clinical isolates of Tritrichomonas foetus infect the urogenital tract of cattle while others infect the gastrointestinal tract of cats. Previous studies have identified subtle genetic differences between these isolates with the term "genotype" adopted to reflect host origin. The aim of this work was to seek evidence of host-specific adaptation and to clarify the relationship between T. foetus genotypes. To do this we characterised the proteomes of both genotypes using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with LC-MS/MS. Our comparative analysis of the data revealed that both genotypes exhibited largely similar proteoform profiles; however differentiation was possible with 24 spots identified as having a four-fold or greater change. Deeper analysis using 2DE zymography and protease-specific fluorogenic substrates revealed marked differences in cysteine protease (CP) expression profiles between the two genotypes. These variances in CP activities could also account for the pathogenic and histopathological differences previously observed between T. foetus genotypes in cross-infection studies. Our findings highlight the importance of CPs as major determinants of parasite virulence and provide a foundation for future host-parasite interaction studies, with direct implications for the development of vaccines or drugs targeting T. foetus.

Stuart, B.H. & Thomas, P.S. 2017, 'Pigment characterisation in Australian rock art: A review of modern instrumental methods of analysis', Heritage Science, vol. 5, no. 1.
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© 2017 The Author(s). The many thousands of Aboriginal rock art sites extending across Australia represent an important cultural record. The styles and materials used to produce such art are of great interest to archaeologists and those concerned with the protection of these significant works. Through an analysis of the mineral pigments utilised in Australian rock art, insight into the age of paintings and practices employed by artists can be gained. In recent years, there has been an expansion in the use of modern analytical techniques to investigate rock art pigments and this paper provides a review of the application of such techniques to Australian sites. The types of archaeological information that may be extracted via chemical analysis of specimens collected from or at rock art sites across the country are discussed. A review of the applicability of the techniques used for elemental analysis and structural characterisation of rock art pigments is provided and how future technological developments will influence the discipline is investigated.

Su, D., Cortie, M. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Fabrication of N-doped Graphene–Carbon Nanotube Hybrids from Prussian Blue for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries', Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1-12.
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Su, D., Cortie, M., Fan, H. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Prussian Blue Nanocubes with an Open Framework Structure Coated with PEDOT as High-Capacity Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.', Adv Mater.
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It is shown that Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) can be a very competitive sulfur host for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Sulfur stored in the large interstitial sites of a PBA host can take advantage of reversible and efficient insertion/extraction of both Li(+) and electrons, due to the well-trapped mobile dielectron redox centers in the well-defined host. It is demonstrated that Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ] has a large open framework, and as a cathode, it both stores sulfur and acts as a polysulfide diffusion inhibitor based on the Lewis acid-base bonding effect. The electrochemical testing shows that the S@Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ]@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite achieves excellent reversibility, good stability, and fast kinetics. Its outstanding electrochemical properties should be ascribed to the internal transport of Li(+/e-) , maximizing the utilization of sulfur. Moreover, the open metal centers serve as the Lewis acid sites with high affinity to the negatively charged polysulfide anions, reducing the diffusion of polysulfides out of the cathode and minimizing the shuttling effect. The fundamental basis of these exceptional performance characteristics is explored through a detailed analysis of the structural and electrochemical behavior of the material. It is believed that the PBAs will have a useful role in ensuring more effective and stable Li-S batteries.

Su, D., McDonagh, A., Qiao, S.-.Z. & Wang, G. 2017, 'High-Capacity Aqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries for Large-Scale Energy Storage.', Adv Mater, vol. 29, no. 1.
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A potassium iron (II) hexacyanoferrate nanocube cathode material is reported, which operates with an aqueous electrolyte to deliver exceptionally high capacities (up to 120 mA h g(-1) ). The cathode material exhibits excellent structural integrity, leading to fast kinetics and highly reversible properties. All of the battery materials are safe, inexpensive, and provide superior high-rate, long-cycle-life electrochemical performance.

Su, H., Hurley-Walker, N., Jackson, C.A., McClure-Griffiths, N.M., Tingay, S.J., Hindson, L., Hancock, P., Wayth, R.B., Gaensler, B.M., Staveley-Smith, L., Morgan, J., Johnston-Hollitt, M., Lenc, E., Bell, M.E., Callingham, J.R., Dwarkanath, K.S., For, B.Q., Kapińska, A.D., McKinley, B., Offringa, A.R., Procopio, P., Wu, C. & Zheng, Q. 2017, 'Galactic synchrotron emissivity measurements between 250° < l < 355° from the GLEAM survey with the MWA', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 465, no. 3, pp. 3163-3174.
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© 2016 The Authors. Synchrotron emission pervades the Galactic plane at low radio frequencies, originating from cosmic ray electrons interacting with the Galactic magnetic field. Using a low-frequency radio telescope, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), we measure the free-free absorption of this Galactic synchrotron emission by intervening HII regions along the line of sight. These absorption measurements allow us to calculate the Galactic cosmic ray electron emissivity behind and in front of 47 detected HII regions in the region 250° < l < 355°, |b| < 2°.We find that all average emissivities between the HII regions and the Galactic edge along the line of sight (εb) are in the range of 0.39 ~ 1.45 K pc -1 with a mean of 0.77 K pc -1 and a variance of 0.14 K pc -1 at 88 MHz. Our best model, the two-circle model, divides the Galactic disc into three regions using two circles centring on the Galactic Centre. It shows a high emissivity region near the Galactic Centre, a low emissivity region near the Galactic edge, and a medium emissivity region between these two regions, contrary to the trend found by previous studies.

Sukjamnong, S., Chan, Y.L., Zakarya, R., Saad, S., Sharma, P., Santiyanont, R., Chen, H. & Oliver, B.G. 2017, 'Effect of long-term maternal smoking on the offspring's lung health.', American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 313, no. 2, pp. L416-L423.
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy contributes to long-term health problems in offspring, especially respiratory disorders that can manifest in either childhood or adulthood. Receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are multiligand receptors abundantly localized in the lung, capable of responding to by-products of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory responses. RAGE signaling is a key regulator of inflammation in cigarette smoking-related pulmonary diseases. However, the impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on lung RAGE signaling in the offspring is unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE), as well as mitochondria-targeted antioxidant [mitoquinone mesylate (MitoQ)] treatment, during pregnancy on the RAGE-mediated signaling pathway in the lung of male offspring. Female Balb/c mice (8 wk) were divided into a sham group (exposed to air), an SE group (exposed to cigarette smoke), and an SE + MQ group (exposed to cigarette smoke with MitoQ supplement from mating). The lungs from male offspring were collected at 13 wk. RAGE and its downstream signaling, including nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase family consisting of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, ERK2, c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and phosphorylated JNK, in the lung were significantly increased in the SE offspring. Mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced, whereas IL-1β and oxidative stress response nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 were significantly increased in the SE offspring. Maternal MitoQ treatment normalized RAGE, IL-1β, and Nrf-2 levels in the SE + MQ offspring. Maternal SE increased RAGE and its signaling elements associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in offspring lungs, whereas maternal MitoQ treatment can partially normalize these changes.

Sun, B., Kretschmer, K., Xie, X., Munroe, P., Peng, Z. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries.', Adv Mater.
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As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O2 batteries, Na-O2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO2 cubes in Na-O2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO2 . This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O2 batteries.

Szychlinska, M.A., Yamakado, K., Castorina, A. & Ljubisavljevic, M. 2017, 'The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Musculoskeletal Disorders', Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, vol. 2, no. 2.
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Tam, R., Heather, E., Shimmon, R., Lam, B. & McDonagh, A.M. 2017, 'Synthesis and organic impurity profiling of 4-methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride and its precursors.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 272, pp. 184-189.
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4-Methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) was synthesised from star anise and from 4-methoxytoluene and the organic impurity profiles examined. These two starting materials are unrestricted chemicals in many jurisdictions and contain the requisite functional groups and are thus well suited for clandestine manufacturers. trans-Anethole was extracted from star anise and oxidised to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-propanone (PMP2P). 4-Methoxytoluene was oxidised to anisaldehyde, converted to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-nitropropene, and then reduced to PMP2P. The PMP2P obtained by both methods was then converted to PMMA via the Leuckart reaction. 4-Methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (PMMA·HCl) was synthesised from PMMA using hydrogen chloride gas. Both of the examined synthetic methods were found to be feasible routes into PMMA·HCl. The products of each step were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). Impurities were examined in an attempt to identify route specific compounds, which may provide valuable information about the synthetic pathway and precursors.

Tan, Y., Kim, J., Cheng, J., Ong, M., Lao, W.-.G., Jin, X.-.L., Lin, Y.-.G., Xiao, L., Zhu, X.-.Q. & Qu, X.-.Q. 2017, 'Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats', World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 3805-3805.
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Tan, Z.H., Zeng, J., Zhang, Y.J., Slot, M., Gamo, M., Hirano, T., Kosugi, Y., Da Rocha, H.R., Saleska, S.R., Goulden, M.L., Wofsy, S.C., Miller, S.D., Manzi, A.O., Nobre, A.D., De Camargo, P.B. & Restrepo-Coupe, N. 2017, 'Optimum air temperature for tropical forest photosynthesis: Mechanisms involved and implications for climate warming', Environmental Research Letters, vol. 12, no. 5.
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Taudte, R.V., Roux, C. & Beavis, A. 2017, 'Stability of smokeless powder compounds on collection devices.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 270, pp. 55-60.
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The current trend towards the implementation of organic gunshot residue (OGSR) analysis into gunshot residue (GSR) investigation protocols typically involves the sequential analysis of inorganic and organic GSR. However, to allow for the consecutive analysis of inorganic and organic GSR, specimens will often be stored for different lengths of time which may result in compounds of interest degrading. In order to optimise storage conditions, it is important to consider compound degradation on collection devices during storage. This study investigated the degradation over time of compounds potentially present in smokeless powders and OGSR on two collection devices, alcohol swabs and GSR stubs. Over a period of 63 days, the highest degree of degradation was found in the first four days. Interestingly, energetic compounds were generally found to be more stable than smokeless powder additives such as stabilisers including diphenylamine and ethyl centralite, which might be problematic considering that these compounds are common targets for OGSR. The findings can provide valuable information to operational forensic laboratories to optimise their storage durations.

Tawfik, S.A., Weston, L., Cui, X.Y., Ringer, S.P. & Stampfl, C. 2017, 'Near-Perfect Spin Filtering and Negative Differential Resistance in an Fe(II)S Complex.', J Phys Chem Lett, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 2189-2194.
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Density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function calculations have been used to explore spin-resolved transport through the high-spin state of an iron(II)sulfur single molecular magnet. Our results show that this molecule exhibits near-perfect spin filtering, where the spin-filtering efficiency is above 99%, as well as significant negative differential resistance centered at a low bias voltage. The rise in the spin-up conductivity up to the bias voltage of 0.4 V is dominated by a conductive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and this is accompanied by a slight increase in the magnetic moment of the Fe atom. The subsequent drop in the spin-up conductivity is because the conductive channel moves to the highest occupied molecular orbital, which has a lower conductance contribution. This is accompanied by a drop in the magnetic moment of the Fe atom. These two exceptional properties, and the fact that the onset of negative differential resistance occurs at low bias voltage, suggests the potential of the molecule in nanoelectronic and nanospintronic applications.

Tekwe, C.D., Zoh, R.S., Bazer, F.W., Wu, G. & Carroll, R.J. 2017, 'Functional multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models', Biometrics.
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© 2017, The International Biometric Society. Objective measures of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production by mammals are used to predict their energy expenditure. Since energy expenditure is not directly observable, it can be viewed as a latent construct with multiple physical indirect measures such as respiratory quotient, volumetric oxygen consumption, and volumetric carbon dioxide production. Metabolic rate is defined as the rate at which metabolism occurs in the body. Metabolic rate is also not directly observable. However, heat is produced as a result of metabolic processes within the body. Therefore, metabolic rate can be approximated by heat production plus some errors. While energy expenditure and metabolic rates are correlated, they are not equivalent. Energy expenditure results from physical function, while metabolism can occur within the body without the occurrence of physical activities. In this manuscript, we present a novel approach for studying the relationship between metabolic rate and indicators of energy expenditure. We do so by extending our previous work on MIMIC ME models to allow responses that are sparsely observed functional data, defining the sparse functional multiple indicators, multiple cause measurement error (FMIMIC ME) models. The mean curves in our proposed methodology are modeled using basis splines. A novel approach for estimating the variance of the classical measurement error based on functional principal components is presented. The model parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm and a discussion of the model's identifiability is provided. We show that the defined model is not a trivial extension of longitudinal or functional data methods, due to the presence of the latent construct. Results from its application to data collected on Zucker diabetic fatty rats are provided. Simulation results investigating the properties of our approach are also presented.

Teng, B., Ma, P., Yu, C., Zhang, X., Feng, Q., Wen, L., Li, C., Cheng, Z., Jin, D. & Lin, J. 2017, 'Upconversion nanoparticles loaded with eIF4E siRNA and platinum(IV) prodrug to sensitize platinum based chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer and bioimaging', Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 307-317.
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© The Royal Society of Chemistry. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E is a valuable marker in cancer prognostics in many human cancers. Silencing eIF4E via delivery of siRNA may be able to overcome chemoresistance. Cisplatin, used as a first-line anti-cancer reagent, has been widely accepted for its great success in clinical applications but it is restricted due to severe side effects such as nephrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, and hearing loss. Moreover, platinum drug resistance is a major obstacle to its use. Platinum(iv) prodrugs (denoted as Pt(iv)) which could be reduced to Pt(ii) by various reductants, including mercaptan and glutathione, within cancer cells have very limited toxicity and might overcome platinum resistance because of their chemical inertness. Moreover, combinational therapies that could sensitize the cancer cells to Pt drugs have received great attention nowadays around the world. Here we report a simple and effective upconversion nanoparticle carrier system loaded with both eIF4E siRNA and Pt(iv). We find that this theranostic system could sensitize laryngeal cancer cells to cisplatin based chemotherapy and allow bioimaging both in vitro and in vivo.

Teng, Z., Lv, H., Wang, C., Xue, H., Pang, H. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Bandgap engineering of ultrathin graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets with controllable oxygenous functionalization', Carbon, vol. 113, pp. 63-75.
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Seeking effective approaches of bandgap engineering with increased carrier lifetime is critical for designing semiconductor photoelectronic devices and photocatalysis systems. Ultrathin graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets have shown promising prospect in photocatalysis, whereas no preparation strategy for adjusting their bandgap in a wide range has ever been reported. Here in, high yield-rate synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional carbon nitride nanosheets with controllable oxygenous functionalization (the relative mass ratio of oxygen ranges from 0.523% to 19.9%) was firstly achieved by an improved hummer's method combining concentrated sulfuric acid protonation and potassium permanganate assisted exfoliation, and reduction employing hydrazine hydrate. Protonation and intercalation behavior of different acids in the treatment of bulk-g-C 3 N 4 was elaborated at molecule level for the first time. Introduced oxygenous groups are firstly found to have the capability for adjusting the bandgap of graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets from 2.54 eV to 3.07 eV and significantly increased the lifetime of the photo carriers. Our strategy may open a new vista for design and construction of various carbon nitride nanocomposites and give detailed instructions in bandgap engineering of other two-dimensional functional materials for wider applications.

Tingley, R., Ward-Fear, G., Schwarzkopf, L., Greenlees, M.J., Phillips, B.L., Brown, G., Clulow, S., Webb, J., Capon, R., Sheppard, A., Strive, T., Tizard, M. & Shine, R. 2017, 'New Weapons in the Toad Toolkit: A Review of Methods to Control and Mitigate the Biodiversity Impacts of Invasive Cane Toads ( Rhinella Marina )', The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 123-149.
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Tisdell, C.C., Liu, Z. & MacNamara, S. 2017, 'Basic existence and uniqueness results for solutions to systems of nonlinear fractional differential equations', Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems Series A: Mathematical Analysis, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 181-193.
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© 2017 Watam Press. We produce new global existence and uniqueness results for solutions to systems of initial value problems involving fractional differential equations. The uniqueness results rely on differential inequalities and a comparison with monotonically converging sequences of functions. The existence results involve fixed-point theorems that rely on a strategic choice of Liapunov function and harness new a priori bounds on solutions. We present an example where the new results yield existence of solutions, but the classical global Cauchy-Lipschitz approach does not directly apply.

Tong, X., Li, J., Nolan, R.H. & Yu, Q. 2017, 'Biophysical controls of soil respiration in a wheat-maize rotation system in the North China Plain', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 246, pp. 231-240.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Croplands play a vital role in regional carbon budgets. We hypothesized that biophysical factors would be important for soil respiration in a wheat-maize rotation cropping system. Soil CO 2 efflux was measured using the closed chamber method, and net CO 2 exchange between the cropland and the atmosphere obtained by the eddy covariance technique in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system over four years (Oct 2002–Oct 2006). In addition to soil temperature, soil respiration was controlled by leaf area index and soil moisture in the wheat field and soil moisture in the maize field. Temperature sensitivity (Q 10 ) of soil respiration was 2.2 in the wheat and maize growing seasons. In the wheat field, the Q 10 value during the sowing–returning green period (4.9) was more than that during the returning green–ripening period (2.0). On a monthly time scale, soil respiration was controlled by gross primary productivity in the wheat field, indicating that soil respiration was coupled with ecosystem photosynthesis. Annual soil respiration was 825 ± 73g C m −2 in the wheat–maize rotation system in 2003–2006. Over a 4–year average, soil respiration was 355 ± 50 g C m −2 in the wheat growing season and 470 ± 67 g C m −2 in the maize growing season, which accounted for 43% and 57% of the annual value respectively. At an annual time scale, soil respiration contributed to 72% of ecosystem respiration in the winter wheat–summer maize double cropping system.

Torpy, F., Zavattaro, M. & Irga, P. 2017, 'Green wall technology for the phytoremediation of indoor air: a system for the reduction of high CO2 concentrations', Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 575-585.
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© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media DordrechtAlong with the growing requirement to reduce building carbon emissions, a need has arisen to find energy efficient means of improving the quality of indoor air. Indoor plants have been shown to be capable of reducing most air pollutants; however, practical numbers of potted plants will not have the capacity to control many forms of air pollution, especially CO2. Green walls are space-efficient means of increasing the density of indoor plants. We assessed an active green wall for its potential to reduce CO2 in chambers and a test room. Chlorophytum comosum and Epipremnum aureum were both effective cultivars for CO2 removal at light densities greater than 50 μmol m−2 s−1. Substrate ventilation increased the rate of CO2 draw down from chambers, possibly due to increased leaf gas exchange rates. Green walls were then tested in a 15.65-m3 sealed simulation room, allowing the calculation of clean air delivery rate (CADR) and air changes per hour (ACH) equivalents based on CO2 draw down. Rates of CO2 draw down were modest under typical brightly lit indoor conditions (50 μmol m−2 s−1); however, when light intensity was increased to relatively bright levels, similar to indoor conditions next to a window or with the addition of supplementary lighting (250 μmol m−2 s−1), a 1-m2 green wall was capable of significant quantifiable reductions of high CO2 concentrations within a sealed room environment. Extrapolating these findings indicates that a 5-m2 green wall containing C. comosum could balance the respiratory emissions of a full-time occupant.

Tran, T.T., Choi, S., Scott, J.A., Xu, Z.Q., Zheng, C., Seniutinas, G., Bendavid, A., Fuhrer, M.S., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Oxidized Tungsten Disulfide Multilayers', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 5, no. 5.
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Tran, T.T., Wang, D., Xu, Z.-.Q., Yang, A., Toth, M., Odom, T.W. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Deterministic Coupling of Quantum Emitters in 2D Materials to Plasmonic Nanocavity Arrays.', Nano Lett, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2634-2639.
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Quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for studies of light-matter interaction and next generation, integrated on-chip quantum nanophotonics. However, the realization of integrated nanophotonic systems requires the coupling of emitters to optical cavities and resonators. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid systems in which quantum emitters in 2D hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are deterministically coupled to high-quality plasmonic nanocavity arrays. The plasmonic nanoparticle arrays offer a high-quality, low-loss cavity in the same spectral range as the quantum emitters in hBN. The coupled emitters exhibit enhanced emission rates and reduced fluorescence lifetimes, consistent with Purcell enhancement in the weak coupling regime. Our results provide the foundation for a versatile approach for achieving scalable, integrated hybrid systems based on low-loss plasmonic nanoparticle arrays and 2D materials.

Tran, V.S., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Ton-That, C., Li, J., Li, J. & Liu, Y. 2017, 'Removal of antibiotics (sulfamethazine, tetracycline and chloramphenicol) from aqueous solution by raw and nitrogen plasma modified steel shavings.', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 601-602, pp. 845-856.
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The removal of sulfamethazine (SMT), tetracycline (TC) and chloramphenicol (CP) from synthetic wastewater by raw (M3) and nitrogen plasma modified steel shavings (M3-plN2) was investigated using batch experiments. The adsorption kinetics could be expressed by both pseudo-first-order kinetic (PFO) and pseudo-second-order kinetic (PSO) models, where correlation coefficient r(2) values were high. The values of PFO rate constant k1p and PSO rate constant k2p decreased as SMT-M3>SMT-M3-plN2>TC-M3-plN2>TC-M3>CP-M3>CP-M3-plN2 and SMT-M3>SMT-M3-plN2>TC-M3>TC-M3-plN2>CP-M3>CP-M3-plN2, respectively. Solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature exerted great influences on the adsorption process. The plasma modification with nitrogen gas cleaned and enhanced 1.7-fold the surface area and 1.4-fold the pore volume of steel shavings. Consequently, the removal capacity of SMT, TC, CP on the adsorbent rose from 2519.98 to 2702.55, 1720.20 to 2158.36, and 2772.81 to 2920.11μg/g, respectively. Typical chemical states of iron (XPS in Fe2p3 region) in the adsorbents which are mainly responsible for removing antibiotics through hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and non- electrostatic interactions and redox reaction were as follows: Fe3O4/Fe(2+), Fe3O4/Fe(3+), FeO/Fe(2+) and Fe2O3/Fe(3+).

Trevathan-Tackett, S.M., Seymour, J.R., Nielsen, D.A., Macreadie, P.I., Jeffries, T.C., Sanderman, J., Baldock, J., Howes, J.M., Steven, A.D.L. & Ralph, P.J. 2017, 'Sediment anoxia limits microbial-driven seagrass carbon remineralization under warming conditions.', FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 93, no. 6.
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Seagrass ecosystems are significant carbon sinks, and their resident microbial communities ultimately determine the quantity and quality of carbon sequestered. However, environmental perturbations have been predicted to affect microbial-driven seagrass decomposition and subsequent carbon sequestration. Utilizing techniques including 16S-rDNA sequencing, solid-state NMR and microsensor profiling, we tested the hypothesis that elevated seawater temperatures and eutrophication enhance the microbial decomposition of seagrass leaf detritus and rhizome/root tissues. Nutrient additions had a negligible effect on seagrass decomposition, indicating an absence of nutrient limitation. Elevated temperatures caused a 19% higher biomass loss for aerobically decaying leaf detritus, coinciding with changes in bacterial community structure and enhanced lignocellulose degradation. Although, community shifts and lignocellulose degradation were also observed for rhizome/root decomposition, anaerobic decay was unaffected by temperature. These observations suggest that oxygen availability constrains the stimulatory effects of temperature increases on bacterial carbon remineralization, possibly through differential temperature effects on bacterial functional groups, including putative aerobic heterotrophs (e.g. Erythrobacteraceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae) and sulfate reducers (e.g. Desulfobacteraceae). Consequently, under elevated seawater temperatures, carbon accumulation rates may diminish due to higher remineralization rates at the sediment surface. Nonetheless, the anoxic conditions ubiquitous to seagrass sediments can provide a degree of carbon protection under warming seawater temperatures.

Tricoli, A., Nasiri, N. & De, S. 2017, 'Wearable and Miniaturized Sensor Technologies for Personalized and Preventive Medicine', Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 27, no. 15.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim The unprecedented medical achievements of the last century have dramatically improved our quality of life. Today, the high cost of many healthcare approaches challenges their long-term financial sustainability and translation to a global scale. The convergence of wearable electronics, miniaturized sensor technologies, and big data analysis provides novel opportunities to improve the quality of healthcare while decreasing costs by the very early stage detection and prevention of fatal and chronic diseases. Here, some exciting achievements, emerging technologies, and standing challenges for the development of non-invasive personalized and preventive medicine devices are discussed. The engineering of wire- and power-less ultra-thin sensors on wearable biocompatible materials that can be placed on the skin, pupil, and teeth is reviewed, focusing on common solutions and current limitations. The integration and development of sophisticated sensing nanomaterial s are presented with respect to their performance, showing exemplary implementations for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of biomarkers in complex mixtures such as the human sweat and breath. This review is concluded by summarizing achievements and standing challenges with the aim to provide directions for future research in miniaturized medical sensor technologies.

Trist, B.G., Davies, K.M., Cottam, V., Genoud, S., Ortega, R., Roudeau, S., Carmona, A., De Silva, K., Wasinger, V., Lewis, S.J.G., Sachdev, P., Smith, B., Troakes, C., Vance, C., Shaw, C., Al-Sarraj, S., Ball, H.J., Halliday, G.M., Hare, D.J. & Double, K.L. 2017, 'Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like superoxide dismutase 1 proteinopathy is associated with neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease brain.', Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 113-127.
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Neuronal loss in numerous neurodegenerative disorders has been linked to protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Emerging data regarding overlapping proteinopathy in traditionally distinct neurodegenerative diseases suggest that disease-modifying treatments targeting these pathological features may exhibit efficacy across multiple disorders. Here, we describe proteinopathy distinct from classic synucleinopathy, predominantly comprised of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), in the Parkinson's disease brain. Significant expression of this pathology closely reflected the regional pattern of neuronal loss. The protein composition and non-amyloid macrostructure of these novel aggregates closely resembles that of neurotoxic SOD1 deposits in SOD1-associated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Consistent with the hypothesis that deposition of protein aggregates in neurodegenerative disorders reflects upstream dysfunction, we demonstrated that SOD1 in the Parkinson's disease brain exhibits evidence of misfolding and metal deficiency, similar to that seen in mutant SOD1 in fALS. Our data suggest common mechanisms of toxic SOD1 aggregation in both disorders and a potential role for SOD1 dysfunction in neuronal loss in the Parkinson's disease brain. This shared restricted proteinopathy highlights the potential translation of therapeutic approaches targeting SOD1 toxicity, already in clinical trials for ALS, into disease-modifying treatments for Parkinson's disease.

Trussart, M., Yus, E., Martinez, S., Baù, D., Tahara, Y.O., Pengo, T., Widjaja, M., Kretschmer, S., Swoger, J., Djordjevic, S., Turnbull, L., Whitchurch, C., Miyata, M., Marti-Renom, M.A., Lluch-Senar, M. & Serrano, L. 2017, 'Defined chromosome structure in the genome-reduced bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.', Nature Communications, vol. 8.
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DNA-binding proteins are central regulators of chromosome organization; however, in genome-reduced bacteria their diversity is largely diminished. Whether the chromosomes of such bacteria adopt defined three-dimensional structures remains unexplored. Here we combine Hi-C and super-resolution microscopy to determine the structure of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae chromosome at a 10 kb resolution. We find a defined structure, with a global symmetry between two arms that connect opposite poles, one bearing the chromosomal Ori and the other the midpoint. Analysis of local structures at a 3 kb resolution indicates that the chromosome is organized into domains ranging from 15 to 33 kb. We provide evidence that genes within the same domain tend to be co-regulated, suggesting that chromosome organization influences transcriptional regulation, and that supercoiling regulates local organization. This study extends the current understanding of bacterial genome organization and demonstrates that a defined chromosomal structure is a universal feature of living systems.

Tsz, T.U., Nizalapur, S., Ho, K.K.K., Yee, E., Berry, T., Cranfield, C.G., Willcox, M., Black, D.S. & Kumar, N. 2017, 'Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of N-Sulfonylphenyl glyoxamide-Based Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics as Novel Antimicrobial Agents', Chemistry Select, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 3452-3461.
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Antibiotic resistance is a major global health concern. There is an urgent need for the development of novel antimicrobials. Recently, phenylglyoxamide-based small molecular antimicrobial peptide mimics have been identified as potential new leads to treat bacterial infections. Here, we describe the synthesis of novel phenylglyoxamide derivatives via the ring-opening reaction of N-sulfonylisatins with primary amines, followed by conversion into hydrochloride, quaternary ammonium iodide or gunidinium salts. The antibacterial activity of the compounds against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by in vitro assays. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that 5-bromo-substituent at the phenyl ring, octyl group appended to the ortho sulfonamide group or guanidine hydrochloride salt as the terminal group significantly contributed to potency. The most potent compound, the gunidinium salt 35 d, exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 12 μM and a therapeutic index of 15. It also demonstrated its potential to act as antimicrobial pore-forming agent. Overall, the results identified 35 d as a new lead antimicrobial compound.

Ueland, M., Howes, J.M., Forbes, S.L. & Stuart, B.H. 2017, 'Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textiles on a soil surface during summer and winter seasons studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.', Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, vol. 185, pp. 69-76.
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Textiles are a valuable source of forensic evidence and the nature and condition of textiles collected from a crime scene can assist investigators in determining the nature of the death and aid in the identification of the victim. Until now, much of the knowledge of textile degradation in forensic contexts has been based on the visual inspection of material collected from soil environments. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of a more quantitative approach to the understanding of forensic textile degradation through the application of infrared spectroscopy. Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textile materials as they were subjected to a natural outdoor environment in Australia were investigated. Cotton, polyester and polyester - cotton blend textiles were placed on a soil surface during the summer and winter seasons and were analysed over periods 1 and 1.5years, respectively, and examined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the spectral data obtained for the cotton material correlated with visual degradation and a difference in the onset of degradation between the summer and winter season was revealed. The synthetic material did not show any signs of degradation either visually or statistically throughout the experimental period and highlighted the importance of material type in terms of preservation. The cotton section from the polyester - cotton blend samples was found to behave in a similar manner to that of the 100% cotton samples, however principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the degradation patterns were less distinct in both the summer and winter trial for the blend samples. These findings indicated that the presence of the synthetic material may have inhibited the degradation of the natural material. The use of statistics to analyse the spectral data obtained for textiles of forensic interest provides a better foundation for the interpretation of the data o...

Ung, A.T. 2017, 'Sulfur - fluorine bond in PET radiochemistry'.
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Ung, A.T. 2017, 'Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Unexpected (1S,4R,5R,6S)-4-Cyano-2,2,6-trimethyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-6-yl Acetate'.
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Venuleo, M., Raven, J.A. & Giordano, M. 2017, 'Intraspecific chemical communication in microalgae.', New Phytol, vol. 215, no. 2, pp. 516-530.
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Contents 516 I. 516 II. 518 III. 518 IV. 521 V. 523 VI. 523 VII. 526 526 References 526 SUMMARY: The relevance of infochemicals in the relationships between organisms is emerging as a fundamental aspect of aquatic ecology. Exchanges of chemical cues are likely to occur not only between organisms of different species, but also between conspecific individuals. Especially intriguing is the investigation of chemical communication in microalgae, because of the relevance of these organisms for global primary production and their key role in trophic webs. Intraspecific communication between algae has been investigated mostly in relation to sexuality and mating. The literature also contains information on other types of intraspecific chemical communication that have not always been explicitly tagged as ways to communicate to conspecifics. However, the proposed role of certain compounds as intraspecific infochemicals appears questionable. In this article, we make use of this plethora of information to describe the various instances of intraspecific chemical communication between conspecific microalgae and to identify the common traits and ecological significance of intraspecific communication. We also discuss the evolutionary implications of intraspecific chemical communication and the mechanisms by which it can be inherited. A special focus is the genetic diversity among conspecific algae, including the possibility that genetic diversity is an absolute requirement for intraspecific chemical communication.

Vodstrcil, L.A., Rupasinghe, T.W.T., Kong, F.Y.S., Tull, D., Worthington, K., Chen, M.Y., Huston, W.M., Timms, P., McConville, M.J., Fairley, C.K., Bradshaw, C.S., Tabrizi, S.N. & Hocking, J.S. 2017, 'Measurement of tissue azithromycin levels in self-collected vaginal swabs post treatment using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 5, p. e0177615.
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BACKGROUND: Azithromycin is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital chlamydia infection although the standard 1gram dose sometimes fails to eradicate the infection (treatment failure). One hypothesis proposed for treatment failure has been insufficient levels of the antibiotic at the site of infection. We developed an assay using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure azithromycin concentration in high-vaginal swabs and monitor how concentration changes over time following routine azithromycin treatment. METHODS: Azithromycin concentrations were measured in two groups of women either within the first 24h of taking a 1g dose (N = 11) or over 9 days (N = 10). Azithromycin concentrations were normalised to an internal standard (leucine enkephalin), and the bulk lipid species phosphatidylcholine [PC(34:1)], using an Agilent 6490 triple quadrupole instrument in positive ionisation mode. The abundances of azithromycin, PC(34:1), and leu-enkephalin were determined by multiple reaction monitoring and absolute levels of azithromycin estimated using standard curves prepared on vaginal specimens. RESULTS: Vaginal azithromycin concentrations of women were rapidly obtained after 5h post-treatment (mean concentration = 1031mcg/mg of lipid, range = 173-2693mcg/mg). In women followed for 9 days, peak concentrations were highest after day 2 (mean concentration = 2206mcg/mg, range = 721-5791mcg/mg), and remained high for at least 9 days with a mean concentration of 384mcg/mg (range = 139-1024mcg/mg) on day 9. CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that a single 1g dose of azithromycin is rapidly absorbed and remains in the vagina at relatively high levels for at least a week, suggesting that poor antibiotic absorption is unlikely to be an explanation for treatment failure.

Voskoboinik, L., Amiel, M., Reshef, A., Gafny, R. & Barash, M. 2017, 'Laundry in a washing machine as a mediator of secondary and tertiary DNA transfer.', Int J Legal Med.
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The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of secondary and tertiary DNA transfer during laundry. The modes of transfer tested were mixed and separate laundry of worn and unworn garments in household and public washing machines. In addition, the possibility of a background DNA carry-over from a washing machine's drum was investigated. In the mixed (worn and unworn garments washed together) laundry experiment, 22% of samples from new unworn socks with no traceable DNA prior to experiment produced DNA profiles post-laundry. In the tertiary DNA transfer experiment performed in a public washing machine (unworn garments only), no detectable DNA profiles were observed. Samples collected from the internal drum of 25 washing and drying machines did not produce detectable STR profiles. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of forensic DNA casework analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟA real-life scenario of secondary DNA transfer between worn and unworn garments during machine washing has been evaluated. Experiments demonstrated this scenario is possible (22% of samples) and may in fact result in high quality DNA profiles. On the contrary, testing washing machine's interior for deposition of biological material between separate washing cycles to serve as a mediator of tertiary DNA transfer resulted in no DNA profiles.

Walia, S., Balendhran, S., Ahmed, T., Singh, M., El-Badawi, C., Brennan, M.D., Weerathunge, P., Karim, M.N., Rahman, F., Rassell, A., Duckworth, J., Ramanathan, R., Collis, G.E., Lobo, C.J., Toth, M., Kotsakidis, J.C., Weber, B., Fuhrer, M., Dominguez-Vera, J.M., Spencer, M.J.S., Aharonovich, I., Sriram, S., Bhaskaran, M. & Bansal, V. 2017, 'Ambient Protection of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus via Sequestration of Reactive Oxygen Species.', Advanced Materials, vol. 29, pp. 1-8.
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Few-layer black phosphorous (BP) has emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation nanophotonic and nanoelectronic devices. However, rapid ambient degradation of mechanically exfoliated BP poses challenges in its practical deployment in scalable devices. To date, the strategies employed to protect BP have relied upon preventing its exposure to atmospheric conditions. Here, an approach that allows this sensitive material to remain stable without requiring its isolation from the ambient environment is reported. The method draws inspiration from the unique ability of biological systems to avoid photo-oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Since BP undergoes similar photo-oxidative degradation, imidazolium-based ionic liquids are employed as quenchers of these damaging species on the BP surface. This chemical sequestration strategy allows BP to remain stable for over 13 weeks, while retaining its key electronic characteristics. This study opens opportunities to practically implement BP and other environmentally sensitive 2D materials for electronic applications.

Wallach, A., Ramp, D. & O'Neill, A.J. 2017, 'Cattle mortality on a predator-friendly station in central Australia', Journal of Mammology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 45-52.
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Large predators are declining worldwide primarily due to hunting and persecution by humans, driven in large part by the livestock industry. Some ranchers are transitioning to “predator-friendly” farming by adopting nonlethal predator deterrents. On very large rangeland properties, such as the vast stations of the Australian arid zone, ending lethal control may in itself reduce livestock losses by enabling the predator’s social structure to stabilize. The dingo (Canis dingo), Australia’s apex predator, is commonly subjected to eradication campaigns to protect livestock. We analyzed causes of cattle (Bos taurus) deaths on Evelyn Downs, a 2,300-km2 predator-friendly station in central Australia, for 2 years after dingo protection was established. Husbandry-related challenges, associated with deteriorating environmental conditions, were the leading causes of deaths of cattle. Predation by dingoes was minor and declined as the indices of dingo abundance stabilized and social stability increased. Shifting from killing predators to improving husbandry standards is likely to improve livestock survival and welfare.

Wallach, A.D., Dekker, A.H., Lurgi, M., Montoya, J.M., Fordham, D.A. & Ritchie, E.G. 2017, 'Trophic cascades in 3D: network analysis reveals how apex predators structure ecosystems', Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 8, no. 1.
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The role of apex predators as ecosystem regulators is now firmly embedded in ecological theory, suggesting that the world is green and biologically diverse in large part because predators suppress herbivore densities (Hairston, Smith & Slobodkin 1960; Estes et al. 2011; Ripple et al. 2014). Studies from across the globe show that apex predators limit the abundance and modify the behaviour of their prey and smaller mesopredators, suppressing grazing and predation pressure, and enhancing biodiversity and productivity (Ritchie & Johnson 2009; Ritchie et al. 2012). This top-down forcing cascades throughout ecosystems influencing a broad range of processes, both biotic and abiotic, including species abundances and richness, animal behaviour, disease dynamics, carbon sequestration and stream morphology (Estes et al. 2011; Ripple et al. 2014; Atwood et al. 2015). The rise and fall of apex predators not only affects the composition of species within ecological communities therefore, but also ecosystem functioning (Estes et al. 2011; Ripple et al. 2014; Standish et al. 2014). For example, wolves (Canis lupus) provide critical resource subsidies to scavenging species during warm months, thus enhancing their resilience to shortening winters due to global warming (Wilmers & Getz 2005). Similarly, dingoes (C. dingo) stabilize herbivore prey densities by dampening their population responses to rainfall in arid environments, thereby enabling plant biomass to accumulate during brief wet seasons (Letnic & Crowther 2013).

Walpersdorf, E., Kuehl, M., Elberling, B., Andersen, T.J., Hansen, B.U., Pejrup, M. & Glud, R.N. 2017, 'In situ oxygen dynamics and carbon turnover in an intertidal sediment (Skallingen, Denmark)', MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, vol. 566, pp. 49-65.
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Wand, M.P. 2017, 'Fast Approximate Inference for Arbitrarily Large Semiparametric Regression Models via Message Passing', JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION, vol. 112, no. 517, pp. 137-156.
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Wand, M.P. 2017, 'Fast Approximate Inference for Arbitrarily Large Semiparametric Regression Models via Message Passing Rejoinder', JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION, vol. 112, no. 517, pp. 166-168.
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Wang, B., Liu, D.L., Asseng, S., Macadam, I., Yang, X. & Yu, Q. 2017, 'Spatiotemporal changes in wheat phenology, yield and water use efficiency under the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble projections in eastern Australia', CLIMATE RESEARCH, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 83-99.
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Wang, J., Wang, M., Guan, J., Wang, C. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Construction of a non-enzymatic sensor based on the poly(o-phenylenediamine)/Ag-NPs composites for detecting glucose in blood.', Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, vol. 71, pp. 844-851.
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A non-enzymatic glucose sensor, based on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs)/poly (o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) composites, is developed by the electrochemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine and electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on an indium tin oxide electrode. The Ag-NPs/PoPD composites are characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed glucose sensor demonstrates a wide linear range from 0.15 to 13mmolL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The proposed glucose sensor can be used to detect glucose in blood sample with a satisfactory result. In addition, the proposed sensor presents the advantages, such as facile preparation, low cost, high sensitivity and fast response time. It also exhibits good anti-interference performance and stability.

Wang, J.J.J., Bartlett, M. & Ryan, L. 2017, 'Non-ignorable missingness in logistic regression.', Stat Med, vol. 36, no. 19, pp. 3005-3021.
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Nonresponses and missing data are common in observational studies. Ignoring or inadequately handling missing data may lead to biased parameter estimation, incorrect standard errors and, as a consequence, incorrect statistical inference and conclusions. We present a strategy for modelling non-ignorable missingness where the probability of nonresponse depends on the outcome. Using a simple case of logistic regression, we quantify the bias in regression estimates and show the observed likelihood is non-identifiable under non-ignorable missing data mechanism. We then adopt a selection model factorisation of the joint distribution as the basis for a sensitivity analysis to study changes in estimated parameters and the robustness of study conclusions against different assumptions. A Bayesian framework for model estimation is used as it provides a flexible approach for incorporating different missing data assumptions and conducting sensitivity analysis. Using simulated data, we explore the performance of the Bayesian selection model in correcting for bias in a logistic regression. We then implement our strategy using survey data from the 45 and Up Study to investigate factors associated with worsening health from the baseline to follow-up survey. Our findings have practical implications for the use of the 45 and Up Study data to answer important research questions relating to health and quality-of-life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wang, J.J.J., Bartlett, M. & Ryan, L. 2017, 'On the impact of nonresponse in logistic regression: application to the 45 and Up study.', BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 80.
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BACKGROUND: In longitudinal studies, nonresponse to follow-up surveys poses a major threat to validity, interpretability and generalisation of results. The problem of nonresponse is further complicated by the possibility that nonresponse may depend on the outcome of interest. We identified sociodemographic, general health and wellbeing characteristics associated with nonresponse to the follow-up questionnaire and assessed the extent and effect of nonresponse on statistical inference in a large-scale population cohort study. METHODS: We obtained the data from the baseline and first wave of the follow-up survey of the 45 and Up Study. Of those who were invited to participate in the follow-up survey, 65.2% responded. Logistic regression model was used to identify baseline characteristics associated with follow-up response. A Bayesian selection model approach with sensitivity analysis was implemented to model nonignorable nonresponse. RESULTS: Characteristics associated with a higher likelihood of responding to the follow-up survey include female gender, age categories 55-74, high educational qualification, married/de facto, worked part or partially or fully retired and higher household income. Parameter estimates and conclusions are generally consistent across different assumptions on the missing data mechanism. However, we observed some sensitivity for variables that are strong predictors for both the outcome and nonresponse. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated in the context of the binary outcome under study, nonresponse did not result in substantial bias and did not alter the interpretation of results in general. Conclusions were still largely robust under nonignorable missing data mechanism. Use of a Bayesian selection model is recommended as a useful strategy for assessing potential sensitivity of results to missing data.

Wang, L., Kruk, S., Xu, L., Rahmani, M., Smirnova, D., Solntsev, A., Kravchenko, I., Neshev, D. & Kivshar, Y. 2017, 'Shaping the third-harmonic radiation from silicon nanodimers', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2201-2206.
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© The Royal Society of Chemistry. Recent progress in the study of resonant light confinement in high-index dielectric nanostructures suggests a new route for achieving efficient control of both electric and magnetic components of light. It also leads to the enhancement of nonlinear effects near electric and magnetic Mie resonances with an engineered radiation directionality. Here we study the third-harmonic generation from dimers composed of pairs of two identical silicon nanoparticles and demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that the multipolar harmonic modes generated by the dimers near the Mie resonances allow the shaping of the directionality of nonlinear radiation.

Wangpraseurt, D., Holm, J.B., Larkum, A.W.D., Pernice, M., Ralph, P.J., Suggett, D.J. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'In vivo Microscale Measurements of Light and Photosynthesis during Coral Bleaching: Evidence for the Optical Feedback Loop?', Front Microbiol, vol. 8, p. 59.
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Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of Symbiodinium cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached Pocillopora damicornis corals, Symbiodinium light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of Symbiodinium gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached P. damicornis compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. Symbiodinium light exposure in Favites sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of in vivo light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching.

Wangpraseurt, D., Wentzel, C., Jacques, S.L., Wagner, M. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'In vivo imaging of coral tissue and skeleton with optical coherence tomography.', J R Soc Interface, vol. 14, no. 128.
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Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals enabled the non-invasive visualization of coral tissue layers (endoderm versus ectoderm), skeletal cavities and special structures such as mesenterial filaments and mucus release from intact living corals. Coral host chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein-like pigment granules appeared hyper-reflective to near-infrared radiation allowing for excellent optical contrast in OCT and a rapid characterization of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance. In vivo tissue plasticity could be quantified by the linear contraction velocity of coral tissues upon illumination resulting in dynamic changes in the live coral tissue surface area, which varied by a factor of 2 between the contracted and expanded state of a coral. Our study provides a novel view on the in vivo organization of coral tissue and skeleton and highlights the importance of microstructural dynamics for coral ecophysiology.

Ward, T., Booth, D.J., Fairweather, P.G., Ford, J.R., Jenkins, G.I., Keough, M.J., Prince, J.D. & Smyth, C. 2017, 'Australia's coastal fisheries and farmed seafood: an ecological basis for determining sustainability', Australian Zoologist.
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In response to consumer concerns about the sustainability of Australian-sourced seafood we derive a set of criteria within an explicit decision-process that can be used to determine whether locally farmed and wild-caught Australian seafood products meet standards of ecological sustainability and Ecologically Sustainable Development. These criteria substantially address the ecological deficiencies we identified in other systems commonly used for assessing seafood sustainability. The criteria address the issues that are relevant to local seafood production, and are populated with indicators (metrics) and benchmarks relevant to the Australian context. The indicators establish performance thresholds drawn from public domain data about the products, including observed empirical data and proxies, and include default decisions to be applied in the absence of adequate information. This decision structure is set within a peer-reviewed expert jury decision-making process. The criteria, decision process and decision outcomes from assessment of a number of pilot products were tested in a real seafood market (Melbourne), where we found a high level of producer, reseller and consumer acceptance of the judgements and ratings. The use of ecologically-derived standards results in several outcomes that differ from those of other seafood assessment systems, especially those assessments more focused on production standards, such as government, industry and NGO-supported programs, popularly used in Australia and worldwide. We conclude that despite high levels of uncertainty surrounding many of the population parameters, ecological patterns and processes, empirical cost-effective proxies can be used to reasonably estimate a form of sustainability that matches consumer interests/expectations for production of fresh local seafood. Despite the plethora of industry and government programs, there remains a significant but presently unmet consumer demand for ecologically-based, technically ...

Watanabe, S., Kuzhiumparambil, U., Nguyen, M.A., Cameron, J. & Fu, S. 2017, 'Metabolic Profile of Synthetic Cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, PB-22, XLR-11 and UR-144 by Cunninghamella elegans.', AAPS J, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1148-1162.
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The knowledge of metabolic profile of synthetic cannabinoids is important for the detection of drugs in urinalysis due to the typical absence or low abundance of parent cannabinoids in human urine. The fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been reported to be a useful tool for metabolism study and thus applicability to synthetic cannabinoid metabolism was examined. In this study, 8-quinolinyl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (5F-PB-22), 8-quinolinyl 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (PB-22), [1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl](2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (XLR-11) and (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (UR-144) were incubated with C. elegans and the metabolites were identified using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The obtained metabolites were compared with reported human metabolites to assess the suitability of the fungus to extrapolate human metabolism. 5F-PB-22 underwent dihydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, oxidative defluorination, oxidative defluorination to carboxylic acid, ester hydrolysis and glucosidation, alone and/or in combination. The metabolites of PB-22 were generated by hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, trihydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, ketone formation, carboxylation, ester hydrolysis and glucosidation, alone and/or in combination. XLR-11 was transformed through hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, aldehyde formation, carboxylation, oxidative defluorination, oxidative defluorination to carboxylic acid and glucosidation, alone and/or in combination. UR-144 was metabolised by hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, trihydroxylation, aldehyde formation, ketone formation, carboxylation, N-dealkylation and combinations. These findings were consistent with previously reported human metabolism except for the small extent of ester hydrolysis observed and the absence of glucuronidation. Despite the limitations, C. elegans demonstrated the capacity to produce a wide variety of met...

Watanabe, S., Vikingsson, S., Roman, M., Green, H., Kronstrand, R. & Wohlfarth, A. 2017, 'In Vitro and In Vivo Metabolite Identification Studies for the New Synthetic Opioids Acetylfentanyl, Acrylfentanyl, Furanylfentanyl, and 4-Fluoro-Isobutyrylfentanyl', AAPS Journal, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1102-1122.
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© 2017, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. New fentanyl analogs have recently emerged as new psychoactive substances and have caused numerous fatalities worldwide. To determine if the new analogs follow the same metabolic pathways elucidated for fentanyl and known fentanyl analogs, we performed in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification studies for acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, 4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl, and furanylfentanyl. All compounds were incubated at 10 μM with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 5 h. For each compound, four or five authentic human urine samples from autopsy cases with and without enzymatic hydrolysis were analyzed. Data acquisition was performed in data-dependent acquisition mode during liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry analyses. Data was analyzed (1) manually based on predicted biotransformations and (2) with MetaSense software using data-driven search algorithms. Acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, and 4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl were predominantly metabolized by N-dealkylation, cleaving off the phenethyl moiety, monohydroxylation at the ethyl linker and piperidine ring, as well as hydroxylation/methoxylation at the phenyl ring. In contrast, furanylfentanyl’s major metabolites were generated by amide hydrolysis and dihydrodiol formation, while the nor-metabolite was minor or not detected in case samples at all. In general, in vitro results matched the in vivo findings well, showing identical biotransformations in each system. Phase II conjugation was observed, particularly for acetylfentanyl. Based on our results, we suggest the following specific and abundant metabolites as analytical targets in urine: a hydroxymethoxy and monohydroxylated metabolite for acetylfentanyl, a monohydroxy and dihydroxy metabolite for acrylfentanyl, two monohydroxy metabolites and a hydroxymethoxy metabolite for 4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl, and a dihydrodiol metabolite and the amide hydrolysis metabolite for furanylfenta...

Watson, D.M., Milner, K.V. & Leigh, A. 2017, 'Novel application of species richness estimators to predict the host range of parasites.', Int J Parasitol, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 31-39.
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Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges. We selected three mistletoe species (hemiparasitic plants in the Loranthaceae) to evaluate our approach: a strict host specialist (Amyema lucasii, dependent on a single host species), an intermediate species (Amyema quandang, dependent on hosts in one genus) and a generalist (Lysiana exocarpi, dependent on many genera across multiple families), comparing results from geographically-stratified surveys against known host lists derived from herbarium specimens. The results-based stopping rule (stop sampling bioregion once observed host richness exceeds 80% of the host richness predicted using the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator) worked well for most bioregions studied, being satisfied after three to six sampling plots (each representing 25 host trees) but was unreliable in those bioregions with high host richness or high proportions of rare hosts. Although generating stable predictions of host range with minimal variation among six estimators trialled, distribution-wide estimates fell well short of the number of hosts known from herbarium records. This mismatch, coupled with the discovery of nine previously unrecorded mistletoe-host combinations, further demonstrates the limited ecological relevance of simple host-parasite lists. By collecting estimates of host range of constrained completeness, our approach maximises sampling efficiency while generating comparable estimates of the number of primar...

Webster, E., Ramp, D. & Kingsford, R.T. 2017, 'Incorporating an iterative energy restraint for the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)', Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 198, pp. 267-285.
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The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has proven itself as an effective remotely sensed estimator of actual evapotranspiration (ETa). However, it has several vulnerabilities associated with the partitioning of the available energy (AE) at the land surface. We introduce a two stage energy restraint process into the SEBS algorithm (SEBS-ER) to overcome these vulnerabilities. The first offsets the remotely sensed surface temperature to ensure the surface to air temperature difference reflects AE, while the second stage uses a domain based image search process to identify and adjust the proportions of sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat flux with respect to AE. We effectively implemented SEBS-ER over 61 acquisitions over two Landsat tiles (path 90 row 84 and path 91 row 85) in south-eastern Australia that feature heterogeneous land covers. Across the two areas we showed that the SEBS-ER algorithm has: greater resilience to perturbed errors in surface energy balance algorithm inputs; significantly improved accuracy (p < 0.05) at two eddy covariance flux towers in heavily forested (RMSE 62.3 W m− 2, R2 0.879) and sub-alpine grassland (RMSE 33.2 W m− 2, R2 0.939) land covers; and greater temporal stability across 52 daily actual evapotranspiration (ETa) estimates compared to a temporally stable and independent ETa dataset. The energy restraint within SEBS-ER has reduced exposure to the complex errors and uncertainties within remotely sensed, meteorological, and land type SEBS inputs, providing more reliable and accurate spatially distributed ETa products.

Wei, Z., Niu, Q., Zhang, F., Xiao, K., Liu, L., Wang, Y., Jia, J., Cao, J., Fu, S. & Yun, K. 2017, 'The effect of sodium fluoride, formaldehyde, and storage temperature on the stability of methamidophos in post-mortem blood and liver.', International Journal of Legal Medicine, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 667-675.
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Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos makes up a significant portion of forensic identification cases in China. Stability of methamidophos during specimen storage remains largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the long-term stability of methamidophos in postmortem specimens. Three experimental dogs after oral administration of methamidophos were sacrificed, and blood and liver specimens were collected and stored at various conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to measure the methamidophos concentrations after 0, 4, 7, 12, 16, 60, and 180 days of storage. The results showed that methamidophos was not stable and followed first-order degradation kinetics at all storage conditions investigated. The degradation half-life in blood was 12.2, 16.9, 11.0, and 1.0 days when the samples were stored at room temperature (RT, 20 °C), 4 °C, -20 °C, and at RT with 1 % sodium fluoride (NaF), respectively. The degradation half-life in liver was 4.1, 9.8, 17.8, and 2.0 days when the samples were stored at RT, 4 °C, -20 °C, and at RT with liver fixed in 10 % formaldehyde solution, respectively. These findings are significant in guiding sample storage and data interpretation. Specimens containing methamidophos should be stored at -20 °C and analyzed as early as possible. Addition of NaF in blood and fixation of liver in formaldehyde should be avoided due to the accelerated degradation of methamidophos under these conditions. The preliminary study suggests that it might be possible to calculate methamidophos concentration at the time of death based on its first-order degradation kinetic under specific storage conditions.

Wells, M.L., Potin, P., Craigie, J.S., Raven, J.A., Merchant, S.S., Helliwell, K.E., Smith, A.G., Camire, M.E. & Brawley, S.H. 2017, 'Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding', Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 949-982.
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© 2016 The Author(s)Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches.

Weynberg, K.D., Neave, M., Clode, P.L., Voolstra, C.R., Brownlee, C., Laffy, P., Webster, N.S., Levin, R.A., Wood-Charlson, E.M. & van Oppen, M.J.H. 2017, 'Prevalent and persistent viral infection in cultures of the coral algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium', Coral Reefs, pp. 1-12.
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© 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Reef corals are under threat from bleaching and disease outbreaks that target both the host animal and the algal symbionts within the coral holobiont. A viral origin for coral bleaching has been hypothesized, but direct evidence has remained elusive. Using a multifaceted approach incorporating flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, DNA and RNA virome sequencing, we show that type C1 Symbiodinium cultures host a nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA virus (NCLDV) related to Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae, a novel filamentous virus of unknown phylogenetic affiliation, and a single-stranded RNA virus related to retroviruses. We discuss implications of these findings for laboratory-based experiments using Symbiodinium cultures.

Wilkinson, A.D., Collier, C.J., Flores, F., Langlois, L., Ralph, P.J. & Negri, A.P. 2017, 'Combined effects of temperature and the herbicide diuron on Photosystem II activity of the tropical seagrass Halophila ovalis.', Sci Rep, vol. 7, p. 45404.
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Tropical seagrasses are at their highest risk of exposure to photosystem II (PSII) herbicides when elevated rainfall and runoff from farms transports these toxicants into coastal habitats during summer, coinciding with periods of elevated temperature. PSII herbicides, such as diuron, can increase the sensitivity of corals to thermal stress, but little is known of the potential for herbicides to impact the thermal optima of tropical seagrass. Here we employed a well-plate approach to experimentally assess the effects of diuron on the photosynthetic performance of Halophila ovalis leaves across a 25 °C temperature range (36 combinations of these stressors across 15-40 °C). The thermal optimum for photosynthetic efficiency (▵) in H. ovalis was 31 °C while lower and higher temperatures reduced ▵ as did all elevated concentrations of diuron. There were significant interactions between the effects of temperature and diuron, with a majority of the combined stresses causing sub-additive (antagonistic) effects. However, both stressors caused negative responses and the sum of the responses was greater than that caused by temperature or diuron alone. These results indicate that improving water quality (reducing herbicide in runoff) is likely to maximise seagrass health during extreme temperature events that will become more common as the climate changes.

Williams, S.G., Bhadbhade, M., Bishop, R. & Ung, A.T. 2017, 'An alkaloid-like 3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-ene library obtained from the bridged Ritter reaction', Tetrahedron, pp. 116-128.
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Williams, T.J., Liao, Y., Ye, J., Kuchel, R.P., Poljak, A., Raftery, M.J. & Cavicchioli, R. 2017, 'Cold adaptation of the Antarctic haloarchaea Halohasta litchfieldiae and Halorubrum lacusprofundi', Environmental Microbiology.
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Windley, M.J., Vetter, I., Lewis, R.J. & Nicholson, G.M. 2017, 'Lethal effects of an insecticidal spider venom peptide involve positive allosteric modulation of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.', Neuropharmacology.
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κ-Hexatoxins (κ-HXTXs) are a family of excitotoxic insect-selective neurotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders that are lethal to a wide range of insects, but display no toxicity towards vertebrates. The prototypic κ-HXTX-Hv1c selectively blocks native and expressed cockroach large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa or KCa1.1) channels, but not their mammalian orthologs. Despite this potent and selective action on insect KCa1.1 channels, we found that the classical KCa1.1 blockers paxilline, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, which all block insect KCa1.1 channels, are not lethal in crickets. We therefore used whole-cell patch-clamp analysis of cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons to study the effects of κ-HXTX-Hv1c on sodium-activated (KNa), delayed-rectifier (KDR) and 'A-type' transient (KA) K(+) channels. 1 μM κ-HXTX-Hv1c failed to significantly inhibit cockroach KNa and KDR channels, but did cause a 30 ± 7% saturating inhibition of KA channel currents, possibly via a Kv4 (Shal-like) action. However, this modest action at such a high concentration of κ-HXTX-Hv1c would indicate a different lethal target. Accordingly, we assessed the actions of κ-HXTX-Hv1c on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in cockroach DUM neurons. We found that κ-HXTX-Hv1c failed to produce any major effects on GABAA or glutamate-Cl receptors but dramatically slowed nicotine-evoked ACh receptor (nAChR) current decay and reversed nAChR desensitization. These actions occurred without any alterations to nAChR current amplitude or the nicotine concentration-response curve, and are consistent with a positive allosteric modulation of nAChRs. κ-HXTX-Hv1c therefore represents the first venom peptide that selectively modulates insect nAChRs with a mode of action similar to the excitotoxic insecticide spinosyn A.

Wolff, C., Stiller, B., Eggleton, B.J., Steel, M.J. & Poulton, C.G. 2017, 'Cascaded forward Brillouin scattering to all Stokes orders', New Journal of Physics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1-22.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Inelastic scattering processes such as Brillouin scattering can often function in cascaded regimes and this is likely to occur in certain integrated opto-acoustic devices. We develop a Hamiltonian formalism for cascaded Brillouin scattering valid for both quantum and classical regimes. By regarding Brillouin scattering as the interaction of a single acoustic envelope and a single optical envelope that covers all Stokes and anti-Stokes orders, we obtain a compact model that is well suited for numerical implementation, extension to include other optical nonlinearities or short pulses, and application in the quantum-optics domain. We then theoretically analyze intra-mode forward Brillouin scattering (FBS) for arbitrary waveguides with and without optical dispersion. In the absence of optical dispersion, we find an exact analytical solution. With a perturbative approach, we furthermore solve the case of weak optical dispersion. Our work leads to several key results on intra-mode FBS. For negligible dispersion, we show that cascaded intra-mode FBS results in a pure phase modulation and discuss how this necessitates specific experimental methods for the observation of fiber-based and integrated FBS. Further, we discuss how the descriptions that have been established in these two classes of waveguides connect to each other and to the broader context of cavity opto-mechanics and Raman scattering. Finally, we draw an unexpected striking similarity between FBS and discrete diffraction phenomena in waveguide arrays, which makes FBS an interesting candidate for future research in quantum-optics.

Wong, W.S.Y., Liu, G., Nasiri, N., Hao, C., Wang, Z. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Omnidirectional Self-Assembly of Transparent Superoleophobic Nanotextures.', ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 587-596.
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Engineering surface textures that are highly transparent and repel water, oil, and other low surface energy fluids can transform our interaction with wet environments. Despite extensive progress, current top-down methods are based on directional line-of-sight fabrication mechanisms that are limited by scale and cannot be applied to highly uneven, curved, and enclosed surfaces, while bottom-up techniques often suffer from poor optical transparency. Here, we present an approach that enables the rapid, omnidirectional synthesis of flexible and up to 99.97% transparent superhydrophobic and -oleophobic textures on many variable surface types. These features are obtained by the spontaneous formation of a multi re-entrant morphology during the controlled self-assembly of nanoparticle aerosols. We also develop a mathematical model to explain and control the self-assembly dynamics, providing important insights for the rational engineering of functional materials. We envision that our findings represent a significant advance in imparting superoleophobicity and superamphiphobicity to a so-far inapplicable family of materials and geometries for multifunctional applications.

Woodcock, S. & Sloan, W.T. 2017, 'Biofilm community succession: a neutral perspective.', Microbiology, vol. 163, no. 5, pp. 664-668.
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Although biofilms represent one of the dominant forms of life in aqueous environments, our understanding of the assembly and development of their microbial communities remains relatively poor. In recent years, several studies have addressed this and have extended the concepts of succession theory in classical ecology into microbial systems. From these datasets, niche-based conceptual models have been developed explaining observed biodiversity patterns and their dynamics. These models have not, however, been formulated mathematically and so remain untested. Here, we further develop spatially resolved neutral community models and demonstrate that these can also explain these patterns and offer alternative explanations of microbial succession. The success of neutral models suggests that stochastic effects alone may have a much greater influence on microbial community succession than previously acknowledged. Furthermore, such models are much more readily parameterised and can be used as the foundation of more complex and realistic models of microbial community succession.

Wu, R., Zhou, J., Lei, L., Zhang, S., Xiao, Z., Zhang, J. & Xu, S. 2017, 'α-NaYF4:Yb3+-Tm3+@CaF2 nanocrystals for NIR-to-NIR temperature sensing', Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 667, pp. 206-210.
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© 2016The approach of lanthanides doping upconversion temperature sensing exhibits high superiority in bioscience. However, most of the upconversion nanothermometers show their fluorescences temperature sensing beyond biological transparent window (650–950 nm) while suffering from the interference of surrounding environment. Here we report a nanoprobe with ultrasmall size, i.e. α-NaYF4:Yb-Tm@CaF2 nanocrystal, which has a sensitive capability to realize NIR-to-NIR temperature sensing. Temperature sensing sensitivities through 3H4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3H6 transitions of Tm3+ ions are evaluated in temperature region of 313–373 K. The results indicate that α-NaYF4:Yb-Tm@CaF2 nanocrystal is a promising candidate for biological temperature sensing.

Wu, R., Zhou, J., Lei, L., Zhang, S., Xiao, Z., Zhang, J. & Xu, S. 2017, 'α-NaYF4:Yb3+-Tm3+@CaF2 nanocrystals for NIR-to-NIR temperature sensing', Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 667, pp. 206-210.
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Wu, R., Zhou, J., Lei, L., Zhang, S., Xiao, Z., Zhang, J. & Xu, S. 2017, 'α-NaYF4:Yb3+-Tm3+@CaF2 nanocrystals for NIR-to-NIR temperature sensing', Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 667, pp. 206-210.
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Xie, F., Zhang, L., Su, D., Jaroniec, M. & Qiao, S.-.Z. 2017, 'Na2 Ti3 O7 @N-Doped Carbon Hollow Spheres for Sodium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Rate Performance.', Adv Mater, vol. 29, no. 24.
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Uniform Na2 Ti3 O7 hollow spheres assembled from N-doped carbon-coated ultrathin nanosheets are synthesized. A unique multilayer structure of nanosheets is presumed to significantly reduce energy consumption during the diffusion process of sodium ions, while the carbon-coated structure can increase the overall conductivity. The as-prepared sample used as an anode in sodium-ion batteries exhibits the best rate performance ever reported for Na2 Ti3 O7 , delivering more than 60 mAh g(-1) after 1000 continuous cycles at the high rate of 50 C, which was achieved due to its unique structure.

Xie, X., Wang, S., Kretschmer, K. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Two-dimensional layered compound based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.', J Colloid Interface Sci, vol. 499, pp. 17-32.
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Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, have been considered as promising energy conversion and storage devices with applications ranging from small portable electronics, medium-sized power sources for electromobility, to large-scale grid energy storage systems. Wide implementations of these rechargeable batteries require the development of electrode materials that can provide higher storage capacities than current commercial battery systems. Within this greater context, this review will present recent progresses in the development of the 2D material as anode materials for battery applications represented by studies conducted on graphene, molybdenum disulfide, and MXenes. This review will also discuss remaining challenges and future perspectives of 2D materials in regards to a full utilization of their unique properties and interactions with other battery components.

Xing, H., Liu, D.L., Li, G., Wang, B., Anwar, M.R., Crean, J., Lines-Kelly, R. & Yu, Q. 2017, 'Incorporating grain legumes in cereal-based cropping systems to improve profitability in southern New South Wales, Australia', Agricultural Systems, vol. 154, pp. 112-123.
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Grain legumes, such as lupins and field peas, are one of key rotation components in Australian agricultural systems, supplying nitrogen (N) to following crops, and potentially increasing farm profitability. In this study, we used a modelling approach to investigate the profitability of incorporating field pea (Pisum sativum) and narrowleaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in cereal-based (wheat/canola) cropping systems in southern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We calibrated and validated the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) with three-year's experimental data to predict yields of field pea and lupin, and N contribution of grain legumes in cereal-based (wheat/canola) crop rotations. We conducted a gross margin analysis to analyse the profitability of adding grain legumes into cereal-based crop rotations at both crop and rotation levels. The simulated results showed that field pea and lupin could contribute 30–65 kg N ha − 1 to the next crop and 60–110 kg N ha − 1 to subsequent crops (wheat/canola) for two years, corresponding to 30–55% and 60–86% of net N inputs of legume-fixed N, respectively. This greatly increased the yields and profitability of wheat/canola in the following two years. Including grain legumes in cereal-based crop rotations was more profitable than non-legume crop rotations, even though the grain legumes were less profitable than wheat/canola in the year of growing. However, N and economic benefits would be reduced to zero if N fertilizer applied to wheat/canola was over the optimal level, i.e. 100–125 kg N ha − 1 in terms of N benefit, or 75 kg N ha − 1 for farm-economic profit. In general, incorporation of grain legumes into cereal-based crop rotations offers an obvious N benefit to subsequent crops and provides an economic benefit for farmers (reduced N applications). This suggests that the contribution of grain legumes to cereal-based cropping systems should be assessed as part of a rotation rather t...

Xu, X., Clarke, C., Ma, C., Casillas, G., Das, M., Guan, M., Liu, D., Wang, L., Tadich, A., Du, Y., Ton-That, C. & Jin, D. 2017, 'Depth-profiling of Yb(3+) sensitizer ions in NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles.', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 23, pp. 7719-7726.
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Enhancing the efficiency of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and therefore their brightness is the critical goal for this emerging material to meet growing demands in many potential applications including sensing, imaging, solar energy conversion and photonics. The distribution of the photon sensitizer and activator ions that form a network of energy transfer systems within each single UCNP is vital for understanding and optimizing their optical properties. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the depth distribution of Yb(3+) sensitizer ions in host NaYF4 nanoparticles and systematically correlate the structure with the optical properties for a range of UCNPs with different sizes and doping concentrations. We find a radial gradient distribution of Yb(3+) from the core to the surface of the NaYF4 nanoparticles, regardless of their size or the sensitizer's concentration. Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was also used to further confirm the distribution of the sensitizer ions in the host matrix. These results have profound implications for the upconversion optical property variations.

Yu, B., Min, H., Wu, H., Wang, S., Ding, Y. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Production of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids and their performance as oxygen reduction reaction catalysts', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 52, pp. 3188-3198.
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© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New YorkA series of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids with different weight ratios of MoS2 and CoSe2 were prepared by two different hydrothermal methods. The synthesized MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical activity and durability of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids towards oxygen reduction reaction were studied in 0.5 M H2SO4 using rotating disk electrode. The results showed that all of them demonstrated catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction. Furthermore, loading 30% MoS2 on CoSe2 by the first method (CoSe2-30a) displayed the best electrocatalytic activity. The onset potential (0.741 V vs. RHE) and half-wave potential (0.570 V vs. RHE) were higher than those of loading 20% MoS2 on CoSe2 by the second method (CoSe2-20b, 0.737 and 0.565 V vs. RHE), CoSe2 (0.708 and 0.560 V vs. RHE), and MoS2 (0.698 and 0.429 V vs. RHE). Most important, CoSe2-30a showed superior stability and better methanol tolerance than CoSe2-20b, CoSe2, and MoS2.

Yu, W., Bajorek, J., Jayade, S., Miele, A., Mirza, J., Rogado, S., Sundararajan, A., Faig, J., Ferrage, L. & Uhrich, K.E. 2017, 'Salicylic acid (SA)-eluting bone regeneration scaffolds with interconnected porosity and local and sustained SA release.', J Biomed Mater Res A, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 311-318.
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In previous work, we observed that localized and sustained delivery of an anti-inflammatory drug, salicylic acid (SA), via a SA-based polymer (SAP) powder significantly enhanced diabetic bone regeneration through long-term mitigation of local inflammation. In this study, SAP was formulated into uniform microspheres and then sintered into a scaffold with an interconnected porous structure and modulus suitable for bone regeneration. The SAP scaffolds have ∼45% SA loading, which is the highest among drug-eluting bone regeneration scaffolds to-date. In addition, the scaffold provides localized, controlled and sustained SA release that has been proven to enhance diabetic bone regeneration. With the combination of physical (interconnected porosity) and chemical therapeutic features (high drug loading and sustained release), the novel SAP scaffolds offer unique therapeutic advantages and are promising diabetic bone regeneration candidates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 311-318, 2017.

Zachreson, C., Wolff, C., Whitchurch, C.B. & Toth, M. 2017, 'Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm.', Physical Review E, vol. 95, no. 1-1, pp. 1-14.
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Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

Zaslawski, C.J. 2017, 'Ginseng for erectile dysfunction (Protocol)', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 5.
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Zhang, J., Sun, B., McDonagh, A.M., Zhao, Y., Kretschmer, K., Guo, X. & Wang, G. 2017, 'A multi-functional gel co-polymer bridging liquid electrolyte and solid cathode nanoparticles: An efficient route to Li–O2 batteries with improved performance', Energy Storage Materials, vol. 7, pp. 1-7.
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© 2016 Lithium-oxygen (Li–O 2 ) batteries have the highest theoretical energy density amongst all rechargeable batteries and have attracted significant attention. However, large over-potentials originating from sluggish reaction kinetics often lead to low round-trip energy efficiency and short cycle life. We report here a novel multi-functional gel co-polymer that efficiently enhances the discharge and charge performances in Li–O 2 batteries by intimately connecting the liquid electrolyte and solid cathode nanoparticles. On one hand, the co-polymer material, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(TMA-MMA)), functions as a binder during the fabrication of the cathode and forms a gel polymer membrane to retain liquid electrolyte and to increase ionic conductivity. On the other hand, the TMA units, containing N–O radical groups that catalyse Li 2 O 2 formation and decomposition during charge and discharge cycles, are distributed throughout the polymer membrane. This allows more effective formation and decomposition of Li 2 O 2 than surface bound catalytic units. The combination of gelable MMA and catalytic TMA moieties enhances the interface between liquid electrolyte and solid cathode by functioning as a medium both to transport Li + (enhancing discharge process) and to carry electrons (reducing charge over-potential). Consequently, the optimized P(TMA-MMA) co-polymers provide exceptional electrochemical performance in Li–O 2 batteries.

Zhang, J., Sun, B., Zhao, Y., Kretschmer, K. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Modified Tetrathiafulvalene as an Organic Conductor for Improving Performances of Li−O 2 Batteries', Angewandte Chemie, vol. 129, no. 29, pp. 8625-8629.
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Zhang, J., Sun, B., Zhao, Y., Kretschmer, K. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Modified Tetrathiafulvalene as an Organic Conductor for Improving Performances of Li-O2 Batteries.', Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, vol. 56, no. 29, pp. 8505-8509.
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Large over-potentials owing to the sluggish kinetics of battery reactions have always been the drawbacks of Li-O2 batteries, which lead to short cycle life. Although redox mediators have been intensively investigated to overcome this issue, side-reactions are generally induced by the solvated nature of redox mediators. Herein, we report an alternative method to achieve more efficient utilization of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in Li-O2 batteries. By coordinating TTF(+) with LiCl during charging, an organic conductor TTF(+) Clx(-) precipitate covers Li2 O2 to provide an additional electron-transfer pathway on the surface, which can significantly reduce the charge over-potential, improve the energy efficiency of Li-O2 batteries, and eliminate side-reactions between the lithium metal anode and TTF(+) . When a porous graphene electrode is used, the Li-O2 battery combined with TTF and LiCl shows an outstanding performance and prolonged cycle life.

Zhang, L., Zheng, S., Wang, L., Tang, H., Xue, H., Wang, G. & Pang, H. 2017, 'Fabrication of Metal Molybdate Micro/Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Storage.', Small.
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Currently, metal molybdates compounds can be prepared by several methods and are considered as prospective electrode materials in many fields because the metal ions possess the ability to exist in several oxidation states. These multiple oxidation states contribute to prolonging the discharge time, improving the energy density, and increasing the cycling stability. The high electrochemical performance of metal molybdates as electrochemical energy storage devices are discussed in this review. According to recent publications and research progress on relevant materials, the investigation of metal molybdate compounds are discussed via three main aspects: synthetic methods, material properties and measured electrochemical performance of these compounds as electrode materials. The recent progress in general metal molybdate nanomaterials for LIBs and supercapacitors are carefully presented here.

Zhang, X., Li, P., Zang, R., Wang, S., Zhu, Y., Li, C. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Antimony/Porous Biomass Carbon Nanocomposites as High-Capacity Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries', Chemistry - An Asian Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 116-121.
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© 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Antimony/porous biomass carbon nanocomposites have been prepared by a chemical reduction method and applied as anodes for sodium-ion batteries. The porous biomass carbon derived from a black fungus had a large Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of 2233 m 2 g −1 in which antimony nanoparticles were uniformly distributed in the porous carbon. The as-prepared antimony/porous biomass carbon nanocomposites exhibited a high reversible sodium storage capacity of 567 mA h g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 , extended cycling stability, and good rate capability.

Zhang, X., Wang, H., Ma, Y. & Carroll, R.J. 2017, 'Linear Model Selection When Covariates Contain Errors', Journal of the American Statistical Association, pp. 1-9.
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© 2017 American Statistical Association Prediction precision is arguably the most relevant criterion of a model in practice and is often a sought after property. A common difficulty with covariates measured with errors is the impossibility of performing prediction evaluation on the data even if a model is completely given without any unknown parameters. We bypass this inherent difficulty by using special properties on moment relations in linear regression models with measurement errors. The end product is a model selection procedure that achieves the same optimality properties that are achieved in classical linear regression models without covariate measurement error. Asymptotically, the procedure selects the model with the minimum prediction error in general, and selects the smallest correct model if the regression relation is indeed linear. Our model selection procedure is useful in prediction when future covariates without measurement error become available, for example, due to improved technology or better management and design of data collection procedures. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

Zhang, Y., Gao, Y. & Yu, Q. 2017, 'Diffuse nitrogen loss simulation and impact assessment of stereoscopic agriculture pattern by integrated water system model and consideration of multiple existence forms', Journal of Hydrology, vol. 552, pp. 660-673.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Agricultural nitrogen loss becomes an increasingly important source of water quality deterioration and eutrophication, even threatens water safety for humanity. Nitrogen dynamic mechanism is still too complicated to be well captured at watershed scale due to its multiple existence forms and instability, disturbance of agricultural management practices. Stereoscopic agriculture is a novel agricultural planting pattern to efficiently use local natural resources (e.g., water, land, sunshine, heat and fertilizer). It is widely promoted as a high yield system and can obtain considerable economic benefits, particularly in China. However, its environmental quality implication is not clear. In our study, Qianyanzhou station is famous for its stereoscopic agriculture pattern of Southern China, and an experimental watershed was selected as our study area. Regional characteristics of runoff and nitrogen losses were simulated by an integrated water system model (HEQM) with multi-objective calibration, and multiple agriculture practices were assessed to find the effective approach for the reduction of diffuse nitrogen losses. Results showed that daily variations of runoff and nitrogen forms were well reproduced throughout watershed, i.e., satisfactory performances for ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH 4 -N and NO 3 -N) loads, good performances for runoff and organic nitrogen (ON) load, and very good performance for total nitrogen (TN) load. The average loss coefficient was 62.74 kg/ha for NH 4 -N, 0.98 kg/ha for NO 3 -N, 0.0004 kg/ha for ON and 63.80 kg/ha for TN. The dominating form of nitrogen losses was NH 4 -N due to the applied fertilizers, and the most dramatic zones aggregated in the middle and downstream regions covered by paddy and orange orchard. In order to control diffuse nitrogen losses, the most effective practices for Qianyanzhou stereoscopic agriculture pattern were to reduce farmland planting scale in the valley by afforestation, particul...

Zhao, M.-.Q., Xie, X., Ren, C.E., Makaryan, T., Anasori, B., Wang, G. & Gogotsi, Y. 2017, 'Hollow MXene Spheres and 3D Macroporous MXene Frameworks for Na-Ion Storage.', Adv Mater.
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2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, named MXenes, are attracting increasing attentions and showing competitive performance in energy storage devices including electrochemical capacitors, lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, and lithium-sulfur batteries. However, similar to other 2D materials, MXene nanosheets are inclined to stack together, limiting the device performance. In order to fully utilize MXenes' electrochemical energy storage capability, here, processing of 2D MXene flakes into hollow spheres and 3D architectures via a template method is reported. The MXene hollow spheres are stable and can be easily dispersed in solvents such as water and ethanol, demonstrating their potential applications in environmental and biomedical fields as well. The 3D macroporous MXene films are free-standing, flexible, and highly conductive due to good contacts between spheres and metallic conductivity of MXenes. When used as anodes for sodium-ion storage, these 3D MXene films exhibit much improved performances compared to multilayer MXenes and MXene/carbon nanotube hybrid architectures in terms of capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. This work demonstrates the importance of MXene electrode architecture on the electrochemical performance and can guide future work on designing high-performance MXene-based materials for energy storage, catalysis, environmental, and biomedical applications.

Zheng, M., Reimers, J.R., Waller, M.P. & Afonine, P.V. 2017, 'Q', Acta Crystallographica Section D: Structural Biology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 45-52.
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© International Union of Crystallography, 2017. Quantum-based refinement utilizes chemical restraints derived from quantum-chemical methods instead of the standard parameterized library-based restraints used in refinement packages. The motivation is twofold: firstly, the restraints have the potential to be more accurate, and secondly, the restraints can be more easily applied to new molecules such as drugs or novel cofactors. Here, a new project called Q|R aimed at developing quantum-based refinement of biomacromolecules is under active development by researchers at Shanghai University together with PHENIX developers. The central focus of this long-term project is to develop software that is built on top of open-source components. A development version of Q|R was used to compare quantum-based refinements with standard refinement using a small model system.Quantum-based refinement software is being developed to refine biomacromolecules against crystallographic or cryo-electron microscopy data.

Zheng, S., Kim, C., Lal, S., Meier, P., Sibbritt, D. & Zaslawski, C. 2017, 'The Effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Stressed But Healthy People Compared to Exercise and Wait-List Groups-A Randomized Controlled Trial.', Journal of Clinical Psychology.
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OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) practice can reduce anxiety in healthy but stressed people. METHOD: Fifty participants were randomized into TC (n=17), exercise (n=17), and wait-list (WL) groups (n=16). Outcome measures used were State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS14), blood pressure and heart rate variability, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Short Form 36. RESULTS: Significant improvements were observed from baseline for both TC and exercise groups for both state (p <0.01) and trait (p <0.01) anxiety, PSS14 (p <0.01), VAS (p <0.01), mental health domain (p <0.01), and vitality domain (p <0.01). Superior outcomes were also observed for TC when compared with WL for state and trait anxiety (p <0.01) and mental health domain (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: TC reduces stress levels in healthy individuals and provides a safer, cost effective, and less physically vigorous alternative to exercise.

Zheng, S., Kim, C., Meier, P., Sibbritt, D. & Zaslawski, C. 2017, 'Development of a Novel Questionnaire for the Traditional Chinese Medicine Pattern Diagnosis of Stress', JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies.
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© 2017. Currently, there is no definitive diagnosis or list of signs and symptoms for "stress" in either modern biomedicine or Chinese medicine (CM). While modern theories on stress relate to the neurological interaction of a stressor or stimuli on the autonomic nervous system, it is generally regarded as subjective in nature and as such each individual will likely present varying somatic or cognitive signs and symptoms. A questionnaire was therefore developed, based on textual research, that incorporated both general as well as gender specific signs and symptom responses to determine the most common CM patterns associated with individuals who report as feeling stressed. For the 45 females who completed the questionnaire, the mean percentage of symptoms per CM pattern showed that the pattern with the highest average percentage was heart qi deficiency (61.88%) followed by liver blood deficiency (60.23%) and then heart blood deficiency (60.12%). For males (n = 16), heart qi deficiency was also the highest scoring CM pattern with a scoring percentage of 54.81%. In males, however, heart blood deficiency was second with 53.29% followed by liver blood deficiency with 51.10%. Of the general non gender-specific symptoms collected (n = 65 symptoms), the symptom most commonly reported by both men and women was "anxious or racing thoughts", followed by "constant worrying" and "inability to concentrate". The CM diagnostic pattern results may prove useful for clinicians as the change in diagnostic understanding will also modify the treatment principle and subsequent treatment with acupuncture or herbal medicine. Future CM research studies should consider including the questionnaire either as a diagnostic aid or as an outcome measure for acupuncture or herbal medicine studies related to stress.

Zhou, Y., Rasmita, A., Li, K., Xiong, Q., Aharonovich, I. & Gao, W.-.B. 2017, 'Coherent control of a strongly driven silicon vacancy optical transition in diamond.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14451.
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The ability to prepare, optically read out and coherently control single quantum states is a key requirement for quantum information processing. Optically active solid-state emitters have emerged as promising candidates with their prospects for on-chip integration as quantum nodes and sources of coherent photons connecting these nodes. Under a strongly driving resonant laser field, such quantum emitters can exhibit quantum behaviour such as Autler-Townes splitting and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Here we demonstrate coherent control of a strongly driven optical transition in silicon vacancy centre in diamond. Rapid optical detection of photons enabled the observation of time-resolved coherent Rabi oscillations and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Detection with a probing transition further confirmed Autler-Townes splitting generated by a strong laser field. The coherence time of the emitted photons is comparable to its lifetime and robust under a very strong driving field, which is promising for the generation of indistinguishable photons.

Zhu, A., Greaves, I.K., Dennis, E.S. & Peacock, W.J. 2017, 'Genome-wide analyses of four major histone modifications in Arabidopsis hybrids at the germinating seed stage.', BMC Genomics, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 137.
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BACKGROUND: Hybrid vigour (heterosis) has been used for decades in cropping agriculture, especially in the production of maize and rice, because hybrid varieties exceed their parents in plant biomass and seed yield. The molecular basis of hybrid vigour is not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that epigenetic systems could play a role in heterosis. RESULTS: In this project, we investigated genome-wide patterns of four histone modifications in Arabidopsis hybrids in germinating seeds. We found that although hybrids have similar histone modification patterns to the parents in most regions of the genome, they have altered patterns at specific loci. A small subset of genes show changes in histone modifications in the hybrids that correlate with changes in gene expression. Our results also show that genome-wide patterns of histone modifications in geminating seeds parallel those at later developmental stages of seedlings. CONCLUSION: Ler/C24 hybrids showed similar genome-wide patterns of histone modifications as the parents at an early germination stage. However, a small subset of genes, such as FLC, showed correlated changes in histone modification and in gene expression in the hybrids. The altered patterns of histone modifications for those genes in hybrids could be related to some heterotic traits in Arabidopsis, such as flowering time, and could play a role in hybrid vigour establishment.

Zhu, L., Khachadorian, S., Hoffmann, A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Chemical, vibrational and optical signatures of nitrogen in ZnO nanowires', Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing.
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.ZnO nanowires with various concentrations of nitrogen molecules have been fabricated by remote plasma annealing. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveals that nitrogen exists mainly in two chemical states: atomic nitrogen substituting oxygen (NO) and molecular nitrogen (N2) weakly bound to the ZnO lattice; the latter state increases substantially with prolonged plasma time. Cathodoluminescence microanalysis of individual nanowires reveals a broad emission band at 3.24eV at 10K, attributable to the recombination of a shallow donor and a N2 acceptor state. The Raman modes at 547 and 580cm-1 from the N-doped nanowires are found to rise in proportion to the N2 concentration, indicating they are related to N2 molecules or defects caused by the incorporation of N2 in the nanowires.

Zhu, L., Lem, L.L.C., Nguyen, T.P., Fair, K., Ali, S., Ford, M.J., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Indirect excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 11.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. We present a correlative experimental and theoretical study of bound excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO, with a particular focus on the dynamics of their metastable state confined in the sub-surface region, using a combination of surface-sensitive characterisation techniques and density functional theory calculations. A metastable sub-surface emission at 3.31 eV found in H-doped ZnO is attributed to the radiative recombination of indirect excitons localised at basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) where the excitonic transition involves electrons bound to bond-centre hydrogen donors in the potential well of the BSF. Additionally, our work shows the electrical transport of ZnO Schottky junctions is dominated by electrons confined at BSFs in the near-surface region.

Zhu, Y., Xu, G., Zhang, X., Wang, S., Li, C. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Hierarchical porous carbon derived from soybean hulls as a cathode matrix for lithium-sulfur batteries', Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 695, pp. 2246-2252.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are considered to be a promising energy storage device for next-generation high energy power systems. However the low conductivity of elemental sulfur and the “shuttle effect” of polysulfides lead to low rate performance and poor cyclability, which seriously hamper the rapid development of Li–S batteries. Herein, we report the encapsulation of sulfur into hierarchical porous carbon derived from soybean hulls. The as-prepared hierarchical carbon materials have a high specific surface area of 1232 m 2  g −1 and a large total pore volume of 0.5394 cm 3  g −1 , resulting in the 63.7 wt% loading of sulfur. When applied as cathode hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries, a good electrochemical performance has been achieved.

Zolfaghar, S., Villalobos-Vega, R., Zeppel, M., Cleverly, J., Rumman, R., Hingee, M., Boulain, N., Li, Z., Eamus, D. & Tognetti, R. 2017, 'Transpiration of Eucalyptus woodlands across a natural gradient of depth-to-groundwater', Tree Physiology, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 961-975.
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Zou, R., Huang, J., Shi, J., Huang, L., Zhang, X., Wong, K.L., Zhang, H., Jin, D., Wang, J. & Su, Q. 2017, 'Silica shell-assisted synthetic route for mono-disperse persistent nanophosphors with enhanced in vivo recharged near-infrared persistent luminescence', Nano Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2070-2082.
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© 2016, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Near-infrared (NIR) persistent-luminescence nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of background-free contrast agents that are promising for in vivo imaging. The next key roadblock is to establish a robust and controllable method for synthesizing monodisperse nanoparticles with high luminescence brightness and long persistent duration. Herein, we report a synthesis strategy involving the coating/etching of the SiO 2 shell to obtain a new class of small NIR highly persistent luminescent ZnGa 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ ,Sn 4+ (ZGOCS) nanoparticles. The optimized ZGOCS nanoparticles have an excellent size distribution of ~15 nm without any agglomeration and an NIR persistent luminescence that is enhanced by a factor of 13.5, owing to the key role of the SiO 2 shell in preventing nanoparticle agglomeration after annealing. The ZGOCS nanoparticles have a signal-to-noise ratio ~3 times higher than that of previously reported ZnGa 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ (ZGC-1) nanoparticles as an NIR persistent-luminescence probe for in vivo bioimaging. Moreover, the persistent-luminescence signal from the ZGOCS nanoparticles can be repeatedly re-charged in situ with external excitation by a white lightemitting diode; thus, the nanoparticles are suitable for long-term in vivo imaging applications. Our study suggests an improved strategy for fabricating novel high-performance optical nanoparticles with good biocompatibility.

Conferences

Chen, H., Corboliou, V., Solntsev, A.S., Choi, D.Y., Vincenti, M.A., De Ceglia, D., De Angelis, C., Lu, Y. & Neshev, D.N. 2017, 'Enhanced second-harmonic generation from two-dimensional MoSe2 by waveguide integration', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
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© OSA 2017. We demonstrate enhanced second-harmonic generation from a monolayerMoSe2 through Si waveguide integration. This is achieved by exciting the monolayer through the guided mode, which dramatically increases the interaction length and allows for phasematching.

Elder, M.J. & Diekert, V. 2017, 'Solutions of Twisted Word Equations, EDT0L Languages, and Context-Free Groups', Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017), Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 96:1-96:14.
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We prove that the full solution set of a twisted word equation with regular constraints is an EDT0L language. It follows that the set of solutions to equations with rational constraints in a context-free group (= finitely generated virtually free group) in reduced normal forms is EDT0L. We can also decide whether or not the solution set is finite, which was an open problem. Moreover, this can all be done in PSPACE. Our results generalize the work by Lohrey and Senizergues (ICALP 2006) and Dahmani and Guirardel (J. of Topology 2010) with respect to complexity and with respect to expressive power. Both papers show that satisfiability is decidable, but neither gave any concrete complexity bound. Our results concern all solutions, and give, in some sense, the "optimal" formal language characterization.

Irga, P.J. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'Can urban forestry really reduce air pollution? A field study on a city scale.', Green Infrastructure: Nature Based Solutions for Sustainable and Resilient Cities, Orvieto, Italy.
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Irga, P.J. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'Reducing indoor air pollutants through horticultural biotechnology.', Green Infrastructure: Nature Based Solutions For Sustainable and Resilient Cities, Orvieto, Italy.
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Kota, A., Xenaki, D., Deshpande, D., Oliver, B. & Sharma, P. 2017, 'ASK1 Inhibition Prevented Mitogen-Induced Human Airway Smooth Muscle Growth in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease', American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, American Thoracic Society.

Kusrini, E., Prassanti, R., Nurjaya, D.M. & Gunawan, C. 2017, 'Multifunctional microsphere formulation of fluorescent magnetic properties for drug delivery system', AIP Conference Proceedings.
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© 2017 Author(s). The microsphere formulations of Chit/TPP/Sm/Fe 3 O 4 /Rn were prepared by an ionic gelation technique, where Chit=chitosan, TPP=tripolyphosphate, Sm=samarium and Rn=ranitidine. Optimum of microsphere formulation exhibit magnetic and fluorescent properties with adsorption efficiency of ∼92% was obtained for Chit/TPP/Sm/Fe 3 O 4 /Rn with ratio 400:500:50:1:20. Fluorescence intensity of microsphere formulations increased with the cumulative amount release of ranitidine, so that the changing of fluorescence intensity at wavelength of 590 nm referring to the Sm 3+ ion could be used as indicator in DDS. With the demonstration of sustained release from microsphere formulation, it allows to investigate the applications to other drugs.

Marcote, B., Ribó, M., Paredes, J.M., Ishwara-Chandra, C.H., Swinbank, J.D., Broderick, J.W., Markoff, S., Fender, R., Wijers, R.A.M.J., Pooley, G.G., Stewart, A.J., Bell, M.E., Breton, R.P., Carbone, D., Corbel, S., Eislöffel, J., Falcke, H., Grießmeier, J.M., Kuniyoshi, M., Pietka, M., Rowlinson, A., Serylak, M., Van Der Horst, A.J., Van Leeuwen, J., Wise, M.W. & Zarka, P. 2017, 'Measuring the expansion velocity of the outflows of LS i +61 303 through low-frequency radio observations', AIP Conference Proceedings.
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© 2017 Author(s). LS I +61 303 is a gamma-ray binary that exhibits an outburst at GHz frequencies each orbital cycle of 26.5 d and a superorbital modulation with a period of 4.6 yr. We have performed a detailed study of the low-frequency radio emission of LS I +61 303 by analyzing data from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 150, 235 and 610 MHz, and from the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) at 150 MHz. We have detected the source for the first time at 150 MHz, which is also the first detection of a gamma-ray binary at such a low frequency. We have obtained the light-curves of the source at 150, 235 and 610 MHz, all of them showing orbital modulation. The light-curves at 235 and 610 MHz also show the existence of superorbital variability. A comparison with contemporaneous 15-GHz data shows remarkable differences with these light-curves. At 15 GHz we see clear outbursts, whereas at low frequencies we see variability with wide maxima. The light-curve at 235 MHz seems to be anticorrelated with the one at 610 MHz, implying a shift of about 0.5 orbital phases in the maxima. We model the shifts between the maxima at different frequencies as due to changes in the physical parameters of the emitting region assuming either free-free absorption or synchrotron self-absorption, obtaining expansion velocities for this region close to the stellar wind velocity with both mechanisms.

Marino, G., Solntsev, A.S., Xu, L., Gili, V., Carletti, L., Poddubny, A.N., Smirnova, D., Chen, H., Zhang, G., Zayats, A., De Angelis, C., Leo, G., Kivshar, Y.S., Sukhorukov, A.A. & Neshev, D.N. 2017, 'Sum-frequency generation and photon-pair creation in algaas nano-scale resonators', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
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© OSA 2017. We demonstrate experimentally sum-frequency generation in AlGaAs nano-resonators, establishing a quantum-classical correspondence with spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We predict that AlGaAs nano-resonators can be utilized as high-rate sources of photon pairs with non-classical correlations.

McAlinden, K., Chan, Y., Kota, A., Chen, H., Oliver, B. & Sharma, P. 2017, 'Maternal E-cigarette Vaping Enhances Development of Allergic Asthma In the Offspring', American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, American Thoracic Society.
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Rationale: E-cigarettes (eCig) are being considered as an alternative to quit cigarette smoking (CS) while their long-term safety and effect on lung patho-physiology are not known. Maternal eCig-vaping may be considered as a safer CS-replacement during pregnancy. Thus the effect of maternal eCig vaping needs further assessment, particularly the effect this has on offspring and development of allergic asthma later in life. Combining mouse models of maternal vaping and allergic asthma and human airway smooth muscle cells (ASM) in vitro we tested whether maternal eCig vaping enhances features of allergic asthma in the offspring. Methods: Female BALB/c mice were vaped with either eCig vapour (± nicotine) or CS+eCig (+nicotine) or room air (control group). The eCig vaping was started prior to mating and continued during gestation and lactation while CS-exposure was used prior to mating and replaced with eCig during gestation and mating. The female offspring from these mothers were subjected to an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model. 24 hours after the last aerosolized OVA or saline challenge, lung function measurements were performed using flexiVent (Scireq, Canada) to increasing concentration of methacholine (MCh). Airway inflammation was assessed by counting total immune cell influx in BAL fluid. Human ASM cells were treated with varying concentrations of eCig liquid condensate and key parameters of mitochondrial function were measured with a Seahorse XF analyzer. Results: Repeated allergen-exposure induced Th2-driven inflammation in OVA-exposed mice, characterized by massive influx of leukocytes predominantly eosinophils (OVA: 3x105±8.3x104 vs Saline: 1.1x102±1x102) and to some extent neutrophils (OVA: 1.3x104±4.4x103 vs Saline: 1.3x102±1.1x102) into the airways. The effect of allergen on airway eosinophilia was significantly enhanced in the offsprings from eCig OVA (+Nic)-exposed mothers when compared with eCig OVA (-Nic) or CS+eCig animals. OVA-exposed ...

Natarajan, S., Kumar, M.A. & Sundareswaran, A.U.M. 2017, 'Computational Analysis of an Early Direct Injected HCCI Engine Using Bio Ethanol and Diesel Blends as Fuel', Energy Procedia, pp. 350-357.
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© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. In this paper the work deals with the Experimental analysis of the early direct injected HCCI. The computational analysis of the engine was carried out using CHEMKIN-PRO Software. The computational analysis was carried out using the auto ignition chemistry by means of reduced chemical kinetics. For these investigations, the neat diesel and bio ethanol - diesel blend (E20) fuels were used as fuel and the pressure, combustion and emission characteristics were studied in the equivalence ratio of 0.6 (φ= 0.6). The injection timing was advanced to 18°rather than the normal 23°before top dead centre (BTDC) as specified engine conditions. Since pressure and temperature profiles plays a vital role in reaction path at certain operating conditions, an effort has been made here to present a comprehensive reaction path analysis on the formation/destruction of chemical species at peak temperature and pressure conditions.

Paull, N.J., Irga, P.J. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'Active green wall technology for the phytoremediation of indoor air pollutants', Green Infrastructure: Nature Based Solutions for Sustainable and Resilient Cities.
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Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Student’s Experience in Online Intensive Mode (IM) Units at The Faculty of Business and Economics.', https://iated.org/inted/, The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017,, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain).
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The Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE) at Macquarie University conducted a pilot to explore online Intensive Mode (IM) as a delivery option. A project team was assembled to carry out the pilot. The aims were to support academics to introduce pedagogical innovation, address internationalisation, and create new opportunities for students that cannot enrol in full session units due to competing schedules. Additionally, IM units would give students a chance to fast-track their degree and increase flexibility. This paper is a discussion of students’ experience undertaking online IM units that will inform on good learning designs.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Surfing the Waves of Self-Regulated Learning to Evaluate Flipped Classrooms (FC)', The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED, Valencia (Spain).
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Flipped classrooms (FC) are becoming a standard instructional strategy in higher education in the last five years. Although the research in the field is increasing, it is still considered in its infancy and with the lack of pedagogical integrity. Most of the studies up to date do not count on solid theoretical foundations and assumed students would buy-in this way of instruction. There are limited frameworks available to guide FC implementations, and most of them consider three stages: before, during and after the classroom. A research gap has been identified; there is not any model available to evaluate learning in FC. This paper offers an evidence-based framework to measure self-regulation learning during FC. The model links goal setting, environmental structuring and time management before the classroom. During the classroom, task strategies and help-seeking and self-evaluation and self-consequences after the classroom. The aim is to gain an in-depth understanding on how students self-regulate their learning in FC interventions. Implications for the implementation of FC are considered.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'The Nightmare is Over: A Simple Guide to Design Effective Subject Outlines', The EdMedia World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, EdMedia, Washington, DC, USA.
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Higher education institutions worldwide are continuously implementing evidence-based educational approaches and quality control of subjects, courses, and programs. In this regard, a subject outline is a learning design document and an agreement between academics and students. It needs to address the subject structure, what are the requirements, assessment tasks, expectations and so on. A useful subject outline requires sound pedagogical and instructional approaches and to be clearly written, succinct, and conversational when possible. If information is missing or is not easily accessible, it will cause student confusion, unnecessary email traffic and potentially, loss of interest in the subject. Anecdotal reports indicate that students do not engage in the reading subject outlines and their attitude towards the usefulness of this document is not well-known in the literature. This paper covers five sections commonly used in subject outlines in Australian universities. Each of them presents evidence-based practices to help the design process considering educational taxonomies, constructive alignment, principles of active learning, authentic assessments and levels of feedback for learners. The aim of this paper is to guide early career academics new to teaching in higher education but also traditional academics moving towards a blended learning approach.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L., Horgan, F.G., Ramp, D. & Meier, P. 2017, 'Using Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) as an Assessment Tool in Geological Sciences.', Proceedings of the International Technology, Education and Development Conference INTED2017, Valencia, Spain, The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain), pp. 40-40.
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This study explores learner-generated digital media (LGDM) as an assessment tool in Geological Sciences. The aim was to engage students with the geology subject further and to develop their digital media literacies. For this purpose, a cohort of 97 students from the undergraduate Geological Processes subject (Autumn 2016) at the University of Technology Sydney, were randomly allocated to groups of 2-5 students. The students were asked to produce a five-minute digital media presentation on a chosen study topic. A lecture and workshop on digital media principles were delivered to prepare the students for the task early in the semester. Support and feedback were provided across the entire semester by the lecturer and digital media tutor through computer practicals and preparatory assignments. Group contribution was monitored using the SPARKPlus application. An online questionnaire was used at the end of the semester to gauge students’ attitude towards LGDM. The survey assessed demographics, digital media support, attitudes toward the assignment, and the contribution of LGDM to skills development. Methodological triangulation was used with data sets from the questionnaire, group work and marks obtained. Our preliminary results indicate that students had a positive attitude towards LGDM as an assessment tool and that the assessment provided a novel opportunity for students to apply attributes such as ‘creativity’ to their learning experience of geology. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

Schell, A.W., Takashima, H., Tran, T.T., Aharonovich, I. & Takeuchi, S. 2017, 'Spectroscopy of single quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride using linear and non-linear excitation', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
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© OSA 2017. Excitation of single photon emitters via a two-photon process can be employed for high resolution imaging and has applications in quantum optics. Here, we present one- and two-photon excitation of single defects in hexagonal boron.

Schulte, J., De Mendonca, P.F., Martinez-Maldonado, R. & Shum, S.B. 2017, 'Large scale predictive process mining and analytics of university degree course data', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 538-539.
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© 2017 ACM. For students, in particular freshmen, the degree pathway from semester to semester is not that transparent, although students have a reasonable idea what courses are expected to be taken each semester. An often-pondered question by students is: "what can I expect in the next semester?" More precisely, given the commitment and engagement I presented in this particular course and the respective performance I achieved, can I expect a similar outcome in the next semester in the particular course I selected? Are the demands and expectations in this course much higher so that I need to adjust my commitment and engagement and overall workload if I expect a similar outcome? Is it better to drop a course to manage expectations rather than to (predictably) fail, and perhaps have to leave the degree altogether? Degree and course advisors and student support units find it challenging to provide evidence based advise to students. This paper presents research into educational process mining and student data analytics in a whole university scale approach with the aim of providing insight into the degree pathway questions raised above. The beta-version of our course level degree pathway tool has been used to shed light for university staff and students alike into our university's 1,300 degrees and associated 6 million course enrolments over the past 20 years.

Solntsev, A.S., Kumar, P., Pertsch, T., Setzpfandt, F. & Sukhorukov, A.A. 2017, 'Integrated quantum spectroscopy on a nonlinear chip', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
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© OSA 2017. We demonstrate experimentally on-chip-integrated quantum spectroscopy by generating biphotons in a LiNbO3 waveguide through spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and using signal photon detection in the NIR to study the dynamics of idler photons in the MIR.

Teherani, F., Rogers, D.J., Sandana, V.E., Bove, P., Ton-That, C., Lem, L., Chikoidze, E., Neumann-Spallart, M., Dumont, Y., Huynh, T., Phillips, M.R., Chapon, P., McClintock, R. & Razeghi, M. 2017, 'A Study into the Impact of sapphire substrate orientation on the properties of nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition', Proc. SPIE 10105, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VIII, SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco.
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Titchener, J., Gräfe, M., Heilmann, R., Solntsev, A.S., Szameit, A. & Sukhorukov, A.A. 2017, 'Scalable quantum tomography in a photonic chip', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
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© 2017 OSA. We formulate a method of quantum tomography that scales linearly with the number of photons and involves only one optical transformation. We demonstrate it experimentally for twophoton entangled states using a special photonic chip.

Wang, K., Kruk, S.S., Xu, L., Parry, M., Chung, H.P., Solntsev, A.S., Titchener, J., Kravchenko, I., Chen, Y.H., Kivshar, Y.S., Neshev, D.N. & Sukhorukov, A.A. 2017, 'Quantum imaging with dielectric metasurfaces for multi-photon polarization tomography', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
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© 2017 OSA. We suggest and realize experimentally dielectric metasurfaces with high transmission efficiency for quantum multi-photon tomography, allowing for full reconstruction of pure or mixed quantum polarization states across a broad bandwidth.

Wilkinson, S.J., Stoller, P., Ralph, P., Hamdorf, B., Navarro Catana, L. & Santana Kuzava, G. 2016, 'Exploring the feasibility of algae building technology in NSW', SBE16 International High Performance Built Environments Conference, Sydney NSW.
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For some time, Biochemists have been exploring the potential to produce biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy. Biofuels can be derived from crops such as corn, soybean and sugarcane however these crops can contribute to water scarcity and deforestation. Furthermore, large areas of land are used that could otherwise be used for food production. Another possibility is to use microalgae, which does not have the disadvantages associated with crop-based biofuels. Depending on conditions, microalgae can produce bio compounds that are converted into biofuels. The built environment is responsible for around 40 to 50% of total greenhouse gas emissions through fossil fuel consumption. Not only is it necessary to design and to retrofit our built environment to be more energy efficient, but it is also necessary to consider alternative fuel sources. To date, this has mostly focused on solar, wind and geothermal sources, however one residential building in Hamburg Germany has adopted algae building technology in the form of façade panels which act as a source of energy for heating the apartments and for hot water. The climate in northern Germany is very different to Australia, and the question arises; what is the feasibility to adopt algae building technology in New South Wales? There are issues around the physical and technical aspects of the technology, the social and environmental aspects, the regulatory and planning aspects, as well as the economic considerations. This paper reports on a study with key stakeholders in New South Wales to explore barriers and drivers associated with the adoption of algae building technology.

Yang, X., Xie, H., Alonas, E., Liu, Y., Chen, X., Santangelo, P.J., Ren, Q., Xi, P. & Jin, D. 2017, 'Mirror enhanced STED super-resolution microscopy', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
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© 2017 OSA. Through reflective interference, the axial thickness of confocal point spread function can be easily improved to 100 nm. Six-fold of axial resolution and two-fold of lateral resolution can be obtained for STED nanoscopy.

Reports

Irga, P.J., Paull, N.J., Abdo, P., Huynh, B.P., Avakian, V., Nguyen, T. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, DEVELOPING THE JUNGLEFY BREATHING WALL FOR ENHANCED INDOOR AIR QUALITY REMEDIATION.
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KEY RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Operational parameters of the Junglefy Breathing Wall system were determined and characterised. Data collected included system water loss, pressure drop, air distribution and the system’s effect on ambient temperature and relative humidity. Clean air delivery rates were calculated utilising the removal efficiencies. The system produced 25.86¬–28.70 m3/h per module, depending on particle size and airflow rate. A typical Breathing Wall of 10 m2, utilising 40 modules would thus produce up to 12,700 m3/h of particle-free air. Tests were conducted to identify the most appropriate plant species for survival in high pollution environments. All of the plant species tested, which are currently used in commercial applications of the Breathing Wall, recorded moderate air pollutant tolerance, and thus the system using the current plant species could possibly be used in industrial applications. Pollutant effect on air filled porosity of the substrate was negligible, even under extremely high pollutant loads. Air quality tests were conducted at the Lend Lease Head Office, and the efficiency of the first Breathing Wall installation was monitored. The Breathing Wall is successfully reducing ambient particulate matter and carbon dioxide relative to outdoors and other areas throughout the building. Additionally, air pollutants including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide were below the detection limit of the equipment being used, indicating excellent indoor environmental quality. The results indicate that the Breathing Wall is working as intended.

Labbate, M. Australian Academy of Sciences 2017, ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE: A COMPLEX MULTI-FACTORIAL PROBLEM REQUIRING AN ORCHESTRATED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESPONSE, pp. 17-20, Canberra.

Lassudrie, M., Ajani, P.A. & Murray, S.A. 2017, Microalgal Community Composition Assessment in Warringah Lagoons 2016-2017, 1-33.

Other

Ajani, P.A., Hallegraeff, G.M., Allen, D., Coughlan, A., Richardson, A.J., Armand, L., Ingleton, I. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Establishing baselines: eighty years of phytoplankton diversity and biomass in south-eastern Australia. ALSO Aquatic Science Meeting Hawaii.'.
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(Oral Presentation)

Davies, C.H., Coughlan, A., Hallegraeff, G., Ajani, P., Armbrecht, L., Atkins, N., Bonham, P., Brett, S., Brinkman, R., Burford, M., Clementson, L., Coad, P., Coman, F., Davies, D., Dela-Cruz, J., Devlin, M., Edgar, S., Eriksen, R., Furnas, M., Hassler, C., Hill, D., Holmes, M., Ingleton, T., Jameson, I., Leterme, S.C., Lønborg, C., McLaughlin, J., McEnnulty, F., McKinnon, A.D., Miller, M., Murray, S., Nayar, S., Patten, R., Pausina, S.A., Pritchard, T., Proctor, R., Purcell-Meyerink, D., Raes, E., Rissik, D., Ruszczyk, J., Slotwinski, A., Swadling, K.M., Tattersall, K., Thompson, P., Thomson, P., Tonks, M., Trull, T.W., Uribe-Palomino, J., Waite, A.M., Yauwenas, R., Zammit, A. & Richardson, A.J. 2017, 'Corrigendum: A database of marine phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition in Australian waters.', Nature Publishing Group, pp. 1-1.
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The authors regret that Sarah A. Pausina was omitted in error from the author list of the original version of this Data Descriptor. This omission has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of this Data Descriptor, as well as the accompanying Corrigendum

Platen, E. & Taylor, D. 2017, 'Loading Pricing of Long-Dated, Insurance-Type Contracts'.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L., meier, P., hanham, J., Vlachopoulos, P. & rodgers, K. 2017, 'Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Framework'.
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Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) has been incorporated as a tool to assess students in K-12 and higher education in the last decade. There are frameworks developed for video making in the classroom that considers technical know-how and a model that incorporate pedagogies. However, there is the absence of a practical framework to inform academics and students on the implementation of digital presentations as an assessment tool in the curricula. The aim of this poster is to propose a model for how to design, implement and evaluate LGDM as assessment tools in tertiary education. This evidence-based framework considers the following elements: (1) pedagogy; (2) student training; (3) hosting of videos; (4) marking schemes; (5) group contribution; (6) feedback; (7) reflection, and; (8) evaluation. The model serves as a conduit between theory and good practice.

Rudd, R., McWalter, T.A., Kienitz, J. & Platen, E. 2017, 'Fast Quantization of Stochastic Volatility Models'.

Sharma, P. 2017, 'Lung experts warn against legalising nicotine in e-cigarettes'.

Sharma, P., Yi, R., Nayak, A., Wang, N., Tang, F., Knight, M., Pan, S., Oliver, B. & Deshpande, D. 2017, 'Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice'.
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Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma. Asthma was induced in mice using intranasal house dust mite or aerosol ova-albumin challenge, and chloroquine or quinine were tested in both prophylactic and treatment models. Allergen challenge resulted in airway inflammation as evidenced by increased immune cells infiltration and release of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs, which were significantly attenuated in TAS2R agonists treated mice. TAS2R agonists attenuated features of airway remodeling including smooth muscle mass, extracellular matrix deposition and pro-fibrotic signaling, and also prevented mucus accumulation and development of AHR in mice. Mechanistic studies using human neutrophils demonstrated that inhibition of immune cell chemotaxis is a key mechanism by which TAS2R agonists blocked allergic airway inflammation and exerted anti-asthma effects. Our comprehensive studies establish the effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in mitigating multiple features of allergic asthma.

Stayte, S.R., Lowth, A., Rentsch, P. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'The kainate receptor antagonist UBP310 inhibits MPTP-induced degeneration in the mouse midbrain'.

Woodcock, S. 2017, 'How predictable are the Oscars? More than you might think', The Conversation.

Woodcock, S. 2017, 'Paradoxes of probability and other statistical strangeness', The Conversation.