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Chapters

Bottomley, A.L., Turnbull, L., Whitchurch, C.B. & Harry, E.J. 2017, 'Immobilization Techniques of Bacteria for Live Super-resolution Imaging Using Structured Illumination Microscopy.' in Pontus Nordenfelt and Mattias Collin (ed), Bacterial Pathogenesis, pp. 197-209.
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Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-quality microscopy is good sample preparation to avoid bacterial cell movement that can result in motion blur during image acquisition. Here, we describe two techniques of sample preparation that reduce unwanted cell movement and are suitable for application to a number of bacterial species and imaging methods.

Horgan, F.G. 2017, 'Ecology and management of apple snails in rice' in Chauhan, B.S., Jabran, K. & Mahajan, G. (eds), Rice Production Worldwide, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 393-418.
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Apple snails (Ampulariidae) occur throughout tropical and subtropical rice-growing regions. Native apple snails rarely damage rice; however, in hot and humid tropical regions, some native species will damage wet-direct-seeded rice (i.e., Pomacea spp. in Suriname and Brazil). Similarly, exotic apple snails in wet, temperate regions can damage direct-seeded rice (i.e., Pomacea canaliculata in Japan). However, if left unmanaged, exotic apple snails in warm tropical regions (i.e., P. canaliculata and P. maculata in South East Asia) can cause significant economic losses even to transplanted rice (which is more robust that direct-seeded rice). The negative impact of apple snails on rice yield can be reduced by reducing seedling vulnerability or controlling snail population densities. Reducing vulnerability is a more sustainable solution to apple snails but requires new methods such as seedling broadcasting and machine transplanting to decrease labor costs. To avoid further spread of apple snails, the implementation of effective quarantine directives is recommended for tropical countries that are vulnerable to exotic apple snails.

Horgan, F.G. 2017, 'Insect Herbivores of Rice: Their Natural Regulation and Ecologically Based Management' in Chauhan, B.S., Jabran, K. & Mahajan, G. (eds), Rice Production Worldwide, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 279-302.
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The management of insect herbivores in rice ecosystems has been strongly influenced by three poorly informed beliefs. These are (1) that insects have generally negative effects on crop health, (2) that herbivore damage translates directly to yield loss, and (3) that insecticides increase rice yields. In the face of global changes, particularly increases in the production and marketing of agrochemicals, these beliefs will lead to unsustainable rice production systems and poor environmental health. This chapter assesses these beliefs, challenges their validity, and (by analyzing the dynamics of herbivore populations and their interspecific interactions in the rice ecosystem) presents a holistic alternative for understanding herbivore impacts on rice production systems. The chapter proposes a focus on “rice ecosystem health” with herbivore management based on ecological principals and incorporating such novel approaches as “ecological engineering” for ecosystem stability and system resilience.

Stuart, B.H. & Ueland, M. 2017, 'Decomposition in Aquatic Environments' in Taphonomy of Human Remains Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment, John Wiley & Sons.
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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work Includes case studies Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, ...

Stuart, B.H. & Ueland, M. 2017, 'Degradation of Clothing in Depositional Environments' in Taphonomy of Human Remains Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 120-133.
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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work Includes case studies Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, ...

Journal articles

Abu Saleh, D., Shimoni, O. & Sosnik, A. 2017, 'Novel core-corona hybrid nanomaterials based on the conjugation of amphiphilic polymeric diblocks to the surface of multifunctional nanodiamond anchors', Materials Today Chemistry, vol. 3, pp. 15-26.
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Agius, A., Jones, K., Epple, R., Morelato, M., Moret, S., Chadwick, S. & Roux, C. 2017, 'The use of handwriting examinations beyond the traditional court purpose', Science & Justice.
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Aharonovich, I. & Jelezko, F. 2017, 'Spectroscopy: Mapping spins in flatland.', Nat Mater, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 397-398.
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Aili, S.R., Touchard, A., Petitclerc, F., Dejean, A., Orivel, J., Padula, M.P., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2017, 'Combined Peptidomic and Proteomic Analysis of Electrically Stimulated and Manually Dissected Venom from the South American Bullet Ant Paraponera clavata.', J Proteome Res, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1339-1351.
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Ants have evolved venoms rich in peptides and proteins used for predation, defense, and communication. However, they remain extremely understudied due to the minimal amount of venom secreted by each ant. The present study investigated the differences in the proteome and peptidome of the venom from the bullet ant, Paraponera clavata. Venom samples were collected from a single colony either by manual venom gland dissection or by electrical stimulation and were compared using proteomic methods. Venom proteins were separated by 2D-PAGE and identified by nanoLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS. Venom peptides were initially separated using C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, then analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteomic analysis revealed numerous proteins that could be assigned a biological function (total 94), mainly as toxins, or roles in cell regulation and transport. This investigation found that ca. 73% of the proteins were common to venoms collected by the two methods. The peptidomic analysis revealed a large number of peptides (total 309) but with <20% shared by the two collection methods. There was also a marked difference between venoms obtained by venom gland dissection from different ant colonies. These findings demonstrate the rich composition and variability of P. clavata venom.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters', Marine Drugs.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters'.
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Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters', Marine Drugs.

Ajani, P.A., Harwood, D.T. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters.', Marine Drugs, vol. 15, no. 2.
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Ali, M., Al-Ani, A., Eamus, D. & Tan, D. 2017, 'Leaf Nitrogen Determination Using Non-Destructive Techniques – A Review', Journal of Plant Nutrition.
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The optimisation of plant nitrogen-use-efficiency (NUE) has a direct impact on increasing crop production by optimising use of nitrogen fertiliser. Moreover, it protects environment from negative effects of nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide production. Accordingly, nitrogen (N) management in agriculture systems has been major focus of many researchers. Improvement of NUE can be achieved through several methods including more accurate measurement of foliar N contents of crops during different growth phases. There are two types of methods to diagnose foliar N status: destructive and non-destructive. Destructive methods are expensive and time-consuming as they require tissue sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Thus, many farmers find destructive methods to be less attractive. Non-destructive methods are rapid and less expensive but are usually less accurate. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of non-destructive N estimations has become a common goal of many researchers, and various methods varying in complexity and optimality have been proposed for this purpose. This paper reviews various commonly used non-destructive methods for estimating foliar N status of plants.

Alonso-Peral, M.M., Trigueros, M., Sherman, B., Ying, H., Taylor, J.M., Peacock, W.J. & Dennis, E.S. 2017, 'Patterns of gene expression in developing embryos of Arabidopsis hybrids.', Plant J, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 927-939.
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Hybrids between the Arabidopsis ecotypes C24 and Ler have high levels of hybrid vigour, or heterosis, in both biomass and seed yield. Heterosis can be detected throughout the development of the plant and in different tissues. We examined developing embryos and seeds of C24/Ler reciprocal hybrids with the aim of detecting the earliest time at which heterotic gene activity occurs. In the transcriptomes of 4-dap (days after pollination; dermatogen to globular) and 6-dap (heart) embryos from both parents and hybrids, 95% of expressed genes were at the mid parent value (MPV) and 95% of the genes with single nucleotide polymorphisms between C24 and Ler retained the same relative allelic expression levels in the hybrids as existed in the parents. This included loci that had equivalent levels of transcription in the two parents, together with loci which had different levels of expression in the parents. Amongst the genes which did not have MPV expression levels in the hybrids (non-additively expressed genes), approximately 40 in the globular embryo stage and 89 in the heart embryo stage had altered levels of transcription in both reciprocal hybrids; these genes could contribute to the heterotic phenotype of the hybrid embryo. Many of the non-additively expressed genes had expression levels that were shifted towards maternal levels of transcription, and these differed in the reciprocal hybrids. Allelic expression analysis indicated that most genes with altered allelic contributions in the hybrids had an increase in the expression level of the hybrid's maternal allele. Consistent with the maternal pattern of gene expression, embryo and seed also show maternally influenced phenotypes.

Alvarado, R., To, J., Lund, M.E., Pinar, A., Mansell, A., Robinson, M.W., O'Brien, B.A., Dalton, J.P. & Donnelly, S. 2017, 'The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages.', FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85-95.
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The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that controls the production of IL-1β, a cytokine that influences the development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Helminth parasites secrete molecules that interact with innate immune cells, modulating their activity to ultimately determine the phenotype of differentiated T cells, thus creating an immune environment that is conducive to sustaining chronic infection. We show that one of these molecules, FhHDM-1, a cathelicidin-like peptide secreted by the helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica, inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β by macrophages. FhHDM-1 had no effect on the synthesis of pro-IL-1β. Rather, the inhibitory effect was associated with the capacity of the peptide to prevent acidification of the endolysosome. The activation of cathepsin B protease by lysosomal destabilization was prevented in FhHDM-1-treated macrophages. By contrast, peptide derivatives of FhHDM-1 that did not alter the lysosomal pH did not inhibit secretion of IL-1β. We propose a novel immune modulatory strategy used by F. hepatica, whereby secretion of the FhHDM-1 peptide impairs the activation of NLRP3 by lysosomal cathepsin B protease, which prevents the downstream production of IL-1β and the development of protective T helper 1 type immune responses that are detrimental to parasite survival.-Alvarado, R., To, J., Lund, M. E., Pinar, A., Mansell, A., Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, B. A., Dalton, J. P., Donnelly, S. The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages.

Anderson, C. & Ryan, L.M. 2017, 'A Comparison of Spatio-Temporal Disease Mapping Approaches Including an Application to Ischaemic Heart Disease in New South Wales, Australia.', Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 14, no. 2.
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The field of spatio-temporal modelling has witnessed a recent surge as a result of developments in computational power and increased data collection. These developments allow analysts to model the evolution of health outcomes in both space and time simultaneously. This paper models the trends in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in New South Wales, Australia over an eight-year period between 2006 and 2013. A number of spatio-temporal models are considered, and we propose a novel method for determining the goodness-of-fit for these models by outlining a spatio-temporal extension of the Moran's I statistic. We identify an overall decrease in the rates of IHD, but note that the extent of this health improvement varies across the state. In particular, we identified a number of remote areas in the north and west of the state where the risk stayed constant or even increased slightly.

Anderson, C., Lee, D. & Dean, N. 2017, 'Spatial clustering of average risks and risk trends in Bayesian disease mapping', Biometrical Journal, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 41-56.
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© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimSpatiotemporal disease mapping focuses on estimating the spatial pattern in disease risk across a set of nonoverlapping areal units over a fixed period of time. The key aim of such research is to identify areas that have a high average level of disease risk or where disease risk is increasing over time, thus allowing public health interventions to be focused on these areas. Such aims are well suited to the statistical approach of clustering, and while much research has been done in this area in a purely spatial setting, only a handful of approaches have focused on spatiotemporal clustering of disease risk. Therefore, this paper outlines a new modeling approach for clustering spatiotemporal disease risk data, by clustering areas based on both their mean risk levels and the behavior of their temporal trends. The efficacy of the methodology is established by a simulation study, and is illustrated by a study of respiratory disease risk in Glasgow, Scotland.

Arnold, M.D. 2017, 'Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays.', J Phys Condens Matter, vol. 29, no. 11, p. 115701.
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The Maxwell-Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

Austin, C., Tuft, K., Ramp, D., Cremona, T. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Bait preference for remote camera trap studies of the endangered northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus)', Australian Mammalogy, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 72-77.
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Estimating population size is crucial for managing populations of threatened species. In the Top End of northern Australia, populations of northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus), already affected by livestock grazing, inappropriate burning regimes and predation, have collapsed following the spread of the toxic cane toad (Rhinella marina). Cane toads are currently invading the Kimberley, where they pose a threat to quoll populations. To manage these populations, we need reliable methods for detecting and estimating quoll abundance. We deployed camera traps with lures containing tuna, peanut butter or no bait and found that baited cameras performed better than the unbaited control. Cameras with a tuna lure detected more individuals than cameras baited with peanut butter or no bait. Cameras with a tuna lure yielded more photographs per quoll than those baited with peanut butter or no bait. We identified individual quolls from unique spot patterns and found multiple photographs improved the accuracy of identification. We also found that population estimates for the sample area derived from camera trapping were consistent with those from live trapping using mark–recapture techniques.

Baranov, O., Fang, J., Ostrikov, K. & Cvelbar, U. 2017, 'TiN deposition and morphology control by scalable plasma-assisted surface treatments', Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 188, pp. 143-153.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.A method to modify the mechanical properties and morphology of thin TiN films by controlling the ion fluxes via purposefully shaped magnetic field is developed to enhance the effectiveness of plasma-enhanced deposition of TiN on a large (up to 400 mm in diameter) substrate. For this purpose, the two main schemes of the plasma control are examined. When the substrate is a part of the plasma-generating circuit, TiN is deposited in the magnetron-like arc configuration of the magnetic field. This configuration is used to control ion fluxes for cleaning, etching, and heating of the substrate, and eventually, to control the mechanical properties and morphology of the deposits. When exposing the substrate to the plasma of an external plasma source, the magnetic traps of the bottle configuration with mirrors near the plasma source and substrate surface are created. It is shown that the ion fluxes from the external plasma source can be controlled by the location and powering of the control magnetic coils, which direct nitrogen and Ti ions to the surface. The proposed method is generic and could be used for controlling various nitride materials including but not limited to BN, NbN, W2N and TaN.

Barratt, J., Kaufer, A., Peters, B., Craig, D., Lawrence, A., Roberts, T., Lee, R., McAuliffe, G., Stark, D. & Ellis, J. 2017, 'Isolation of Novel Trypanosomatid, Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) Provides Support for a Gondwanan Origin of Dixenous Parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.', PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol. 11, no. 1, p. e0005215.
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The genus Leishmania includes approximately 53 species, 20 of which cause human leishmaniais; a significant albeit neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis has afflicted humans for millennia, but how ancient is Leishmania and where did it arise? These questions have been hotly debated for decades and several theories have been proposed. One theory suggests Leishmania originated in the Palearctic, and dispersed to the New World via the Bering land bridge. Others propose that Leishmania evolved in the Neotropics. The Multiple Origins theory suggests that separation of certain Old World and New World species occurred due to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Some suggest that the ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia evolved on Gondwana between 90 and 140 million years ago. In the present study a detailed molecular and morphological characterisation was performed on a novel Australian trypanosomatid following its isolation in Australia's tropics from the native black fly, Simulium (Morops) dycei Colbo, 1976. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted and confirmed this parasite as a sibling to Zelonia costaricensis, a close relative of Leishmania previously isolated from a reduviid bug in Costa Rica. Consequently, this parasite was assigned the name Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. Assuming Z. costaricensis and Z. australiensis diverged when Australia and South America became completely separated, their divergence occurred between 36 and 41 million years ago at least. Using this vicariance event as a calibration point for a phylogenetic time tree, the common ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia appeared in Gondwana approximately 91 million years ago. Ultimately, this study contributes to our understanding of trypanosomatid diversity, and of Leishmania origins by providing support for a Gondwanan origin of dixenous parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.

Barraza, V., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Huete, A., Grings, F., Beringer, J., Cleverly, J.R. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Estimation of latent heat flux over savannah vegetation across the North Australian Tropical Transect from multiple sensors and global meteorological data', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 232, pp. 689-703.
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Latent heat flux (LE) and corresponding water loss in non-moisture-limited ecosystems are well corre-lated to radiation and temperature. By contrast, in savannahs and arid and semi-arid lands LE is mostlydriven by available water and the vegetation exerts a strong control over the rate of transpiration.Therefore, LE models that use optical vegetation indices (VIs) to represent the vegetation component(transpiration as a function of surface conductance, Gs) generally overestimate water fluxes in water-limited ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated and compared optical and passive microwave indexbased retrievals of Gsand LE derived using the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation over the North Aus-tralian Tropical Transect (NATT). The methodology was evaluated at six eddy covariance (EC) sites fromthe OzFlux network. To parameterize the PM equation for retrievals of LE (PM-Gs), a subset of Gsvalueswas derived from meteorological and EC flux observations and regressed against individual and com-bined satellite indices, from (1) MODIS AQUA: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and theEnhanced Vegetation Index (EVI); and from (2) AMSR-E passive microwave: frequency index (FI), polar-ization index (PI), vegetation optical depth (VOD) and soil moisture (SM) products. Similarly, we combinedoptical and passive microwave indices (multi-sensor model) to estimate weekly Gsvalues, and evaluatedtheir spatial and temporal synergies. The multi-sensor approach explained 40–80% of LE variance at somesites, with root mean square errors (RMSE) lower than 20 W/m2and demonstrated better performanceto other satellite-based estimates of LE. The optical indices represented potential Gsassociated with thephenological status of the vegetation (e.g. leaf area index, chlorophyll content) at finer spatial resolution.The microwave indices provided information about water availability and moisture stress (e.g. watercontent in leaves and shallow soil depths, atmospheric demand) at a high tem...

Barraza, V., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Huete, A., Grings, F., Beringer, J., Cleverly, J.R. & Eamus, D. 2017, 'Estimation of latent heat flux over savannah vegetation across the North Australian Tropical Transect from multiple sensors and global meteorological data', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 232, pp. 689-703.
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Latent heat flux (LE) and corresponding water loss in non-moisture-limited ecosystems are well corre-lated to radiation and temperature. By contrast, in savannahs and arid and semi-arid lands LE is mostlydriven by available water and the vegetation exerts a strong control over the rate of transpiration.Therefore, LE models that use optical vegetation indices (VIs) to represent the vegetation component(transpiration as a function of surface conductance, Gs) generally overestimate water fluxes in water-limited ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated and compared optical and passive microwave indexbased retrievals of Gsand LE derived using the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation over the North Aus-tralian Tropical Transect (NATT). The methodology was evaluated at six eddy covariance (EC) sites fromthe OzFlux network. To parameterize the PM equation for retrievals of LE (PM-Gs), a subset of Gsvalueswas derived from meteorological and EC flux observations and regressed against individual and com-bined satellite indices, from (1) MODIS AQUA: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and theEnhanced Vegetation Index (EVI); and from (2) AMSR-E passive microwave: frequency index (FI), polar-ization index (PI), vegetation optical depth (VOD) and soil moisture (SM) products. Similarly, we combinedoptical and passive microwave indices (multi-sensor model) to estimate weekly Gsvalues, and evaluatedtheir spatial and temporal synergies. The multi-sensor approach explained 40–80% of LE variance at somesites, with root mean square errors (RMSE) lower than 20 W/m2and demonstrated better performanceto other satellite-based estimates of LE. The optical indices represented potential Gsassociated with thephenological status of the vegetation (e.g. leaf area index, chlorophyll content) at finer spatial resolution.The microwave indices provided information about water availability and moisture stress (e.g. watercontent in leaves and shallow soil depths, atmospheric demand) at a high tem...

Beck, H.J., Feary, D.A., Nakamura, Y. & Booth, D.J. 2017, 'Temperate macroalgae impacts tropical fish recruitment at forefronts of range expansion', Coral Reefs, pp. 1-13.
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© 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergWarming waters and changing ocean currents are increasing the supply of tropical fish larvae to temperature regions where they are exposed to novel habitats, namely temperate macroalgae and barren reefs. Here, we use underwater surveys on the temperate reefs of south-eastern (SE) Australia and western Japan (~33.5°N and S, respectively) to investigate how temperate macroalgal and non-macroalgal habitats influence recruitment success of a range of tropical fishes. We show that temperate macroalgae strongly affected recruitment of many tropical fish species in both regions and across three recruitment seasons in SE Australia. Densities and richness of recruiting tropical fishes, primarily planktivores and herbivores, were over seven times greater in non-macroalgal than macroalgal reef habitat. Species and trophic diversity (K-dominance) were also greater in non-macroalgal habitat. Temperate macroalgal cover was a stronger predictor of tropical fish assemblages than temperate fish assemblages, reef rugosities or wave exposure. Tropical fish richness, diversity and density were greater on barren reef than on reef dominated by turfing algae. One common species, the neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis), chose non-macroalgal habitat over temperate macroalgae for settlement in an aquarium experiment. This study highlights that temperate macroalgae may partly account for spatial variation in recruitment success of many tropical fishes into higher latitudes. Hence, habitat composition of temperate reefs may need to be considered to accurately predict the geographic responses of many tropical fishes to climate change.

Benson, N., Dos Santos, R.O., Griffiths, K., Cole, N., Doble, P., Roux, C. & Blanes, L. 2017, 'The development of a stabbing machine for forensic textile damage analysis.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 132-139.
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This article describes the development of a horizontal stabbing machine with an interchangeable knife holder to simulate stab events. The machine consists of a motorised arm with a pneumatic system designed to deliver 60 unique stabbing positions. The mechanics were robust and the positioning system highly reproducible with standard deviations of less than 1.0mm in the x-axis and 2.3mm in the y-axis for a given stab position. The force of the instrument may be varied by the operator to a maximum of approximately 221N. The suitability of the instrument for simulating stab events was evaluated by measuring the severance length and textile damage from stab delivered from four different knives and nine penetrating angles.

Berhane, A.M., Jeong, K.-.Y., Bodrog, Z., Fiedler, S., Schröder, T., Triviño, N.V., Palacios, T., Gali, A., Toth, M., Englund, D. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride.', Adv Mater, vol. 29, no. 12.
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Room-temperature quantum emitters in gallium nitride (GaN) are reported. The emitters originate from cubic inclusions in hexagonal lattice and exhibit narrowband luminescence in the red spectral range. The sources are found in different GaN substrates, and therefore are promising for scalable quantum technologies.

Bishop, D.P., Blanes, L., Wilson, A.B., Wilbanks, T., Killeen, K., Grimm, R., Wenzel, R., Major, D., Macka, M., Clarke, D., Schmid, R., Cole, N. & Doble, P.A. 2017, 'Microfluidic high performance liquid chromatography-chip hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry', Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 149, pp. 64-69.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.The Agilent Chip Cube Interface is a microfluidic chip-based technology originally designed for nanospray molecular mass spectrometry in which the sample enrichment, nano-column, tubing, connectors and spray tip were integrated into a single biocompatible chip. Here we describe the hyphenation of the Chip Cube Interface to ICP-MS via modification of the standard HPLC chip design and a new total consumption nebuliser suitable for flow rates as low as 300nLmin-1. The potential of the instrument to eliminate common nanoLC - ICP-MS shortcomings such as leaks, blockages and band-broadening was demonstrated via analysis of cyanocobalamin in equine plasma. The method was linear over three orders of magnitude with an r2 of 0.9999, the peak area repeatability was 1.9% (n=7), and the detection limit was 14ngmL-1. This novel configuration of the Chip Cube Interface coupled to ICP-MS is a suitable platform for the analysis of biomolecules associated with trace metals and speciation applications.

Bo, R., Nasiri, N., Chen, H., Caputo, D., Fu, L. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Low-Voltage High-Performance UV Photodetectors: An Interplay between Grain Boundaries and Debye Length.', ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2606-2615.
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Accurate detection of UV light by wearable low-power devices has many important applications including environmental monitoring, space to space communication, and defense. Here, we report the structural engineering of ultraporous ZnO nanoparticle networks for fabrication of very low-voltage high-performance UV photodetectors. A record high photo- to dark-current ratio of 3.3 × 10(5) and detectivity of 3.2 × 10(12) Jones at an ultralow operation bias of 2 mV and low UV-light intensity of 86 μW·cm(-2) are achieved by controlling the interplay between grain boundaries and surface depletion depth of ZnO nanoscale semiconductors. An optimal window of structural properties is determined by varying the particle size of ultraporous nanoparticle networks from 10 to 42 nm. We find that small electron-depleted nanoparticles (≤40 nm) are necessary to minimize the dark-current; however, the rise in photocurrent is tampered with decreasing particle size due to the increasing density of grain boundaries. These findings reveal that nanoparticles with a size close to twice their Debye length are required for high photo- to dark-current ratio and detectivity, while further decreasing their size decreases the photodetector performance.

Borovkov, K., Mishura, Y., Novikov, A. & Zhitlukhin, M. 2017, 'Bounds for expected maxima of Gaussian processes and their discrete approximations', Stochastics, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 21-37.
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© 2015 Taylor & Francis The paper deals with the expected maxima of continuous Gaussian processes (Formula presented.) that are Hölder continuous in (Formula presented.)-norm and/or satisfy the opposite inequality for the (Formula presented.)-norms of their increments. Examples of such processes include the fractional Brownian motion and some of its “relatives” (of which several examples are given in the paper). We establish upper and lower bounds for (Formula presented.) and investigate the rate of convergence to that quantity of its discrete approximation (Formula presented.). Some further properties of these two maxima are established in the special case of the fractional Brownian motion.

Cardoso, B.R., Hare, D.J., Bush, A.I., Li, Q.-.X., Fowler, C.J., Masters, C.L., Martins, R.N., Ganio, K., Lothian, A., Mukherjee, S., Kapp, E.A., Roberts, B.R. & AIBL research group 2017, 'Selenium Levels in Serum, Red Blood Cells, and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A Report from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker & Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL).', J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 183-193.
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Selenium (Se) protects cells against oxidative stress damage through a range of bioactive selenoproteins. Increased oxidative stress is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies have shown that Se deficiency is associated with age-related cognitive decline. In this study, we assessed Se status in different biofluids from a subgroup of participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing. As Se in humans can either be an active component of selenoproteins or inactive via non-specific incorporation into other proteins, we used both size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry to characterize selenoproteins in serum. We observed no differences in total Se concentration in serum or cerebrospinal fluid of AD subjects compared to mildly cognitively impairment patients and healthy controls. However, Se levels in erythrocytes were decreased in AD compared to controls. SEC-ICP-MS analysis revealed a dominant Se-containing fraction. This fraction was subjected to standard protein purification and a bottom-up proteomics approach to confirm that the abundant Se in the fraction was due, in part, to selenoprotein P. The lack of change in the Se level is at odds with our previous observations in a Brazilian population deficient in Se, and we attribute this to the Australian cohort being Se-replete.

Carroll, L., Pattison, D.I., Fu, S., Schiesser, C.H., Davies, M.J. & Hawkins, C.L. 2017, 'Catalytic oxidant scavenging by selenium-containing compounds: Reduction of selenoxides and N-chloramines by thiols and redox enzymes.', Redox Biol, vol. 12, pp. 872-882.
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Myeloperoxidase produces strong oxidants during the immune response to destroy invading pathogens. However, these oxidants can also cause tissue damage, which contributes to the development of numerous inflammatory diseases. Selenium containing compounds, including selenomethionine (SeMet) and 1,4-anhydro-5-seleno-D-talitol (SeTal), react rapidly with different MPO-derived oxidants to form the respective selenoxides (SeMetO and SeTalO). This study investigates the susceptibility of these selenoxides to undergo reduction back to the parent compounds by intracellular reducing systems, including glutathione (GSH) and the glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase systems. GSH is shown to reduce SeMetO and SeTalO, with consequent formation of GSSG with apparent second order rate constants, k2, in the range 10(3)-10(4)M(-1)s(-1). Glutathione reductase reduces both SeMetO and SeTalO at the expense of NADPH via formation of GSSG, whereas thioredoxin reductase acts only on SeMetO. The presence of SeMet and SeTal also increased the rate at which NADPH was consumed by the glutathione reductase system in the presence of N-chloramines. In contrast, the presence of SeMet and SeTal reduced the rate of NADPH consumption by the thioredoxin reductase system after addition of N-chloramines, consistent with the rapid formation of selenoxides, but only slow reduction by thioredoxin reductase. These results support a potential role of seleno compounds to act as catalytic scavengers of MPO-derived oxidants, particularly in the presence of glutathione reductase and NADPH, assuming that sufficient plasma levels of the parent selenoether can be achieved in vivo following supplementation.

Chadwick, S., Neskoski, M., Spindler, X., Lennard, C. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 153-160.
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Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

Chai, A.B., Ammit, A.J. & Gelissen, I.C. 2017, 'Examining the role of ABC lipid transporters in pulmonary lipid homeostasis and inflammation.', Respir Res, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 41.
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Respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by excessive and persistent inflammation. Current treatments are often inadequate for symptom and disease control, and hence new therapies are warranted. Recent emerging research has implicated dyslipidaemia in pulmonary inflammation. Three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are found in the mammalian lung - ABCA1, ABCG1 and ABCA3 - that are involved in movement of cholesterol and phospholipids from lung cells. The aim of this review is to corroborate the current evidence for the role of ABC lipid transporters in pulmonary lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we summarise results from murine knockout studies, human diseases associated with ABC transporter mutations, and in vitro studies. Disruption to ABC transporter activity results in lipid accumulation and elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue. Furthermore, these ABC-knockout mice exhibit signs of respiratory distress. ABC lipid transporters appear to have a crucial and protective role in the lung. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms for these benefits requires further attention. Understanding the relationship between cholesterol and inflammation in the lung, and the role that ABC transporters play in this may illuminate new pathways to target for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

Chan, Y.L., Saad, S., Al-Odat, I., Oliver, B.G., Pollock, C., Jones, N.M. & Chen, H. 2017, 'Maternal L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves Brain Health in Offspring from Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mothers.', Front Mol Neurosci, vol. 10, p. 33.
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Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) causes detrimental changes associated with the development of chronic neurological diseases in the offspring as a result of oxidative mitochondrial damage. Maternal L-Carnitine administration has been shown to reduce renal oxidative stress in SE offspring, but its effect in the brain is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal L-Carnitine supplementation on brain markers of oxidative stress, autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial energy producing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in SE offspring. Female Balb/c mice (8 weeks) were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation with or without L-Carnitine supplementation (1.5 mM in drinking water). In 1 day old male SE offspring, brain mitochondrial damage was suggested by increased mitochondrial fusion and reduced autophagosome markers; whereas at 13 weeks, enhanced brain cell damage was suggested by reduced fission and autophagosome markers, as well as increased apoptosis and DNA fragmentation markers, which were partially reversed by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. In female SE offspring, enhanced mitochondrial regeneration was suggested by decreased fission and increased fusion markers at day 1. At 13 weeks, there was an increase in brain energy demand, oxidative stress and mitochondrial turnover, reflected by the protein changes of OXPHOS complex, fission and autophagosome markers, as well as the endogenous antioxidant, which were also partially normalized by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. However, markers of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were not significantly changed. Thus L-Carnitine supplementation may benefit the brain health of the offspring from smoking mothers.

CHAUVIRÉ, BORIS, RONDEAU, B.E.N.J.A.M.I.N. & MANGOLD, N.I.C.O.L.A.S. 2017, 'Near infrared signature of opal and chalcedony as a proxy for their structure and formation conditions', European Journal of Mineralogy.
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Chekli, L., Eripret, C., Park, S.H., Tabatabai, S.A.A., Vronska, O., Tamburic, B., Kim, J.H. & Shon, H.K. 2017, 'Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 175, pp. 99-106.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

Chipperfield, J., Brown, J. & Bell, P. 2017, 'Estimating the count error in the Australian census', Journal of Official Statistics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 43-59.
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© Statistics Sweden.In many countries, counts of people are a key factor in the allocation of government resources. However, it is well known that errors arise in Census counting of people (e.g., undercoverage due to missing people). Therefore, it is common for national statistical agencies to conduct one or more “audit” surveys that are designed to estimate and remove systematic errors in Census counting. For example, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) conducts a single audit sample, called the Post Enumeration Survey (PES), shortly after each Australian Population Census. This article describes the estimator used by the ABS to estimate the count of people in Australia. Key features of this estimator are that it is unbiased when there is systematic measurement error in Census counting and when nonresponse to the PES is nonignorable.

Chipperfield, J., Brown, J.J. & Watson, N. 2017, 'The Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset: using record linkage to create a longitudinal sample from a series of cross-sections', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 1-16.
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© 2017 Australian Statistical Publishing Association Inc. Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia Pty Ltd.The Australian Bureau of Statistics is creating a longitudinal sample, called the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (ACLD), by linking person records across its five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. This paper proposes a Multi-Panel framework for selecting and weighting records in the ACLD. This framework can be applied more generally to selecting longitudinal samples from a series of cross-sectional administrative files. The proposed framework avoids some significant limitations of the popular ‘Top-Up’ sampling approach to maintaining the cross-sectional and longitudinal representativeness of a sample over time.

Choi, S., Cho, Y.G., Kim, J., Choi, N.S., Song, H.K., Wang, G. & Park, S. 2017, 'Mesoporous Germanium Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery with Exceptional Cycling Stability in Wide Temperature Range', Small, vol. 13, no. 13.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimPorous structured materials have unique architectures and are promising for lithium-ion batteries to enhance performances. In particular, mesoporous materials have many advantages including a high surface area and large void spaces which can increase reactivity and accessibility of lithium ions. This study reports a synthesis of newly developed mesoporous germanium (Ge) particles prepared by a zincothermic reduction at a mild temperature for high performance lithium-ion batteries which can operate in a wide temperature range. The optimized Ge battery anodes with the mesoporous structure exhibit outstanding electrochemical properties in a wide temperature ranging from −20 to 60 °C. Ge anodes exhibit a stable cycling retention at various temperatures (capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles at 25 °C, 84% after 300 cycles at 60 °C, and 50% after 50 cycles at −20 °C). Furthermore, full cells consisting of the mesoporous Ge anode and an LiFePO4 cathode show an excellent cyclability at −20 and 25 °C. Mesoporous Ge materials synthesized by the zincothermic reduction can be potentially applied as high performance anode materials for practical lithium-ion batteries.

Choi, T.Y., Lee, M.S., Kim, J.I. & Zaslawski, C. 2017, 'Moxibustion for the treatment of osteoarthritis: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis', Maturitas, vol. 100, pp. 33-48.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.The aim of this study was to update previous reviews and examine recent evidence from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of the use of moxibustion for osteoarthritis (OA). Twelve databases were searched from inception through to September 2016 with no language limits applied. Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessments were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 19 RCTs met all inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Three RCTs compared the effects of moxibustion with those of sham moxibustion in patients with knee OA (KOA) and found favourable effects of moxibustion on pain reduction (n = 305; SMD, −0.46; 95% CI: −0.86 to −0.06, P = 0.02, I2 = 65%), including at follow-up (n = 305; SMD, −0.36; 95% CI: −0.70 to −0.01, P = 0.04, I2 = 54%). Eleven RCTs compared the effects of moxibustion with those of conventional oral drug therapies. Eight RCTs reported a total symptom score and the meta-analysis showed superior effects of moxibustion compared with drug therapies for this measure (n = 691; SMD, −0.24; 95% CI: −0.78 to 0.29; P = 0.37, I2 = 91%) and response rate (n = 758 knees; RR, 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05–1.16, P < 0.0001, I2 = 0%). Three RCTs found superior or equivalent effects of moxibustion on symptom score compared with intra-articular injection or topical drug therapy. The existing trial evidence is sufficiently convincing to suggest that moxibustion, compared with sham moxibustion and oral drugs, is effective for pain reduction and symptom management in KOA. The level of evidence is moderate, given the high risk of bias and small sample size.

Commault, A.S., Laczka, O., Siboni, N., Tamburic, B., Crosswell, J.R., Seymour, J.R. & Ralph, P.J. 2017, 'Electricity and biomass production in a bacteria-Chlorella based microbial fuel cell treating wastewater', Journal of Power Sources.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.The chlorophyte microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been exploited within bioindustrial settings to treat wastewater and produce oxygen at the cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), thereby accumulating algal biomass and producing electricity. We aimed to couple these capacities by growing C. vulgaris at the cathode of MFCs in wastewater previously treated by anodic bacteria. The bioelectrochemical performance of the MFCs was investigated with different catholytes including phosphate buffer and anode effluent, either in the presence or absence of C. vulgaris. The power output fluctuated diurnally in the presence of the alga. The maximum power when C. vulgaris was present reached 34.2 ± 10.0 mW m-2, double that observed without the alga (15.6 ± 9.7 mW m-2), with a relaxation of 0.19 gL-1 d-1 chemical oxygen demand and 5 mg L-1 d-1 ammonium also removed. The microbial community associated with the algal biofilm included nitrogen-fixing (Rhizobiaceae), denitrifying (Pseudomonas stutzeri and Thauera sp., from Pseudomonadales and Rhodocyclales orders, respectively), and nitrate-reducing bacteria (Rheinheimera sp. from the Alteromonadales), all of which likely contributed to nitrogen cycling processes at the cathode. This paper highlights the importance of coupling microbial community screening to electrochemical and chemical analyses to better understand the processes involved in photo-cathode MFCs.

Craddock, M. 2017, 'Fundamental solutions for the two dimensional affine group and Hn+1', Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 445, no. 1, pp. 953-970.
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© 2016 Elsevier Inc.We derive the wave and heat kernels on the ax+b group, as well as the fundamental solution of the group Laplacian. We make particular use of the Kontorovich–Lebedev transform and a recent result of the author to produce new expressions for these kernels. Our results easily extend to the hyperbolic space Hn+1 for any n and the explicit formulas are given in n dimensions.

Davies, C.H., Coughlan, A., Hallegraeff, G., Ajani, P., Armbrecht, L., Atkins, N., Bonham, P., Brett, S., Brinkman, R., Burford, M., Clementson, L., Coad, P., Coman, F., Davies, D., Dela-Cruz, J., Devlin, M., Edgar, S., Eriksen, R., Furnas, M., Hassler, C., Hill, D., Holmes, M., Ingleton, T., Jameson, I., Leterme, S.C., Lønborg, C., McLaughlin, J., McEnnulty, F., McKinnon, A.D., Miller, M., Murray, S., Nayar, S., Patten, R., Pausina, S.A., Pritchard, T., Proctor, R., Purcell-Meyerink, D., Raes, E., Rissik, D., Ruszczyk, J., Slotwinski, A., Swadling, K.M., Tattersall, K., Thompson, P., Thomson, P., Tonks, M., Trull, T.W., Uribe-Palomino, J., Waite, A.M., Yauwenas, R., Zammit, A. & Richardson, A.J. 2017, 'A database of marine phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition in Australian waters.', Sci Data, vol. 4, p. 170042.
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Dayananda, B., Ibargüengoytía, N., Whiting, M.J. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Effects of pregnancy on body temperature and locomotor performance of velvet geckos.', J Therm Biol, vol. 65, pp. 64-68.
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Pregnancy is a challenging period for egg laying squamates. Carrying eggs can encumber females and decrease their locomotor performance, potentially increasing their risk of predation. Pregnant females can potentially reduce this handicap by selecting higher temperatures to increase their sprint speed and ability to escape from predators, or to speed up embryonic development and reduce the period during which they are burdened with eggs ('selfish mother' hypothesis). Alternatively, females might select more stable body temperatures during pregnancy to enhance offspring fitness ('maternal manipulation hypothesis'), even if the maintenance of such temperatures compromises a female's locomotor performance. We investigated whether pregnancy affects the preferred body temperatures and locomotor performance of female velvet geckos Amalosia lesueurii. We measured running speed of females during late pregnancy, and one week after they laid eggs at four temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C). Preferred body temperatures of females were measured in a cost-free thermal gradient during late pregnancy and one week after egg-laying. Females selected higher and more stable set-point temperatures when they were pregnant (mean =29.0°C, Tset =27.8-30.5°C) than when they were non-pregnant (mean =26.2°C, Tset =23.7-28.7°C). Pregnancy was also associated with impaired performance; females sprinted more slowly at all four test temperatures when burdened with eggs. Although females selected higher body temperatures during late pregnancy, this increase in temperature did not compensate for their impaired running performance. Hence, our results suggest that females select higher temperatures during pregnancy to speed up embryogenesis and reduce the period during which they have reduced performance. This strategy may decrease a female's probability of encountering predatory snakes that use the same microhabitats for thermoregulation. Selection of stable temperatures by pregnant females may...

Dayananda, B... & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards', Biology Letters, vol. 13.

De Silva, K.S.B., Keast, V.J., Gentle, A. & Cortie, M.B. 2017, 'Optical properties and oxidation of α-phase Ag-Al thin films.', Nanotechnology, vol. 28, no. 9, p. 095202.
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We investigate a series of Ag-Al thin films containing up to 12 at% Al with the purpose of discovering whether these alloys would be a better choice for nanophotonic applications than pure Ag. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, AFM, x-ray diffraction and density functional theory are applied to explore and characterize the materials. Electromagnetic simulations of optical properties are used to place the results into a theoretical framework. We find that the increase in electron-to-atom ratio associated with the Al additions changes the optical properties: additions of the order of 1-2 at% Al are beneficial as they are associated with favorable changes in the dielectric function, but for greater additions of Al there is a flattening of the absorption edge and an increase in optical loss. In addition, contents of more than about 2 at% Al are associated with the onset of time-dependent intergranular oxidation, which causes a pronounced dip in the reflectance spectrum at about 2.3-2.4 eV (∼500-540 nm).

Dean, S.J., Foureur, M., Zaslawski, C., Newton-John, T., Yu, N. & Pappas, E. 2017, 'The effects of a structured mindfulness program on the development of empathy in healthcare students', NursingPlus Open, vol. 3, pp. 1-5.
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Del Campo, J., Pombert, J.F., Šlapeta, J., Larkum, A. & Keeling, P.J. 2017, 'The 'other' coral symbiont: Ostreobium diversity and distribution.', The ISME journal, vol. 11, pp. 296-299.
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Ostreobium is an endolithic algal genus thought to be an early-diverging lineage of the Bryopsidales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Ostreobium can live in low-light conditions on calcium carbonate substrata in tropical conditions. It is best known as a symbiont of corals, where it lives deep within the animal skeleton and exchanges nitrogen and carbon, as well as providing nutrients and photoassimilates. In contrast to the relatively well-studied role of the photosynthetic zooxanthellae symbionts in coral (Symbiodinium), Ostreobium phylogeny, diversity and distribution are all poorly understood. Here, we describe the phylogenetic position and diversity of Ostreobium based on plastid 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 18S rDNA and rbcL genes from a nuclear genome survey and complete plastid genome, and determined its environmental diversity and distribution by screening the publicly available environmental data for those genes. The results shed light on the phylogeny and the ecology of the 'other' coral symbiont.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 15 July 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.101.

Devièse, T., Ribechini, E., Castex, D., Stuart, B., Regert, M. & Colombini, M.P. 2017, 'A multi-analytical approach using FTIR, GC/MS and Py-GC/MS revealed early evidence of embalming practices in Roman catacombs', Microchemical Journal, vol. 133, pp. 49-59.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.During the second-third century, cremation was progressively abandoned for inhumation in the Roman Empire and was accompanied by new funeral practices. Recent archaeological excavations in the catacombs of Saints Peter and Marcellinus in Rome revealed thousands of formerly undiscovered skeletons of individuals plastered and methodically stacked in previously unknown and inaccessible rooms. By setting up and applying a multi-analytical approach to characterize chemically all amorphous materials surrounding the skeletons, we investigated this important cultural change regarding the treatment of death. Chemical characterization of the amorphous samples was achieved using FTIR spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS and GC/MS) and by comparison with reference samples from known origin. This allowed for the unambiguous identification of precious and exotic resinous substances involved in the embalming process of the bodies. Amber, sandarac and frankincense, which were sourced from widespread locations, were used as part of the funerary treatment. This first evidence of such highly prized commodities in burial process provides us with new insight into funerary practices as well as commercial networks in the Roman Empire during the first centuries A.D.

Donahoe, S.L., Phalen, D.N., McAllan, B.M., O'Meally, D., McAllister, M.M., Ellis, J. & Šlapeta, J. 2017, 'Differential IFN-γ and TNF-α driven cytokine response distinguishes acute infection of a metatherian host with Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.', Infect Immun.
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Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum (both Apicomplexa) are closely related cyst-forming coccidian parasites that differ significantly in their host range and ability to cause disease. Unlike eutherian mammals, Australian marsupials (metatherian mammals) have long been thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis and neosporosis because of their historical isolation from the parasites. In this study, the carnivorous fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) was used as a disease model to investigate the immune response and susceptibility to infection of an Australian marsupial to T. gondii and N. caninum Disease outcome was more severe in N. caninum infected dunnarts than in T. gondii infected dunnarts, as shown by the severity of clinical and histopathological features of disease and a higher tissue parasite burden in the tissues evaluated. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of spleens from infected dunnarts and mitogen-stimulated dunnart splenocytes was used to define the cytokine repertoire. Changes in mRNA expression during the time course of infection was measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) for key Th1 (IFNγ, TNFα), Th2 (IL-4, IL-6), and Th17 (IL-17A) cytokines. The results show qualitative differences in cytokine responses by the fat-tailed dunnart to infection with N. caninum and T. gondii Dunnarts infected with T. gondii were capable of mounting a more effective Th1 immune response than those infected with N. caninum, indicating the role of the immune response in the outcome scenarios of parasite infection in this marsupial mammal.

Dorantes-Aranda, J.J., Campbell, K., Bradbury, A., Elliott, C.T., Harwood, D.T., Murray, S.A., Ugalde, S.C., Wilson, K., Burgoyne, M. & Hallegraeff, G.M. 2017, 'Comparative performance of four immunological test kits for the detection of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Tasmanian shellfish.', Toxicon, vol. 125, pp. 110-119.
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Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Group 1) seriously impacted the Tasmanian shellfish industry during 2012 and 2015, necessitating product recalls and intensive paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) product testing. The performance of four commercial PST test kits, Abraxis™, Europroxima™, Scotia™ and Neogen™, was compared with the official AOAC LC-FLD method for contaminated mussels and oysters. Abraxis and Europroxima kits underestimated PST in 35-100% of samples when using standard protocols but quantification improved when concentrated extracts were further diluted (underestimation ≤18%). The Scotia kit (cut off 0.2-0.7 mg STX-diHCl eq/kg) delivered 0% false negatives, but 27% false positives. Neogen produced 5% false negatives and 13% false positives when the cut off was altered to 0.5-0.6 mg STX-diHCl eq/kg, the introduction of a conversion step eliminated false negatives. Based on their sensitivity, ease of use and performance, the Neogen kit proved the most suitable kit for use with Tasmanian mussels and oysters. Once formally validated for regulatory purposes, the Neogen kit could provide shellfish growers with a rapid tool for harvesting decisions at the farm gate. Effective rapid screening preventing compliant samples undergoing testing using the more expensive and time consuming LC-FLD method will result in significant savings in analytical costs.

Dossou, K.B. 2017, 'Large field enhancement obtained by combining Fabry-Perot resonance and Rayleigh anomaly in photonic crystal slabs', Journal of Optics (United Kingdom), vol. 19, no. 4.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.By applying the properties of Fabry-Perot resonance and Rayleigh anomaly, we have shown that a photonic crystal slab can scatter the light from an incident plane wave into a diffracted light with a very large reflection or transmission coefficient. The enhanced field is either a propagating diffracted wave (with a grazing angle of diffraction) or a weakly evanescent diffracted wave, so it can be particularly useful for applications requiring an enhanced propagating field (or an enhanced field with a low attenuation). An efficient effective medium technique is developed for the design of the resonant photonic crystal slabs. Numerical simulations have shown that photonic crystal slabs with low index contrast, such as the ones found in the cell wall of diatoms, can enhance the intensity of the incident light by four orders of magnitude.

Dowse, R., Palmer, C.G., Hills, K., Torpy, F. & Kefford, B.J. 2017, 'The mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus Harker defies common osmoregulatory assumptions.', R Soc Open Sci, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 160520.
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Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l(-1) added synthetic marine salt (SMS), respectively. They were strong osmoregulators. At aquarium water osmolality of 256 ± 3.12 mmol kg(-1) (±s.e.; equivalent to 10 g l(-1) added SMS), the haemolymph osmolality of A. pusillus was a much higher 401 ± 4.18 mmol kg(-1) (±s.e.). The osmoregulatory capacity of A. pusillus did not break down, even at the salinity corresponding to their LC99, thus their mortality at this concentration is due to factors other than increased internal osmotic pressure. No freshwater invertebrate has been previously reported as suffering mortality from rises in salinity that are well below the iso-osmotic point. Recently, studies have reported reduced abundance/richness of Ephemeroptera with slightly elevated salinity. Given that salinization is an increasing global threat to freshwaters, there is an urgent need for studies into the osmophysiology of the Ephemeroptera to determine if their loss at locations with slightly elevated salinity is a direct result of external salinity or other, possibly physiological, causes.

Dubios, S., Fenwick, N., Ryan, E.A., Baker, L., Baker, S.E., Beausoleil, N.J., Carter, S., Cartwright, B., Costa, F., Draper, C., Griffin, J., Grogan, A., Howald, G., Jones, B., Littin, K.E., Lombard, A.T., Mellor, D.J., Ramp, D., Schuppli, C.A. & Fraser, D. 2017, 'International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control', Conservation Biology.
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Human–wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human–wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human–wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation.

Elsdon, D.S., Spanswick, S., Zaslawski, C. & Meier, P.C. 2017, 'Protocol: Testing the Relevance of Acupuncture Theory in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain in the Upper Trapezius Muscle.', J Acupunct Meridian Stud, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 67-74.
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A protocol for a prospective single-blind parallel four-arm randomized placebo-controlled trial with repeated measures was designed to test the effects of various acupuncture methods compared with sham. Eighty self-selected participants with myofascial pain in the upper trapezius muscle were randomized into four groups. Group 1 received acupuncture to a myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in the upper trapezius. Group 2 received acupuncture to the MTrP in addition to relevant distal points. Group 3 received acupuncture to the relevant distal points only. Group 4 received a sham treatment to both the MTrP and distal points using a deactivated acupuncture laser device. Treatment was applied four times within 2 weeks with outcomes measured throughout the trial and at 2 weeks and 4 weeks posttreatment. Outcome measurements were a 100-mm visual analog pain scale, SF-36, pressure pain threshold, Neck Disability Index, the Upper Extremity Functional Index, lateral flexion in the neck, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale, Working Alliance Inventory (short form), and the Credibility Expectance Questionnaire. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to assess the differences between groups.

Faiz, A., Donovan, C., Nieuwenhuis, M.A.E., van den Berge, M., Postma, D.S., Yao, S., Park, C.Y., Hirsch, R., Fredberg, J.J., Tjin, G., Halayko, A.J., Rempel, K.L., Ward, J.P.T., Lee, T., Bossé, Y., Nickle, D.C., Obeidat, M., Vonk, J.M., Black, J.L., Oliver, B.G., Krishnan, R., McParland, B., Bourke, J.E. & Burgess, J.K. 2017, 'Latrophilin receptors: Novel bronchodilator targets in asthma', Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 74-82.
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© 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society.Background Asthma affects 300 million people worldwide. In asthma, the major cause of morbidity and mortality is acute airway narrowing, due to airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypercontraction, associated with airway remodelling. However, little is known about the transcriptional differences between healthy and asthmatic ASM cells. Objectives To investigate the transcriptional differences between asthmatic and healthy airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) in culture and investigate the identified targets using in vitro and ex vivo techniques. Methods Human asthmatic and healthy ASMC grown in culture were run on Affymetrix_Hugene_1.0_ST microarrays. Identified candidates were confirmed by PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Functional analysis was conducted using in vitro ASMC proliferation, attachment and contraction assays and ex vivo contraction of mouse airways. Results We suggest a novel role for latrophilin (LPHN) receptors, finding increased expression on ASMC from asthmatics, compared with non-asthmatics in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a role in mediating airway function. A single nucleotide polymorphism in LPHN1 was associated with asthma and with increased LPHN1 expression in lung tissue. When activated, LPHNs regulated ASMC adhesion and proliferation in vitro, and promoted contraction of mouse airways and ASMC. Conclusions Given the need for novel inhibitors of airway remodelling and bronchodilators in asthma, the LPHN family may represent promising novel targets for future dual therapeutic intervention.

Ferrage, L., Bertrand, G., Lenormand, P., Grossin, D. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2017, 'A review of the additive manufacturing (3DP) of bioceramics: Alumina, zirconia (PSZ) and hydroxyapatite', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 11-20.
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© 2016 Australian Ceramic Society.The additive manufacturing of bioceramic parts has been investigated since the 1980s. This paper offers an overview of the present achievements in the production of alumina, zirconia and hydroxyapatite parts by means of selective laser sintering/melting of a powder bed or stereolithography. A focus is placed on these specific materials because of their widespread use in the biomedical field. It demonstrates that even though the manufacturing of parts with these processes is possible from pure bioceramics, the use of a binder (or another chemical adjuvant) is required in order to achieve good mechanical properties. Still, improvements in the raw material preparation and in the comprehension of the physical phenomena occurring during the processing remain necessary to be able to prevent the formation of cracks or to be able to control the porosity of the parts.

Flynn, K.J. & Raven, J.A. 2017, 'What is the limit for photoautotrophic plankton growth rates?', Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 13-22.
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© 2016 The Author.Knowing the potential maximum photoautotrophic growth rate for planktonic primary producers is fundamental to our understanding of trophic and biogeochemical processes, and of importance in applied phycology. When dayintegrated C-specific growth is considered over natural light:dark cycles, plausible RuBisCO activity (Kcat coupled with cellular RuBisCO content) caps growth to less than a few doubling per day. Prolonged periods of C-specific growth rates above ca. 1.3 d thus appear increasingly implausible. Discrepancies between RuBisCO-capped rates and reported microalgal-specific growth rates, including temperature-growth rate relationships, may be explained by transformational errors in growth rate determinations made by reference to cell counts or most often chlorophyll, or by extrapolations from short-Term measurements. Coupled studies of enzyme activity and day-on-day C-specific growth rates are required to provide definitive evidence of high growth rates. It seems likely, however, that selective pressure to evolve a RuBisCO with a high Kcat (with a likely concomitant increase in Km for CO2) would be low, as other factors such as light limitation (developing during biomass growth due to self-shading), nutrient limitations, CO2 depletion and pH elevation, would all rapidly depress realized specific growth rates.

Gao, J., Djaidi, D., Marjo, C.E., Bhadbhade, M.M., Ung, A.T. & Bishop, R. 2017, 'Weak Intermolecular Forces, but High Melting Points*', Australian Journal of Chemistry.
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Gardner, S.G., Raina, J.-.B., Ralph, P.J. & Petrou, K. 2017, 'Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dimethylated sulphur compounds in coral explants under acute thermal stress.', J Exp Biol.
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Coral bleaching is intensifying with global climate change. While the causes for these catastrophic events are well understood, the cellular mechanism that triggers bleaching is not well established. Our understanding of coral bleaching processes is hindered by the lack of robust methods for studying interactions between host and symbiont at the single-cell level. Here we exposed coral explants to acute thermal stress and measured oxidative stress, more specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), in individual symbiont cells. Furthermore, we measured concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to elucidate the role of these compounds in coral antioxidant function. This work demonstrates the application of coral explants for investigating coral physiology and biochemistry under thermal stress and delivers a new approach to study host-symbiont interactions at the microscale, allowing us to directly link intracellular ROS with DMSP and DMSO dynamics.

Gazzola, M., Lortie, K., Henry, C., Mailhot-Larouche, S., Chapman, D.G., Couture, C., Seow, C.Y., Paré, P.D., King, G.G., Boulet, L.-.P. & Bossé, Y. 2017, 'Airway smooth muscle tone increases airway responsiveness in healthy young adults.', Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, vol. 312, no. 3, pp. L348-L357.
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Force adaptation, a process whereby sustained spasmogenic activation (viz., tone) of airway smooth muscle (ASM) increases its contractile capacity, has been reported in isolated ASM tissues in vitro, as well as in mice in vivo. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of tone on airway responsiveness in humans. Ten healthy volunteers underwent methacholine challenge on two occasions. One challenge consisted of six serial doses of saline followed by a single high dose of methacholine. The other consisted of six low doses of methacholine 5 min apart followed by a higher dose. The cumulative dose was identical for both challenges. After both methacholine challenges, subjects took a deep inspiration (DI) to total lung capacity as another way to probe ASM mechanics. Responses to methacholine and the DI were measured using a multifrequency forced oscillation technique. Compared with a single high dose, the challenge preceded by tone led to an elevated response measured by respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance at 5 Hz. However, there was no difference in the increase in Rrs at 19 Hz, suggesting a predominant effect on smaller airways. Increased tone also reduced the efficacy of DI, measured by an attenuated maximal dilation during the DI and an increased renarrowing post-DI. We conclude that ASM tone increases small airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine and reduces the effectiveness of DI in healthy humans. This suggests that force adaptation may contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and the reduced bronchodilatory effect of DI in asthma.

Gerace, D., Martiniello-Wilks, R., Nassif, N.T., Lal, S., Steptoe, R. & Simpson, A.M. 2017, 'CRISPR-targeted genome editing of mesenchymal stem cell-derived therapies for type 1 diabetes: a path to clinical success?', Stem Cell Res Ther, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 62.
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Due to their ease of isolation, differentiation capabilities, and immunomodulatory properties, the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been assessed in numerous pre-clinical and clinical settings. Currently, whole pancreas or islet transplantation is the only cure for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and, due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, MSCs have been utilised either natively or transdifferentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) as an alternative treatment. However, the initial success in pre-clinical animal models has not translated into successful clinical outcomes. Thus, this review will summarise the current state of MSC-derived therapies for the treatment of T1D in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, in particular their use as an immunomodulatory therapy and targets for the generation of IPCs via gene modification. In this review, we highlight the limitations of current clinical trials of MSCs for the treatment of T1D, and suggest the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene-editing technology and improved clinical trial design as strategies to translate pre-clinical success to the clinical setting.

Ghadiri, M., Young, P.M., Jarolimek, W., Grau, G.E.R., Oliver, B.G.G. & Traini, D. 2017, 'The effect of non-specific tight junction modulators on the transepithelial transport of poorly permeable drugs across airway epithelial cells.', J Drug Target, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 342-349.
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The epithelial barrier in the respiratory system is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the systemic circulation in the lung. Epithelial barrier hinders the transport of large macromolecules or polar drugs. Essential components of this epithelial fence are physical intercellular structures termed tight junctions. Therefore, modulating tight junctions can enhance paracellular transport across epithelial barrier. In this study, the effect of some of non-specific tight junction modulators (TJMs); (Sodium (Na) decanoate, oleic acid and ethyleneglycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N, N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)) with established effect on intestinal tight junctions was evaluated for its effects on bronchial epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells). It was demonstrated that the effect of TJMs especially Na decanoate resulted in a reversible opening of tight junctions evidenced by the decrease in the transepithelial resistance. It was also demonstrated that this reduction of TEER upon exposing the epithelial cells to the TJMs resulted in a significant increase in Flu-Na (paracellular marker) and PXS25 (anti-fibrotic compound) transepithelial transport through this barrier. In conclusion, among the investigated non-specific TJMs, Na decanoate fulfilled the requirements of an effective, non-toxic and reversible tight junction modulator for Calu-3 lung epithelial cells.

Glastras, S.J., Chen, H., Tsang, M., Teh, R., McGrath, R.T., Zaky, A., Chen, J., Wong, M.G., Pollock, C.A. & Saad, S. 2017, 'The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet.', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 2, p. e0172644.
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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32. RESULTS: HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity.

Gloag, E.S., Elbadawi, C., Zachreson, C.J., Aharonovich, I., Toth, M., Charles, I.G., Turnbull, L. & Whitchurch, C.B. 2017, 'Micro-Patterned Surfaces That Exploit Stigmergy to Inhibit Biofilm Expansion.', Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 1-10.
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Twitching motility is a mode of surface translocation that is mediated by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and which, depending on the conditions, enables migration of individual cells or can manifest as a complex multicellular collective behavior that leads to biofilm expansion. When twitching motility occurs at the interface of an abiotic surface and solidified nutrient media, it can lead to the emergence of extensive self-organized patterns of interconnected trails that form as a consequence of the actively migrating bacteria forging a furrow network in the substratum beneath the expanding biofilm. These furrows appear to direct bacterial movements much in the same way that roads and footpaths coordinate motor vehicle and human pedestrian traffic. Self-organizing systems such as these can be accounted for by the concept of stigmergy which describes self-organization that emerges through indirect communication via persistent signals within the environment. Many bacterial communities are able to actively migrate across solid and semi-solid surfaces through complex multicellular collective behaviors such as twitching motility and flagella-mediated swarming motility. Here, we have examined the potential of exploiting the stigmergic behavior of furrow-mediated trail following as a means of controlling bacterial biofilm expansion along abiotic surfaces. We found that incorporation of a series of parallel micro-fabricated furrows significantly impeded active biofilm expansion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. We observed that in both cases bacterial movements tended to be directed along the furrows. We also observed that narrow furrows were most effective at disrupting biofilm expansion as they impeded the ability of cells to self-organize into multicellular assemblies required for escape from the furrows and migration into new territory. Our results suggest that the implementation of micro-fabricated furrows that exploit stigmergy may be a ...

Gorle, A.K., Bottomley, A.L., Harry, E.J., Collins, J.G., Keene, F.R. & Woodward, C.E. 2017, 'DNA condensation in live E. coli provides evidence for transertion.', Mol Biosyst, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 677-680.
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Condensation studies of chromosomal DNA in E. coli with a tetranuclear ruthenium complex are carried out and images obtained with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Remarkably different condensate morphologies resulted, depending upon the treatment protocol. The occurrence of condensed nucleoid spirals in live bacteria provides evidence for the transertion hypothesis.

Goyen, S., Pernice, M., Szabó, M., Warner, M.E., Ralph, P.J. & Suggett, D.J. 2017, 'A molecular physiology basis for functional diversity of hydrogen peroxide production amongst Symbiodinium spp. (Dinophyceae)', Marine Biology, vol. 164, no. 3.
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© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the photosynthetic stability of higher plants, corals and algae, and considered a primary reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with the thermal susceptibility of Symbiodinium spp. Here, we simultaneously subjected a large number of Symbiodinium isolates (n = 16) covering broad phylogenetic diversity (clades A, B, D, F) to heat stress and characterized their photosynthetic response via fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRf) and parallel measurements of H2O2 emissions. Based on their physiological response, isolates clustered into three novel functional groups: (1) thermally tolerant (unchanged photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), electron turnover (τQA) or H2O2 emission), or (2) thermally susceptible via decreased Fv/Fm, unchanged τQA, but increased H2O2, indicating energetically uncoupled PSII (thylakoid membrane instability), versus (3) thermally responsive via decreased Fv/Fm, increased τQA and H2O2, indicative of energetically coupled (but downregulated) PSII. There was no correlation between the algal phylogenetic groups and the distribution of isolates amongst these novel functional groups. Two model Symbiodinium isolates for functional groups (1) and (2) (ITS2 type A1, Symbiodinium microadriaticum, and type D1–5, Symbiodinium spp., respectively) were selected to further examine how their different thermal responses corresponded with the expression levels of two genes coding for different metalloforms of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and NiSOD) that potentially regulate production of H2O2. S. microadriaticum demonstrated the greatest upregulation of MnSOD gene confirming recent suggestions of a role for this metalloform in the antioxidant network associated with thermal stress protection. Assigning Symbiodinium isolates into such functional groups based on coupled molecular-physiological assessment is an important step needed to impro...

Gramaglia, I., Velez, J., Combes, V., Grau, G.E.R., Wree, M. & van der Heyde, H.C. 2017, 'Platelets activate a pathogenic response to blood-stage Plasmodium infection but not a protective immune response.', Blood, vol. 129, no. 12, pp. 1669-1679.
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Clinical studies indicate that thrombocytopenia correlates with the development of severe falciparum malaria, suggesting that platelets either contribute to control of parasite replication, possibly as innate parasite killer cells or function in eliciting pathogenesis. Removal of platelets by anti-CD41 mAb treatment, platelet inhibition by aspirin, and adoptive transfer of wild-type (WT) platelets to CD40-KO mice, which do not control parasite replication, resulted in similar parasitemia compared with control mice. Human platelets at a physiologic ratio of 1 platelet to 9 red blood cells (RBCs) did not inhibit the in vitro development or replication of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum The percentage of Plasmodium-infected (iRBCs) with bound platelets during the ascending parasitemia in Plasmodium chabaudi- and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and the 48-hour in vitro cycle of P falciparum was <10%. P chabaudi and P berghei iRBCs with apoptotic parasites (TdT(+)) exhibited minimal platelet binding (<5%), which was similar to nonapoptotic iRBCs. These findings collectively indicate platelets do not kill bloodstage Plasmodium at physiologically relevant effector-to-target ratios. P chabaudi primary and secondary parasitemia was similar in mice depleted of platelets by mAb-injection just before infection, indicating that activation of the protective immune response does not require platelets. In contrast to the lack of an effect on parasite replication, adoptive transfer of WT platelets to CD40-KO mice, which are resistant to experimental cerebral malaria, partially restored experimental cerebral malaria mortality and symptoms in CD40-KO recipients, indicating platelets elicit pathogenesis and platelet CD40 is a key molecule.

Green, D.W., Ben-Nissan, B., Yoon, K.S., Milthorpe, B. & Jung, H.-.S. 2017, 'Natural and Synthetic Coral Biomineralization for Human Bone Revitalization.', Trends Biotechnol, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 43-54.
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Coral skeletons can regenerate replacement human bone in nonload-bearing excavated skeletal locations. A combination of multiscale, interconnected pores and channels and highly bioactive surface chemistry has established corals as an important alternative to using healthy host bone replacements. Here, we highlight how coral skeletal systems are being remolded into new calcified structures or synthetic corals by biomimetic processes, as places for the organized permeation of bone tissue cells and blood vessels. Progressive technologies in coral aquaculture and self-organization inorganic chemistry are helping to modify natural corals and create synthetic coral architectures able to accelerate bone regeneration with proper host integration at more skeletal locations, adapted to recent surgical techniques and used to treat intrinsic skeletal deformities and metabolic conditions.

Green, P.J. & Mortera, J. 2017, 'Paternity testing and other inference about relationships from DNA mixtures', Forensic Science International: Genetics.
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Gunawan, C., Marquis, C.P., Amal, R., Sotiriou, G.A., Rice, S.A. & Harry, E.J. 2017, 'Widespread and Indiscriminate Nanosilver Use: Genuine Potential for Microbial Resistance.', ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 3438-3445.
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In this era of increasing antibiotic resistance, the use of alternative antimicrobials such as silver has become more widespread. Superior antimicrobial activity has been provided through fabrication of silver nanoparticles or nanosilver (NAg), which imparts cytotoxic actions distinct from those of bulk silver. In the wake of the recent discoveries of bacterial resistance to NAg and its rising incorporation in medical and consumer goods such as wound dressings and dietary supplements, we argue that there is an urgent need to monitor the prevalence and spread of NAg microbial resistance. In this Perspective, we describe how the use of NAg in commercially available products facilitates prolonged microorganism exposure to bioavailable silver, which underpins the development of resistance. Furthermore, we advocate for a judicial approach toward NAg use in order to preserve its efficacy and to avoid environmental disruption.

Guo, X., Sun, B., Su, D., Liu, X., Liu, H., Wang, Y. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Recent developments of aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries: functional materials determine the electrochemical performance', Science Bulletin.
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Hare, D.J. 2017, 'Commentary: Comments regarding Becker et al. (Analytica Chimica Acta, 835, 2014, 1-18).', Anal Chim Acta, vol. 972, pp. 12-15.
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Hare, D.J., Kysenius, K., Paul, B., Knauer, B., Hutchinson, R.W., O'Connor, C., Fryer, F., Hennessey, T.P., Bush, A.I., Crouch, P.J. & Doble, P.A. 2017, 'Imaging Metals in Brain Tissue by Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).', J Vis Exp, no. 119.
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Metals are found ubiquitously throughout an organism, with their biological role dictated by both their chemical reactivity and abundance within a specific anatomical region. Within the brain, metals have a highly compartmentalized distribution, depending on the primary function they play within the central nervous system. Imaging the spatial distribution of metals has provided unique insight into the biochemical architecture of the brain, allowing direct correlation between neuroanatomical regions and their known function with regard to metal-dependent processes. In addition, several age-related neurological disorders feature disrupted metal homeostasis, which is often confined to small regions of the brain that are otherwise difficult to analyze. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for quantitatively imaging metals in the mouse brain, using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and specially designed image processing software. Focusing on iron, copper and zinc, which are three of the most abundant and disease-relevant metals within the brain, we describe the essential steps in sample preparation, analysis, quantitative measurements and image processing to produce maps of metal distribution within the low micrometer resolution range. This technique, applicable to any cut tissue section, is capable of demonstrating the highly variable distribution of metals within an organ or system, and can be used to identify changes in metal homeostasis and absolute levels within fine anatomical structures.

Hare, D.J., New, E.J. & McColl, G. 2017, 'Imaging metals in biology: pictures of metals in health and disease.', Metallomics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 343-345.
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Hare, N.J., Lee, L.Y., Loke, I., Britton, W.J., Saunders, B.M. & Thaysen-Andersen, M. 2017, 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Manipulates the Glycosylation Machinery and the N-Glycoproteome of Human Macrophages and Their Microparticles.', J Proteome Res, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 247-263.
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and lethal infectious disease. The glycobiology associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of frontline alveolar macrophages is still unresolved. Herein, we investigated the regulation of protein N-glycosylation in human macrophages and their secreted microparticles (MPs) used for intercellular communication upon M. tb infection. LC-MS/MS-based proteomics and glycomics were performed to monitor the regulation of glycosylation enzymes and receptors and the N-glycome in in vitro-differentiated macrophages and in isolated MPs upon M. tb infection. Infection promoted a dramatic regulation of the macrophage proteome. Most notably, significant infection-dependent down-regulation (4-26 fold) of 11 lysosomal exoglycosidases, e.g., β-galactosidase, β-hexosaminidases and α-/β-mannosidases, was observed. Relative weak infection-driven transcriptional regulation of these exoglycosidases and a stronger augmentation of the extracellular hexosaminidase activity demonstrated that the lysosome-centric changes may originate predominantly from infection-induced secretion of the lysosomal content. The macrophages showed heterogeneous N-glycan profiles and displayed significant up-regulation of complex-type glycosylation and concomitant down-regulation of paucimannosylation upon infection. Complementary intact N-glycopeptide analysis supported a subcellular-specific manipulation of the glycosylation machinery and altered glycosylation patterns of lysosomal N-glycoproteins within infected macrophages. Interestingly, the corresponding macrophage-derived MPs displayed unique N-glycome and proteome signatures supporting a preferential packaging from plasma membranes. The MPs were devoid of infection-dependent N-glycosylation signatures, but interestingly displayed increased levels of the glyco-initiating oligosaccharyltransferase complex and associated α-glucosidases that correlated with increased formation, N-glycan precursor levels and N-...

Harris, C.J., Manea, A., Moles, A.T., Murray, B.R. & Leishman, M.R. 2017, 'Differences in life-cycle stage components between native and introduced ranges of five woody Fabaceae species', Austral Ecology.
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© 2016 Ecological Society of Australia.Understanding differences in the components of life-cycle stages of species between their native and introduced ranges can provide insights into the process of species transitioning from introduction to naturalization and invasion. We examined reproductive variables of the germination (seed predation, seed viability, time to germination), seed output (crown projection, seed production, seed weight) and dispersal (seed weight, dispersal investment) stages of five woody Fabaceae species, comparing native and introduced ranges. We predicted that each species would differ in reproductive variables of at least one life-cycle stage between their native and introduced ranges, thus allowing us to determine the life-cycle stage most associated with invasion success in the introduced range. Acacia melanoxylon and Paraserianthes lophantha had reduced seed predation in their introduced ranges while P. lophantha also had higher seed viability indicating that the germination life-cycle stage is most strongly associated with their invasion success in the introduced range. Only Acacia longifolia varied between ranges for the seed output stage due to larger plant size, greater seed production and smaller seed size in its introduced range. Similar to A. longifolia, Acacia cyclops had smaller seed size in its introduced range but did not have any other variable differences between ranges suggesting that the dispersal stage is best associated with its invasion success in the introduced range. Surprisingly, Acacia saligna was the only species without a clear life-cycle stage difference between ranges despite it being one of the more invasive acacia species in Australia. Although we found clear differences in reproductive variables associated with life-cycle stages between native and introduced ranges of these five species, these differences were largely species-specific. This suggests that a species invasion strategy into a novel environment is ...

Hatoum, D., Haddadi, N., Lin, Y., Nassif, N.T. & McGowan, E.M. 2017, 'Mammalian sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes and isoform expression: challenges for SphK as an oncotarget.', Oncotarget.
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The various sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes (isozymes) and isoforms, key players in normal cellular physiology, are strongly implicated in cancer and other diseases. Mutations in SphKs, that may justify abnormal physiological function, have not been recorded. Nonetheless, there is a large and growing body of evidence demonstrating the contribution of gain or loss of function and the imbalance in the SphK/S1P rheostat to a plethora of pathological conditions including cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. SphK is expressed as two isozymes SphK1 and SphK2, transcribed from genes located on different chromosomes and both isozymes catalyze the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Expression of each SphK isozyme produces alternately spliced isoforms. In recent years the importance of the contribution of SpK1 expression to treatment resistance in cancer has been highlighted and, additionally, differences in treatment outcome appear to also be dependent upon SphK isoform expression. This review focuses on an exciting emerging area of research involving SphKs functions, expression and subcellular localization, highlighting the complexity of targeting SphK in cancer and also comorbid diseases. This review also covers the SphK isoenzymes and isoforms from a historical perspective, from their first discovery in murine species and then in humans, their role(s) in normal cellular function and in disease processes, to advancement of SphK as an oncotarget.

Hatoum, D., Yagoub, D., Ahadi, A., Nassif, N.T. & McGowan, E.M. 2017, 'Annexin/S100A protein family regulation through p14ARF-p53 activation: A role in cell survival and predicting treatment outcomes in breast cancer', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 1.
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© 2017 Hatoum et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.The annexin family and S100A associated proteins are important regulators of diverse calcium- dependent cellular processes including cell division, growth regulation and apoptosis. Dysfunction of individual annexin and S100A proteins is associated with cancer progression, metastasis and cancer drug resistance. This manuscript describes the novel finding of differential regulation of the annexin and S100A family of proteins by activation of p53 in breast cancer cells. Additionally, the observed differential regulation is found to be beneficial to the survival of breast cancer cells and to influence treatment efficacy. We have used unbiased, quantitative proteomics to determine the proteomic changes occurring post p14ARF-p53 activation in estrogen receptor (ER) breast cancer cells. In this report we identified differential regulation of the annexin/S100A family, through unique peptide recognition at the N-terminal regions, demonstrating p14ARF-p53 is a central orchestrator of the annexin/S100A family of calcium regulators in favor of pro-survival functions in the breast cancer cell. This regulation was found to be cell-type specific. Retrospective human breast cancer studies have demonstrated that tumors with functional wild type p53 (p53wt) respond poorly to some chemotherapy agents compared to tumors with a non-functional p53. Given that modulation of calcium signaling has been demonstrated to change sensitivity of chemotherapeutic agents to apoptotic signals, in principle, we explored the paradigm of how p53 modulation of calcium regulators in ER+ breast cancer patients impacts and influences therapeutic outcomes.

Heather, E., Bortz, A., Shimmon, R. & McDonagh, A.M. 2017, 'Organic impurity profiling of methylone and intermediate compounds synthesized from catechol.', Drug Test Anal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 436-445.
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This work examined the synthesis and organic impurity profile of methylone prepared from catechol. The primary aim of this work was to determine whether the synthetic pathway used to prepare 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone could be ascertained through analysis of the synthesized methylone. The secondary aim was the structural elucidation and origin determination of the organic impurities detected in methylone and the intermediate compounds. The organic impurities present in the reaction products were identified using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Six organic impurities were detected in 1,3-benzodioxole and identified as the 1,3-benzodioxole dimer, 1,3-benzodioxole trimer, [1,3] dioxolo[4,5-b]oxanthrene, 4,4'-, 4,5'-, and 5,5'-methylenebis-1,3-benzodioxole. Six organic impurities were detected in 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone and identified as (2-hydroxyphenyl) propanoate, [2-(chloromethoxy) phenyl] propanoate, (2-propanoyloxyphenyl)propanoate, 5-[1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)prop-1-enyl]-1,3-benzodioxole, (5E)- and (5Z)-7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-ethylidene-6-methyl-cyclopenta[f][1,3]benzodioxole). Exploratory synthetic experiments were also conducted to unambiguously identify the organic impurities detected in 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Two organic impurities were detected in 5-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone and identified as [2-(chloromethoxy)phenyl] propanoate and 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Five organic impurities were detected in methylone and identified as 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-methyl-propan-1-imine, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methylimino-propan-1-one, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N1,N2-dimethyl-propane-1,2-diimine and butylated hydroxytoluene. The origin of these organic impurities was also ascertained, providing valuable insight into the chemical profiles of methylone and the intermediate compounds. However, neither the catechol precursor nor the 1,3-benzodioxole intermediate could be identified based on the ...

Hernandez-Fernaud, J.R., Ruengeler, E., Casazza, A., Neilson, L.J., Pulleine, E., Santi, A., Ismail, S., Lilla, S., Dhayade, S., MacPherson, I.R., McNeish, I., Ennis, D., Ali, H., Kugeratski, F.G., Al Khamici, H., van den Biggelaar, M., van den Berghe, P.V.E., Cloix, C., McDonald, L., Millan, D., Hoyle, A., Kuchnio, A., Carmeliet, P., Valenzuela, S.M., Blyth, K., Yin, H., Mazzone, M., Norman, J.C. & Zanivan, S. 2017, 'Secreted CLIC3 drives cancer progression through its glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase activity.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14206.
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The secretome of cancer and stromal cells generates a microenvironment that contributes to tumour cell invasion and angiogenesis. Here we compare the secretome of human mammary normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We discover that the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3) is an abundant component of the CAF secretome. Secreted CLIC3 promotes invasive behaviour of endothelial cells to drive angiogenesis and increases invasiveness of cancer cells both in vivo and in 3D cell culture models, and this requires active transglutaminase-2 (TGM2). CLIC3 acts as a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that reduces TGM2 and regulates TGM2 binding to its cofactors. Finally, CLIC3 is also secreted by cancer cells, is abundant in the stromal and tumour compartments of aggressive ovarian cancers and its levels correlate with poor clinical outcome. This work reveals a previously undescribed invasive mechanism whereby the secretion of a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase drives angiogenesis and cancer progression by promoting TGM2-dependent invasion.

Horgan, F.G. & Ferrater, J.B. 2017, 'Benefits and potential trade-offs associated with yeast-like symbionts during virulence adaptation in a phloem-feeding planthopper', Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata.
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© 2017 The Netherlands Entomological Society.Insect herbivores form symbioses with a diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. A role for endosymbionts during host feeding on nutrient-poor diets - including phloem - is now supported by a large body of evidence. Furthermore, symbiont-herbivore associations have been implicated in feeding preferences by host races (mainly aphids) on multiple plant species. However, the role of symbionts in mediating herbivore preferences between varieties of the same plant species has received little research attention despite the implications for virulence adaptation to resistant crops. This study investigates the role of yeast-like symbionts (YLS) in virulence adaptation and host plant switching among populations of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), that were selected on various rice [Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae)] lines differing in their resistance against herbivores. Planthopper fitness (nymph weight) declined where YLS densities were depleted through heat treatment. However, compared to normal symbiotic planthoppers, the depletion of symbionts did not generally change the relative fitness of planthoppers (each 'adapted' to a single natal host) when switched to feed on a range of rice lines (exposed hosts). In some cases, this occurred despite differences in YLS density responses to the various hosts. Furthermore, we detected no fitness costs associated with YLS in adapted populations. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that, whereas YLS are essential for planthopper nutrition, changes in YLS density play little role during virulence adaptation and host plant switching by the brown planthopper.

Horgan, F.G., Palenzuela, A.N., Stuart, A.M., Naredo, A.I., Ramal, A.F., Bernal, C.C. & Almazan, M.-.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of silicon soil amendments and nitrogen fertilizer on apple snail (Ampullariidae) damage to rice seedlings', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 91, pp. 123-131.
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Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Villegas, J.M., Almazan, M.L.P., Bernal, C.C., Jamoralin, A., Pasang, J.M., Orboc, G., Agreda, V. & Arroyo, C. 2017, 'Ecological engineering with high diversity vegetation patches enhances bird activity and ecosystem services in Philippine rice fields', Regional Environmental Change, pp. 1-13.
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© 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergThis study examines the potential for ecological engineering to enhance the beneficial ecosystem services provided by birds in tropical rice fields. Bird activities were monitored at six sites in the Philippines with high-diversity vegetation patches (HDVPs) established as an ecological engineering approach to restore ecosystem services. Adjacent plots of conventional rice were monitored as controls. Predatory birds (shrikes, Lanius spp., grassbirds, Megalurus palustris, and kingfishers, Halcyon spp.) were more active in the ecological engineering fields where they foraged for arthropods and snails among the rice plants. Pied trillers, Lalage nigra, and yellow vented bulbuls, Pycnonotus goiavier, foraged more in the HDVPs than in rice. These birds mainly responded to the availability of bamboo for perching in the HDVPs, although patch vegetation beneath the bamboo was also used for perching by some species. Aerial hunters such as swallows, Hirundo spp., avoided HDVPs likely because the tall vegetation and bamboo stakes represented an obstacle for their flight. Small changes in the design of HDVPs could avoid any negative effects on foraging by swallows and swifts. The results indicate that ecological engineering of rice paddies can have multiple benefits for farmers and the environment, including improved nutrition for farming communities, the creation of habitat for wildlife, and the enhancement of regulatory ecosystem services provided by insectivorous and snail-eating birds.

Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Villegas, J.M., Jamoralin, A., Bernal, C.C., Perez, M.O., Pasang, J.M., Naredo, A.I. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of bund crops and insecticide treatments on arthropod diversity and herbivore regulation in tropical rice fields', Journal of Applied Entomology.
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© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Ecological engineering using vegetable or flower strips is promoted as a potential pest management strategy in irrigated rice. Farmers in the Philippines often plant rice levees (bunds) with vegetables, particularly string beans (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walpers) to supplement income, but without considering the potential for pest management. This study examines the effects of planted bunds on rice herbivores and their natural enemies. We compared arthropods in (a) rice fields that had string beans planted on bunds, (b) fields without string beans and without any insecticide applications and (c) fields without string beans but with insecticide treatments (standard practice). Rice yield was similar across all treatments; however, the vegetation strips produced an extra 3.6 kg of fresh string bean pods per metre of bund. There were no apparent increases in major natural enemy groups in fields with string beans compared to fields with conventional bunds. Fields with insecticide treatments had higher damage from leaffolders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The sprayed fields also had lower parasitism of planthopper eggs and fewer predatory dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata). Furthermore, the mortality of planthopper (Delphacidae: Hemiptera) and stemborer (Pyralidae) eggs by parasitoids and predators was density dependent only in the unsprayed fields (with and without string beans). Our results demonstrate that planting string beans on rice bunds improves the productivity of rice farms, but our ecological engineering system did not appreciably affect natural enemy or herbivore abundance; however, chemical insecticides adversely affected pest regulatory ecosystem functions leading to higher pest damage.

Hudson, L.N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S.L.L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., Phillips, H.R.P., Alhusseini, T.I., Bedford, F.E., Bennett, D.J., Booth, H., Burton, V.J., Chng, C.W.T., Choimes, A., Correia, D.L.P., Day, J., Echeverría-Londoño, S., Emerson, S.R., Gao, D., Garon, M., Harrison, M.L.K., Ingram, D.J., Jung, M., Kemp, V., Kirkpatrick, L., Martin, C.D., Pan, Y., Pask-Hale, G.D., Pynegar, E.L., Robinson, A.N., Sanchez-Ortiz, K., Senior, R.A., Simmons, B.I., White, H.J., Zhang, H., Aben, J., Abrahamczyk, S., Adum, G.B., Aguilar-Barquero, V., Aizen, M.A., Albertos, B., Alcala, E.L., Del Mar Alguacil, M., Alignier, A., Ancrenaz, M., Andersen, A.N., Arbeláez-Cortés, E., Armbrecht, I., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Aumann, T., Axmacher, J.C., Azhar, B., Azpiroz, A.B., Baeten, L., Bakayoko, A., Báldi, A., Banks, J.E., Baral, S.K., Barlow, J., Barratt, B.I.P., Barrico, L., Bartolommei, P., Barton, D.M., Basset, Y., Batáry, P., Bates, A.J., Baur, B., Bayne, E.M., Beja, P., Benedick, S., Berg, Å., Bernard, H., Berry, N.J., Bhatt, D., Bicknell, J.E., Bihn, J.H., Blake, R.J., Bobo, K.S., Bóçon, R., Boekhout, T., Böhning-Gaese, K., Bonham, K.J., Borges, P.A.V., Borges, S.H., Boutin, C., Bouyer, J., Bragagnolo, C., Brandt, J.S., Brearley, F.Q., Brito, I., Bros, V., Brunet, J., Buczkowski, G., Buddle, C.M., Bugter, R., Buscardo, E., Buse, J., Cabra-García, J., Cáceres, N.C., Cagle, N.L., Calviño-Cancela, M., Cameron, S.A., Cancello, E.M., Caparrós, R., Cardoso, P., Carpenter, D., Carrijo, T.F., Carvalho, A.L., Cassano, C.R., Castro, H., Castro-Luna, A.A., Rolando, C.B., Cerezo, A., Chapman, K.A., Chauvat, M., Christensen, M., Clarke, F.M., Cleary, D.F.R., Colombo, G., Connop, S.P., Craig, M.D., Cruz-López, L., Cunningham, S.A., D'Aniello, B., D'Cruze, N., da Silva, P.G., Dallimer, M., Danquah, E., Darvill, B., Dauber, J., Davis, A.L.V., Dawson, J., de Sassi, C., de Thoisy, B., Deheuvels, O., Dejean, A., Devineau, J.-.L., Diekötter, T., Dolia, J.V., Domínguez, E., Dominguez-Haydar, Y., Dorn, S., Draper, I., Dreber, N., Dumont, B., Dures, S.G., Dynesius, M., Edenius, L., Eggleton, P., Eigenbrod, F., Elek, Z., Entling, M.H., Esler, K.J., de Lima, R.F., Faruk, A., Farwig, N., Fayle, T.M., Felicioli, A., Felton, A.M., Fensham, R.J., Fernandez, I.C., Ferreira, C.C., Ficetola, G.F., Fiera, C., Filgueiras, B.K.C., Fırıncıoğlu, H.K., Flaspohler, D., Floren, A., Fonte, S.J., Fournier, A., Fowler, R.E., Franzén, M., Fraser, L.H., Fredriksson, G.M., Freire, G.B., Frizzo, T.L.M., Fukuda, D., Furlani, D., Gaigher, R., Ganzhorn, J.U., García, K.P., Garcia-R, J.C., Garden, J.G., Garilleti, R., Ge, B.-.M., Gendreau-Berthiaume, B. & et al. 2017, 'The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project.', Ecol Evol, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 145-188.
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The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

Iqbal, M.A., Nizio, K.D., Ueland, M. & Forbes, S.L. 2017, 'Forensic Decomposition Odour Profiling: A review of experimental designs and analytical techniques', TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry.
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Irga, P.J., Abdo, P., Zavattaro, M. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'An assessment of the potential fungal bioaerosol production from an active living wall', Building and Environment, vol. 111, pp. 140-146.
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© 2016Active living walls, or indoor air biofilters, have been proposed as a sustainable and aesthetic means of improving indoor air quality. However these systems have yet to be adequately assessed for their potential contribution to airborne fungal proliferation in indoor spaces. The current work represents a simulation study to determine, under realistic office conditions, whether a typical active living wall makes a quantifiable contribution to the airborne aeromycota. We found that the living wall studied made no significant contribution to the density or diversity of airborne culturable fungi in a test room. Few organisms of concern to public health were identified. We conclude that active biofilters are unlikely to make hazardous contributions to indoor fungi; however, further work that documents the bioaerosol generation rate with variations in temperature, airflow, plant varieties, planting densities, maintenance schedule, age of plants, plant growth substrates and substrate moisture content need further elucidation.

Irga, P.J., Braun, J.T., Douglas, A.N.J., Pettit, T., Fujiwara, S., Burchett, M.D. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'The distribution of green walls and green roofs throughout Australia: Do policy instruments influence the frequency of projects?', Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, vol. 24, pp. 164-174.
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© 2017 Elsevier GmbHGreen roofs and green walls are gaining popularity as a means of mitigating a range of environmental impacts associated with urbanisation. Although this technology has been widely implemented in some parts of the world, uptake within Australia has been slow. This might be attributed to a range of factors, including a lack of awareness; a scarcity of urban green infrastructure policies; a lack of examples to give urban designers confidence in the technology; and perhaps also a limited number of professionals capable of installing green infrastructure systems. This paper researches the distribution of green wall and green roof projects in urban Australia, and the possible influence of local government policies and guidelines that have been designed to promote the increase of green infrastructure in Australia's cities. Differences were observed among project distributions and frequency, both within and between cities. In addition, councils that offered policy instruments and guidance tended to have more green wall and green roof projects than those which have no such policies in place. Compared to successful examples seen internationally, further policy implementation in Australia could increase the frequency of green infrastructure projects, indicating that governmental influence may play a substantial role in encouraging green infrastructure installation.

Irga, P.J., Paull, N.J., Abdo, P. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'An assessment of the atmospheric particle removal efficiency of an in-room botanical biofilter system', Building and Environment, vol. 115, pp. 281-290.
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© 2017 Elsevier LtdIn addition to the growing requirement to reduce building energy needs, demand has arisen to find sustainable methods of improving indoor air quality. Recent advances in green wall technology have led to the development of activated systems, termed botanical biofilters, that move air through the plant growth substrate to increase the rate at which the interior atmospheric environment is exposed to the components of the plant-substrate system that are active in air pollutant removal. Development of this technology is moving towards green wall integration within building air conditioning and ventilation systems. The work presented here describes an evaluation of several parameters essential for determining the functionality of a modular botanical biofilter, as well as experiments to systematically determine the filtration performance of the device, specifically the single-pass particulate rem filtration efficiency was evaluated and defined. The maximum filtration efficiency for total suspended particulate matter peaked at an air flow rate of 11.25 L s−1 through the 0.25 m2 filter, with any increases in air flow rate met with a reduction in efficiency. The system recorded removal efficiencies were 53.35 ± 9.73% for total suspend particles, 53.51 ± 15.99% for PM10, and 48.21 ± 14.71% for PM2.5. Comparisons were made against the single pass efficiency of the system without the botanical component, as well as a common in-duct pleated panel air filter, indicating that further development is required to enhance the filtration capacity of the system if it is match current air filtration standards.

Jaiswal, R., Johnson, M.S., Pokharel, D., Krishnan, S.R. & Bebawy, M. 2017, 'Microparticles shed from multidrug resistant breast cancer cells provide a parallel survival pathway through immune evasion.', BMC Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 104.
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BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined. Breast tumors, typical of many tumor types, shed membrane vesicles called microparticles (MPs), ranging in size from 0.1-1 μm in diameter. MPs serve as vectors in the intercellular transfer of functional proteins and nucleic acids and in drug sequestration. In addition, MPs are also emerging to be important players in the evasion of cancer cell immune surveillance. METHODS: A comparative analysis of effects of MPs isolated from human breast cancer cells and non-malignant human brain endothelial cells were examined on THP-1 derived macrophages in vitro. MP-mediated effects on cell phenotype and functionality was assessed by cytokine analysis, cell chemotaxis and phagocytosis, immunolabelling, flow cytometry and confocal imaging. Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In this paper we report on the discovery of a new cellular basis for immune evasion, which is mediated by breast cancer derived MPs. MPs shed from multidrug resistant (MDR) cells were shown to selectively polarize macrophage cells to a functionally incapacitated state and facilitate their engulfment by foreign cells. CONCLUSIONS: We propose this mechanism may serve to physically disrupt the inherent immune response prior to cancer cell colonization whilst releasing mediators required for the recruitment...

James, S.A., Churches, Q.I., de Jonge, M.D., Birchall, I.E., Streltsov, V., McColl, G., Adlard, P.A. & Hare, D.J. 2017, 'Iron, Copper, and Zinc Concentration in Aβ Plaques in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Correlates with Metal Levels in the Surrounding Neuropil.', ACS Chem Neurosci, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 629-637.
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The metal ions of iron, copper, and zinc have long been associated with the aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease; an interaction that has been suggested to promote increased oxidative stress and neuronal dysfunction. We examined plaque metal load in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice using X-ray fluorescence microscopy to assess how the anatomical location of Aβ plaques was influenced by the metal content of surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemical staining of Aβ plaques colocalized with areas of increased X-ray scattering power in unstained tissue sections, allowing direct X-ray based-assessment of plaque metal levels in sections subjected to minimal chemical fixation. We identified and mapped 48 individual plaques in four subregions of the hippocampus from four biological replicates. Iron, Cu, and Zn areal concentrations (ng cm(-2)) were increased in plaques compared to the surrounding neuropil. However, this elevation in metal load reflected the local metal makeup of the surrounding neuropil, where different brain regions are enriched for different metal ions. After correcting for tissue density, only Zn levels remained elevated in plaques. This study suggests that the in vivo binding of Zn to plaques is not simply due to increased protein deposition.

Jones, C.R., Lorica, M.R.P., Villegas, J.M., Ramal, A.F., Horgan, F.G., Singleton, G.R. & Stuart, A.M. 2017, 'The stadium effect: rodent damage patterns in rice fields explored using giving-up densities.', Integr Zool.
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Rodents are globally important pre-harvest pests of rice. In South-east Asia, rodent damage to growing rice crops is commonly concentrated towards the center of rice fields, away from the field edge resulting in a clear pattern known as the 'stadium effect'. To further understand this behavior of rodent pests and develop recommendations for future research and management, we examined the relation between giving-up densities (GUDs) and damage patterns. In Tanay, Luzon, Philippines, GUD trays containing pieces of coconut in a matrix of sand were placed at four different distances from the field edge to quantify the perceived risk of predation in a rice field pest, Rattus tanezumi. GUDs were recorded during a dry and wet season crop at the reproductive and ripening stages of rice. In addition, assessments of active burrows, tracking tile activity and rodent damage to the rice crop, were conducted in the dry season. GUDs were significantly lower in the center of the rice fields than on the field edges suggesting that rodent damage to rice is greater in the middle of rice fields due to a lower perceived predation risk. Furthermore, this perception of predation risk (or fear) increases towards the field edge and is greatest on the rice bund, where there was no vegetation cover. We discuss the implications for rodent management and rodent damage assessments in rice fields. This is the first documented use of GUDs in a rice agro-ecosystem in Asia, thus we identify the challenges and lessons learned through this process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Jones, P.M. & George, A.M. 2017, 'How Intrinsic Dynamics Mediates the Allosteric Mechanism in the ABC Transporter Nucleotide Binding Domain Dimer.', J Chem Theory Comput, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1712-1722.
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A protein's architecture facilitates specific motions-intrinsic dynamic modes-that are employed to effect function. Here we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the dynamics of the MJ0796 ABC transporter nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). ABC transporter NBDs form a rotationally symmetric dimer whereby two equivalent active sites are formed at their interface; in complex with a dimer of transmembrane domains they hydrolyze ATP to energize translocation of substrates across cellular membranes. Our data suggest the ABC NBD's ensemble of functional states can be understood predominately in terms of conformational changes between its major subdomains, occurring along two orthogonal dynamic modes. The data show that ligands and oligomeric interactions modulate the equilibrium conformation of the NBD with respect to these motions, suggesting that allostery is achieved by affecting the energetic profile along these two modes. The observed dynamics and allostery integrate consonantly and logically within a mechanistic framework for the ABC NBD dimer, which is supported by a large body of experimental and theoretical data, providing a higher resolution view of the enzyme's dynamic cycle. Our study shows how valuable mechanistic inferences can be derived from accessible short-time scale MD simulations of an enzyme's substructures.

Kardaras, C., Oblłój, J. & Platen, E. 2017, 'The numéraire property and long-term growth optimality for drawdown-constrained investments', Mathematical Finance, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 68-95.
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We consider the portfolio choice problem for a long-run investor in a general continuous semimartingale model. We combine the decision criterion of pathwise growth optimality with a flexible specification of attitude toward risk, encoded by a linear drawdown constraint imposed on admissible wealth processes. We define the constrained numéraire property through the notion of expected relative return and prove that drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio exists and is unique, but may depend on the investment horizon. However, when sampled at the times of its maximum and asymptotically as the time-horizon becomes distant, the drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio is given explicitly through a model-independent transformation of the unconstrained numéraire portfolio. The asymptotically growth-optimal strategy is obtained as limit of numéraire strategies on finite horizons.

Kerr, M.C., Gomez, G.A., Ferguson, C., Tanzer, M.C., Murphy, J.M., Yap, A.S., Parton, R.G., Huston, W.M. & Teasdale, R.D. 2017, 'Laser-mediated rupture of chlamydial inclusions triggers pathogen egress and host cell necrosis.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14729.
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Remarkably little is known about how intracellular pathogens exit the host cell in order to infect new hosts. Pathogenic chlamydiae egress by first rupturing their replicative niche (the inclusion) before rapidly lysing the host cell. Here we apply a laser ablation strategy to specifically disrupt the chlamydial inclusion, thereby uncoupling inclusion rupture from the subsequent cell lysis and allowing us to dissect the molecular events involved in each step. Pharmacological inhibition of host cell calpains inhibits inclusion rupture, but not subsequent cell lysis. Further, we demonstrate that inclusion rupture triggers a rapid necrotic cell death pathway independent of BAK, BAX, RIP1 and caspases. Both processes work sequentially to efficiently liberate the pathogen from the host cytoplasm, promoting secondary infection. These results reconcile the pathogen's known capacity to promote host cell survival and induce cell death.

Kianinia, M., Regan, B., Tawfik, S.A., Tran, T.T., Ford, M.J., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2017, 'Robust Solid-State Quantum System Operating at 800 K', ACS Photonics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 768-773.
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© 2017 American Chemical Society.Realization of quantum information and communications technologies requires robust, stable solid-state single-photon sources. However, most existing sources cease to function above cryogenic or room temperature due to thermal ionization or strong phonon coupling, which impedes their emissive and quantum properties. Here we present an efficient single-photon source based on a defect in a van der Waals crystal that is optically stable and operates at elevated temperatures of up to 800 K. The quantum nature of the source and the photon purity are maintained upon heating to 800 K and cooling back to room temperature. Our report of a robust high-temperature solid-state single photon source constitutes a significant step toward practical, integrated quantum technologies for real-world environments.

Klein, S.G., Pitt, K.A., Nitschke, M.R., Goyen, S., Welsh, D.T., Suggett, D.J. & Carroll, A.R. 2017, 'Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian.', Glob Chang Biol.
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Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O2 and assimilate CO2 and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for noncalcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp.) under reduced O2 (~2.09 mg/L) and pH (~ 7.63) scenarios in a full-factorial experiment. Host fitness was characterized as asexual reproduction and their ability to regulate internal pH and Symbiodinium performance characterized by maximum photochemical efficiency, chla content and cell density. Acidification alone resulted in 58% more asexual reproduction of symbiotic polyps than aposymbiotic polyps (and enhanced Symbiodinium cell density) suggesting Cassiopea sp. fitness was enhanced by CO2 -stimulated Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity. Indeed, greater CO2 drawdown (elevated pH) was observed within host tissues of symbiotic polyps under acidification regardless of O2 conditions. Hypoxia alone produced 22% fewer polyps than ambient conditions regardless of acidification and symbiont status, suggesting Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity did not mitigate its effects. Combined hypoxia and acidification, however, produced similar numbers of symbiotic polyps compared with aposymbiotic kept under ambient conditions, demonstrating that the presence of Symbiodinium was key for mitigating the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on asexual reproduction. We hypothesize that this mitigation occurred because of reduced photorespiration under elevated CO2 conditions where increased net O2 production ameliorates oxygen debt. We show that Symbiodinium play an important role in facilitating enhanced fitness of Cassiopea sp. ...

Knauer, B., Majka, P., Watkins, K.J., Taylor, A.W.R., Malamanova, D., Paul, B., Yu, H.-.H., Bush, A.I., Hare, D.J. & Reser, D.H. 2017, 'Whole-brain metallomic analysis of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).', Metallomics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 411-423.
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Despite the importance of transition metals for normal brain function, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elemental species across the different tissue compartments of the primate brain. In this study, we employed laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry on PFA-fixed brain sections obtained from two adult common marmosets. Concurrent cytoarchitectonic, myeloarchitectonic, and chemoarchitectonic measurements allowed for identification of the major neocortical, archaecortical, and subcortical divisions of the brain, and precise localisation of iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations within each division. Major findings across tissue compartments included: (1) differentiation of white matter tracts from grey matter based on manganese and zinc distribution; (2) high iron concentrations in the basal ganglia, cortex, and substantia nigra; (3) co-localization of high concentrations of iron and manganese in the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex; and (4) high manganese in the hippocampus. The marmoset has become a model species of choice for connectomic, aging, and transgenic studies in primates, and the application of metallomics to these disciplines has the potential to yield high translational and basic science value.

Kohli, G.S., Campbell, K., John, U., Smith, K.F., Fraga, S., Rhodes, L.L. & Murray, S.A. 2017, 'Role of Modular Polyketide Synthases in the Production of Polyether Ladder Compounds in Ciguatoxin-Producing Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and G. excentricus (Dinophyceae).', J Eukaryot Microbiol.
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Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates. In addition, 24 contigs (G. excentricus: 3, G. polynesiensis: 21) encoding multiple PKS domains (forming typical type I PKSs modules) were found. The proposed structure produced by one of these megasynthases resembles a partial carbon backbone of a polyether ladder compound. Seventeen contigs encoding single domain KS, KR, s-malonyltransacylase, dehydratase and enoyl reductase with sequence similarity to type II fatty acid synthases (FAS) in plants were found. Type I PKS and type II FAS genes were distinguished based on the arrangement of domains on the contigs and their sequence similarity and phylogenetic clustering with known PKS/FAS genes in other organisms. This differentiation of PKS and FAS pathways in Gambierdiscus is important, as it will facilitate approaches to investigating toxin biosynthesis pathways in dinoflagellates.

Kretschmer, K., Sun, B., Zhang, J., Xie, X., Liu, H. & Wang, G. 2017, '3D Interconnected Carbon Fiber Network-Enabled Ultralong Life Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 @Carbon Paper Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.', Small, vol. 13, no. 9.
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Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are an emerging technology, which can meet increasing demands for large-scale energy storage. One of the most promising cathode material candidates for sodium-ion batteries is Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 due to its high capacity, thermal stability, and sodium (Na) Superionic Conductor 3D (NASICON)-type framework. In this work, the authors have significantly improved electrochemical performance and cycling stability of Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 by introducing a 3D interconnected conductive network in the form of carbon fiber derived from ordinary paper towel. The free-standing Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 -carbon paper (Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 @CP) hybrid electrodes do not require a metallic current collector, polymeric binder, or conducting additives to function as a cathode material in an NIB system. The Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 @CP cathode demonstrates extraordinary long term cycling stability for 30 000 deep charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 2.5 mA cm(-2) . Such outstanding cycling stability can meet the stringent requirements for renewable energy storage.

Kretzschmar, A.L., Verma, A., Harwood, T., Hoppenrath, M. & Murray, S. 2017, 'Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).', J Phycol, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 283-297.
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Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic. Clonal cultures were assessed using (i) light microscopy; (ii) scanning electron microscopy; (iii) DNA sequencing based on the nuclear encoded ribosomal 18S and D8-D10 28S regions; (iv) toxicity via mouse bioassay; and (v) toxin profile as determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Both the morphological and phylogenetic data indicated that these strains represent a new species of Gambierdiscus, G. lapillus sp. nov. (plate formula Po, 3', 0a, 7″, 6c, 7-8s, 5‴, 0p, 2″″ and distinctive by size and hatchet-shaped 2' plate). Culture extracts were found to be toxic using the mouse bioassay. Using chemical analysis, it was determined that they did not contain maitotoxin (MTX1) or known algal-derived ciguatoxin analogs (CTX3B, 3C, CTX4A, 4B), but that they contained putative MTX3, and likely other unknown compounds.

Lapine, M. 2017, 'New degrees of freedom in nonlinear metamaterials', Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.This is an overview of the recent achievements in exploiting novel degrees of freedom in metamaterial design, which enable sophisticated nonlinear coupling mechanisms and bring enhancement to nonlinear behavior. One of the novel paradigms makes use of mechanical feedback, achieved by embedding electromagnetic resonators within elastic medium or engineering explicit elastic links between them, such as rotational feedback. These designs provide broad-band self-adjustable resonances, self-oscillations, chaotic regimes, nonlinear chirality and, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. With this respect, a range of implementations has been analyzed, from flexible helices for microwaves to artificial electrostriction in optics. Another concept benefits from multi-frequency operation, where the properties in completely distinct frequency ranges become entangled through specific metamaterial design -for example, direct optical coupling can be introduced between microwave resonators, providing an independent interaction channel. It was also found that hyperbolic metamaterials can bring notable benefits to classical nonlinear processes by imposing unusual phase matching solutions, with a rich choice of matching combinations. Finally, the boundary structure of metamaterials add yet another possibility to control their properties. Overall, the recent progress in these topics suggests a very positive outlook into the future of nonlinear metamaterials.

Larsson, M., Ajani, P.A., Rubio, A.M., Guise, K., MacPherson, R.G., Brett, S.J., Davies, K.P. & Doblin, M. 2017, 'Long-term perspective on the relationship between phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations in a southeastern Australian estuary', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 227-238.
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Leake, J., Zinn, R., Corbit, L. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'Dissociation between complete hippocampal context memory formation and context fear acquisition.', Learn Mem, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 153-157.
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Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related activity. We found that hippocampal Arc expression continued to increase well past the minimal time required for plateau-level fear. This raises the possibility that context fear conditioning occurs more rapidly than complete memory formation. Thus, animals may be able to condition robustly to both complete and incomplete contextual representations.

Lee, J., Wen, B., Carter, E.A., Combes, V., Grau, G.E.R. & Lay, P.A. 2017, 'Infrared spectroscopic characterization of monocytic microvesicles (microparticles) released upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation.', FASEB J.
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Microvesicles (MVs) are involved in cell-cell interactions, including disease pathogenesis. Nondestructive Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from MVs were assessed as a technique to provide new biochemical insights into a LPS-induced monocyte model of septic shock. FTIR spectroscopy provided a quick method to investigate relative differences in biomolecular content of different MV populations that was complementary to traditional semiquantitative omics approaches, with which it is difficult to provide information on relative changes between classes (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates) or protein conformations. Time-dependent changes were detected in biomolecular contents of MVs and in the monocytes from which they were released. Differences in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine contents were observed in MVs released under stimulation, and higher relative concentrations of RNA and α-helical structured proteins were present in stimulated MVs compared with MVs from resting cells. FTIR spectra of stimulated monocytes displayed changes that were consistent with those observed in the corresponding MVs they released. LPS-stimulated monocytes had reduced concentrations of nucleic acids, α-helical structured proteins, and phosphatidylcholine compared with resting monocytes but had an increase in total lipids. FTIR spectra of MV biomolecular content will be important in shedding new light on the mechanisms of MVs and the different roles they play in physiology and disease pathogenesis.-Lee, J., Wen, B., Carter, E. A., Combes, V., Grau, G. E. R., Lay. P. A. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of monocytic microvesicles (microparticles) released upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

Lee, R., Comber, B., Abraham, J., Wagner, M., Lennard, C., Spindler, X. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Supporting fingerprint identification assessments using a skin stretch model - A preliminary study.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 272, pp. 41-49.
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To support fingerprint expert opinion, this research proposes an approach that combines subjective human analysis (as currently applied by fingerprint practitioners) with a statistical test of the result. This approach relies on the hypothesis that there are limits to the distortion caused by skin stretch. Such limits can be modelled by applying a multivariate normal probability density function to the distances and angle formed by a marked ridge characteristic and the two closest neighbouring minutiae. This study presents a model tested on 5 donors in total. The "expected range" of distortion in a within-source comparison using 10 minutiae was determined and compared to between-source comparisons. The expected range of log probability densities for within-source comparisons marked with 10 minutiae was determined to be from -33.4 to -60.0, with all between-source data falling outside this range, between -83 and -305. These results suggest that the proposed generated metric could be a powerful tool for the assessment of fingerprint expert opinion in operational casework.

Lees, T. & Lal, S. 2017, 'Stress and its Impact on the Neurocognitive Performance of Australian Nurses.', Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 45-54.
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Nurses function inside a particularly stressful occupation that requires the provision of continuous care to individuals who are often in great need. Stress has been shown to impair performance and specifically shown to impair nursing quality. However, we do not yet know how stress influences the cognitive performance of nurses, and hence, the present study investigated the associations between stress and cognitive performance in nurses using electroencephalography and administered cognitive assessments. Thirty-six nurses (34 women) of mean age 37.77 ± 11.40 years were recruited. Stress was examined using the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire. Broad spectrum electroencephalogram activity at positions Fp1, Fp2, C3 and C4 was recorded for a 5-min baseline and active phase to physiologically assess cognitive performance. Additionally, the Mini-Mental State Exam and Cognistat were also used to measure cognitive performance. Assessed cognitive performance was not associated to stress, however, lifestyle factors, as well as a number of the examined cognitive electroencephalographic variables including changes in theta, alpha activity and gamma reactivity were. Definitively determining how stress affects the cognitive performance of nurses requires additional research; the present study forms a foundation from which future research can further expand the examination of stress exposure in nurses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lees, T., Nassif, N., Simpson, A., Shad-Kaneez, F., Martiniello-Wilks, R., Lin, Y., Jones, A., Qu, X. & Lal, S. 2017, 'Recent advances in molecular biomarkers for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.', Biomarkers, pp. 1-13.
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CONTEXT: Diabetes is a growing global metabolic epidemic. Current research is focussing on exploring how the biological processes and clinical outcomes of diabetes are related and developing novel biomarkers to measure these relationships, as this can subsequently improve diagnostic, therapeutic and management capacity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify the most recent advances in molecular biomarkers of diabetes and directions that warrant further research. METHODS: Using a systematic search strategy, the MEDLINE, CINAHL and OVID MEDLINE databases were canvassed for articles that investigated molecular biomarkers for diabetes. Initial selections were made based on article title, whilst final inclusion was informed by a critical appraisal of the full text of each article. RESULTS: The systematic search returned 246 records, of which 113 were unique. Following screening, 29 records were included in the final review. Three main research strategies (the development of novel technologies, broad biomarker panels, and targeted approaches) identified a number of potential biomarkers for diabetes including miR-126, C-reactive protein, 2-aminoadipic acid and betatrophin. CONCLUSION: The most promising research avenue identified is the detection and quantification of micro RNA. Further, the utilisation of functionalised electrodes as a means to detect biomarker compounds also warrants attention.

Leigh, A., Sevanto, S., Close, J.D. & Nicotra, A.B. 2017, 'The influence of leaf size and shape on leaf thermal dynamics: does theory hold up under natural conditions?', Plant Cell Environ, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 237-248.
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Laboratory studies on artificial leaves suggest that leaf thermal dynamics are strongly influenced by the two-dimensional size and shape of leaves and associated boundary layer thickness. Hot environments are therefore said to favour selection for small, narrow or dissected leaves. Empirical evidence from real leaves under field conditions is scant and traditionally based on point measurements that do not capture spatial variation in heat load. We used thermal imagery under field conditions to measure the leaf thermal time constant (τ) in summer and the leaf-to-air temperature difference (∆T) and temperature range across laminae (Trange ) during winter, autumn and summer for 68 Proteaceae species. We investigated the influence of leaf area and margin complexity relative to effective leaf width (we ), the latter being a more direct indicator of boundary layer thickness. Normalized difference of margin complexity had no or weak effects on thermal dynamics, but we strongly predicted τ and ∆T, whereas leaf area influenced Trange . Unlike artificial leaves, however, spatial temperature distribution in large leaves appeared to be governed largely by structural variation. Therefore, we agree that small size, specifically we , has adaptive value in hot environments but not with the idea that thermal regulation is the primary evolutionary driver of leaf dissection.

Levin, R.A., Suggett, D.J., Nitschke, M.R., van Oppen, M.J.H. & Steinberg, P.D. 2017, 'Expanding the Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae, Suessiales) Toolkit Through Protoplast Technology.', J Eukaryot Microbiol.
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Dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium are photosymbionts of many tropical reef invertebrates, including corals, making them central to the health of coral reefs. Symbiodinium have therefore gained significant research attention, though studies have been constrained by technical limitations. In particular, the generation of viable cells with their cell walls removed (termed protoplasts) has enabled a wide range of experimental techniques for bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae such as ultrastructure studies, virus infection studies, patch clamping, genetic transformation, and protoplast fusion. However, previous studies have struggled to remove the cell walls from armored dinoflagellates, potentially due to the internal placement of their cell walls. Here, we produce the first Symbiodinium protoplasts from three genetically and physiologically distinct strains via incubation with cellulase and osmotic agents. Digestion of the cell walls was verified by a lack of Calcofluor White fluorescence signal and by cell swelling in hypotonic culture medium. Fused protoplasts were also observed, motivating future investigation into intra- and inter-specific somatic hybridization of Symbiodinium. Following digestion and transfer to regeneration medium, protoplasts remained photosynthetically active, regrew cell walls, regained motility, and entered exponential growth. Generation of Symbiodinium protoplasts opens exciting, new avenues for researching these crucial symbiotic dinoflagellates, including genetic modification.

Levin, R.A., Voolstra, C.R., Weynberg, K.D. & Van Oppen, M.J.H. 2017, 'Evidence for a role of viruses in the thermal sensitivity of coral photosymbionts', ISME Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 808-812.
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© 2017 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved 1751-7362/17.Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0.03% of all transcripts at 27 °C, but at 32 °C, expression levels of +ssRNAV transcripts decreased, while expression levels of anti-viral transcripts increased. In both transcriptomes, expression of NCLDV transcripts increased at 32 °C, but thermal induction of NCLDV transcripts involved in DNA manipulation was restricted to the thermosensitive population. Our findings reveal that viruses infecting Symbiodinium are affected by heat stress and may contribute to Symbiodinium thermal sensitivity.

Li, S., Ao, Z., Zhu, J., Ren, J., Yi, J., Wang, G. & Liu, W. 2017, 'Strain Controlled Ferromagnetic-Antiferromagnetic Transformation in Mn-Doped Silicene for Information Transformation Devices.', J Phys Chem Lett, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1484-1488.
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A reliable control of magnetic states is central to the use of magnetic nanostructures. Here, by using state-of-the-art density-functional theory calculations, we find that Mn atoms decorated silicene has an anomalously fixed magnetic moment and a high Curie temperature. In addition, a tunable magnetic exchange coupling is achieved for Mn-silicene system with the application of biaxial strain, which induces a transformation from the ferromagnetic (FM) to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. As such, an atomic "bit" could be obtained by superimposing strain field once the FM and AFM states are referred to as "1" and "0". Such piezospin nanodevices, which convert mechanical energy into magnetic moment, would offer great potential for future information transmission, as they ultimately combine small size, high-speed operation, and low-power consumption.

Liana, A.E., Marquis, C.P., Gunawan, C., Gooding, J.J. & Amal, R. 2017, 'T4 Bacteriophage Conjugated Magnetic Particles for E. coli Capturing: Influence of Bacteriophage Loading, Temperature and Tryptone', Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 151, pp. 47-57.
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This work demonstrates the use of bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles (Fe3O4) for the rapid capturing and isolation of Escherichia coli. The investigation of T4 bacteriophage adsorption to silane functionalised Fe3O4 with amine (single bondNH2), carboxylic (single bondCOOH) and methyl (single bondCH3) surface functional groups reveals the domination of net electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in governing bacteriophage adsorption. The bare Fe3O4 and Fe3O4-NH2 with high T4 loading captured 3-fold more E. coli (∼70% capturing efficiency) compared to the low loading T4 on Fe3O4-COOH, suggesting the significance of T4 loading in E. coli capturing efficiency. Importantly, it is further revealed that E. coli capture is highly dependent on the incubation temperature and the presence of tryptone in the media. Effective E. coli capturing only occurs at 37 °C in tryptone-containing media with the absence of either conditions resulted in poor bacteria capture. The incubation temperature dictates the capturing ability of Fe3O4/T4, whereby T4 and E. coli need to establish an irreversible binding that occurred at 37 °C. The presence of tryptophan-rich tryptone in the suspending media was also critical, as shown by a 3-fold increase in E. coli capture efficiency of Fe3O4/T4 in tryptone-containing media compared to that in tryptone-free media. This highlights for the first time that successful bacteria capturing requires not only an optimum tailoring of the particle’s surface physicochemical properties for favourable bacteriophage loading, but also an in-depth understanding of how factors, such as temperature and solution chemistry influence the subsequent bacteriophage-bacteria interactions.

Lichtenberg, M., Nørregaard, R.D. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'Diffusion or advection? Mass transfer and complex boundary layer landscapes of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.', J R Soc Interface, vol. 14, no. 128.
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The role of hyaline hairs on the thallus of brown algae in the genus Fucus is long debated and several functions have been proposed. We used a novel motorized set-up for two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping with O2 microsensors to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) and O2 flux around single and multiple tufts of hyaline hairs on the thallus of Fucus vesiculosus. Flow was a major determinant of DBL thickness, where higher flow decreased DBL thickness and increased O2 flux between the algal thallus and the surrounding seawater. However, the topography of the DBL varied and did not directly follow the contour of the underlying thallus. Areas around single tufts of hyaline hairs exhibited a more complex mass-transfer boundary layer, showing both increased and decreased thickness when compared with areas over smooth thallus surfaces. Over thallus areas with several hyaline hair tufts, the overall effect was an apparent increase in the boundary layer thickness. We also found indications for advective O2 transport driven by pressure gradients or vortex shedding downstream from dense tufts of hyaline hairs that could alleviate local mass-transfer resistances. Mass-transfer dynamics around hyaline hair tufts are thus more complex than hitherto assumed and may have important implications for algal physiology and plant-microbe interactions.

Lin, B.M.T., Hwang, F.J. & Gupta, J.N.D. 2017, 'Two-machine flowshop scheduling with three-operation jobs subject to a fixed job sequence', Journal of Scheduling, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 293-302.
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Liu, Y., Lu, Y., Yang, X., Zheng, X., Wen, S., Wang, F., Vidal, X., Zhao, J., Liu, D., Zhou, Z., Ma, C., Zhou, J., Piper, J.A., Xi, P. & Jin, D. 2017, 'Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy.', Nature, vol. 543, no. 7644, pp. 229-233.
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Lanthanide-doped glasses and crystals are attractive for laser applications because the metastable energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide ions facilitate the establishment of population inversion and amplified stimulated emission at relatively low pump power. At the nanometre scale, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can now be made with precisely controlled phase, dimension and doping level. When excited in the near-infrared, these UCNPs emit stable, bright visible luminescence at a variety of selectable wavelengths, with single-nanoparticle sensitivity, which makes them suitable for advanced luminescence microscopy applications. Here we show that UCNPs doped with high concentrations of thulium ions (Tm(3+)), excited at a wavelength of 980 nanometres, can readily establish a population inversion on their intermediate metastable (3)H4 level: the reduced inter-emitter distance at high Tm(3+) doping concentration leads to intense cross-relaxation, inducing a photon-avalanche-like effect that rapidly populates the metastable (3)H4 level, resulting in population inversion relative to the (3)H6 ground level within a single nanoparticle. As a result, illumination by a laser at 808 nanometres, matching the upconversion band of the (3)H4 → (3)H6 transition, can trigger amplified stimulated emission to discharge the (3)H4 intermediate level, so that the upconversion pathway to generate blue luminescence can be optically inhibited. We harness these properties to realize low-power super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and achieve nanometre-scale optical resolution (nanoscopy), imaging single UCNPs; the resolution is 28 nanometres, that is, 1/36th of the wavelength. These engineered nanocrystals offer saturation intensity two orders of magnitude lower than those of fluorescent probes currently employed in stimulated emission depletion microscopy, suggesting a new way of alleviating the square-root law that typically limits the r...

Luo, L., Bokil, N.J., Wall, A.A., Kapetanovic, R., Lansdaal, N.M., Marceline, F., Burgess, B.J., Tong, S.J., Guo, Z., Alexandrov, K., Ross, I.L., Hibbs, M.L., Stow, J.L. & Sweet, M.J. 2017, 'SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14133.
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Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation.

Ma, C., Xu, X., Wang, F., Zhou, Z., Liu, D., Zhao, J., Guan, M., Lang, C.I. & Jin, D. 2017, 'Optimal Sensitizer Concentration in Single Upconversion Nanocrystals.', Nano Lett.
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Each single upconversion nanocrystal (UCNC) usually contains thousands of photon sensitizers and hundreds of photon activators to up-convert near-infrared photons into visible and ultraviolet emissions. Though in principle further increasing the sensitizers' concentration will enhance the absorption efficiency to produce brighter nanocrystals, typically 20% of Yb(3+) ions has been used to avoid the so-called "concentration quenching" effect. Here we report that the concentration quenching effect does not limit the sensitizer concentration and NaYbF4 is the most bright host matrix. Surface quenching and the large size of NaYbF4 nanocrystals are the only factors limiting this optimal concentration. Therefore, we further designed sandwich nanostructures of NaYbF4 between a small template core to allow an epitaxial growth of the size-tunable NaYbF4 shell enclosed by an inert shell to minimize surface quenching. As a result, the suspension containing 25.2 nm sandwich structure UCNCs is 1.85 times brighter than the homogeneously doped ones, and the brightness of each single 25.2 nm heterogeneous UCNC is enhanced by nearly 3 times compared to the NaYF4: 20% Yb(3+), 4% Tm(3+) UCNCs in similar sizes. Particularly, the blue emission intensities of the UCNCs with the sandwich structure in the size of 13.6 and 25.2 nm are 1.36 times and 3.78 times higher than that of the monolithic UCNCs in the similar sizes. Maximizing the sensitizer concentration will accelerate the development of brighter and smaller UCNCs as more efficient biomolecule probes or photon energy converters.

Macha, I.J., Ben-Nissan, B., Santos, J., Cazalbou, S., Stamboulis, A., Grossin, D. & Giordano, G. 2017, 'Biocompatibility of a new biodegradable polymer-hydroxyapatite composite for biomedical applications', Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, vol. 38, pp. 72-77.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.The rise in the number of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to an increasingly aging population has led to a growing demand for medication to prevent and treat these diseases. An increased interest in the development of new drugs to allow treatment of these diseases in their very early stages is currently observed. The current approach on local direct delivery of medication and key minerals to support bone repair and regeneration at the defect site, from flexible degradable devices, seems to be an effective strategy. Polylactic acid (PLA) and microspheres of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (cHAp) were used to develop PLA thin film composites as drug delivery systems. The PLA provided flexibility and biodegradability of the systems, while coralline hydroxyapatite provided the required calcium and phosphate ions for bone regeneration. These coralline hydroxyapatite microspheres have a unique architecture of interconnected porosity, are bioactive in nature and suitable for drug loading and controlled slow drug release. The cell attachment and morphology of the PLA thin film composites were evaluated in vitro using cell cultures of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSC). It was shown that hADSC cells exhibited a strong attachment and proliferation on PLA thin film-cHAp composites, signifying high biocompatibility and a potential for osteointegration due to the presence of HAp.

Macha, I.J., Cazalbou, S., Shimmon, R., Ben-Nissan, B. & Milthorpe, B. 2017, 'Development and dissolution studies of bisphosphonate (clodronate)-containing hydroxyapatite-polylactic acid biocomposites for slow drug delivery.', Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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An increase in clinical demand on the controlled release of bisphosphonates (BPs) due to complications associated with systemic administration, has been the current driving force on the development of BP drug-release systems. Bisphosphonates have the ability to bind to divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) , in bone mineral and prevent bone resorption by influencing the apoptosis of osteoclasts. Localized delivery using biodegradable materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), which are ideal in this approach, have been used in this study to investigate the dissolution of clodronate (non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate) in a new release system. The effects of coral structure-derived HAp and the release kinetics of the composites were evaluated. The release kinetics of clodronate from PLA-BP and PLA-HAp-BP systems seemed to follow the power law model described by Korsmeyer-Peppas. Drug release was quantified by (31) P-NMR with detection and quantification limits of 9.2 and 30.7 mM, respectively. The results suggest that these biocomposite systems could be tuned to release clodronate for both relatively short and prolonged period of time. In addition to drug delivery, the degradation of HAp supplies both Ca(2+) and phosphate ions that can help in bone mineralization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Macnamara, S., Henry, B. & Mclean, W. 2017, 'FRACTIONAL EULER LIMITS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS', SIAM JOURNAL ON APPLIED MATHEMATICS, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 447-469.
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Macreadie, P.I., Nielsen, D.A., Kelleway, J.J., Atwood, T.B., Seymour, J.R., Petrou, K., Connolly, R.M., Thomson, A.C., Trevathan-Tackett, S.M. & Ralph, P.J. 2017, 'Can we manage coastal ecosystems to sequester more blue carbon?', Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.
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© The Ecological Society of America.To promote the sequestration of blue carbon, resource managers rely on best-management practices that have historically included protecting and restoring vegetated coastal habitats (seagrasses, tidal marshes, and mangroves), but are now beginning to incorporate catchment-level approaches. Drawing upon knowledge from a broad range of environmental variables that influence blue carbon sequestration, including warming, carbon dioxide levels, water depth, nutrients, runoff, bioturbation, physical disturbances, and tidal exchange, we discuss three potential management strategies that hold promise for optimizing coastal blue carbon sequestration: (1) reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs, (2) reinstating top-down control of bioturbator populations, and (3) restoring hydrology. By means of case studies, we explore how these three strategies can minimize blue carbon losses and maximize gains. A key research priority is to more accurately quantify the impacts of these strategies on atmospheric greenhouse-gas emissions in different settings at landscape scales.

Maeda, E., Ma, X., Wagner, F., Kim, H., Oki, T., Eamus, D. & Huete, A. 2017, 'Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon basin', Earth System Dynamics Discussions.
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Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon basin. We used in-situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (~ 1497 mm year−1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (~ 986 mm year−1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

Mahbub, K.R., Bahar, M.M., Labbate, M., Krishnan, K., Andrews, S., Naidu, R. & Mallavarapu, M. 2017, 'Bioremediation of mercury: not properly exploited in contaminated soils!', Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.
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Mahbub, K.R., Kader, M., Krishnan, K., Labbate, M., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Toxicity of Inorganic Mercury to Native Australian Grass Grown in Three Different Soils', Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.
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Mahbub, K.R., Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Stuart Andrews & Mallavarapu Megharaj 2017, 'Mercury toxicity to terrestrial biota', Ecological Indicators, vol. 74, pp. 451-462.
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The heavy metal mercury is a non-essential hazardous element which concentrates up the food chain. It is necessary to assess the ecological risk of mercury to establish proper regulatory guideline levels. Most of the toxicological assessment of mercury has been focused on aquatic organisms, however in terrestrial bodies the information is limited. Hence this review critically discusses the toxicity of inorganic mercury to key terrestrial biota from recent literature and evaluate whether these information are adequate to establish safe regulatory limits or precautionary values which is invaluable for risk assessment of mercury in soil. Till date soil microorganisms, plants and invertebrates have been utilized for assessing mercury toxicity; among them, microorganisms have been observed to be the most sensitive indicators to mercury stress. Large inconsistency among the measured toxic concentrations indicates that measuring mercury toxicity in soil may be influenced by soil characteristics and ageing period of contamination. This review warrants more studies to obtain widely acceptable safe limit of soil mercury.

Mahbub, K.R., Krishnan, K., Andrews, S., Venter, H., Naidu, R. & Megharaj, M. 2017, 'Bio-augmentation and nutrient amendment decrease concentration of mercury in contaminated soil', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 576, pp. 303-309.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Four mercury (Hg) contaminated soils with different pH (7.6, 8.5, 4.2 and 7.02) and total organic carbon contents (2.1, 2.2, 4 and 0.9%) were subjected to bioremediation utilizing a Hg volatilizing bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 and nutrient amendment. In a field with ~ 280 mg/kg Hg, 60% of Hg was removed by bio-augmentation in 7 days, and the removal was improved when nutrients were added. Whereas in artificially spiked soils, with ~ 100 mg/kg Hg, removal due to bio-augmentation was 33 to 48% in 14 days. In the field contaminated soil, nutrient amendment alone without bio-augmentation removed 50% of Hg in 28 days. Nutrient amendment also had an impact on Hg remediation in the spiked soils, but the best results were obtained when the strain and nutrients both were applied. The development of longer root lengths from lettuce and cucumber seeds grown in the remediated soils confirmed that the soil quality improved after bioremediation. This study clearly demonstrates the potential of Hg-reducing bacteria in remediation of Hg-contaminated soils. However, it is desirable to trap the volatilized Hg for enhanced bioremediation.

Maitre, M., Kirkbride, K.P., Horder, M., Roux, C. & Beavis, A. 2017, 'Current perspectives in the interpretation of gunshot residues in forensic science: A review.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 270, pp. 1-11.
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The traces produced when a firearm is discharged can provide important information in cases when questions regarding a possible association of the firearm with a person of interest (POI), time since discharge or shooting distance are raised. With advances in technology, the forensic challenges presented by these traces, known as gunshot residues (GSR), are moving from the analytical domain to the interpretation of the analytical results. Different interpretation frameworks are currently competing. Formal classification of particles, using standards such as that produced by ASTM, focusses only on evaluation of evidence at the sub-source level. Another approach, based on the application of Bayesian reasoning - namely the case-by-case approach - has been proposed that allows evaluation of evidence in regards to activity-related questions. This alternative approach allows an evaluation of the evidence that is more closely aligned to judicial and investigative aims. This paper critically presents the state of the art in regards to GSR interpretation in a holistic manner.

Mao, Y., Tonkin, R.S., Nguyen, T., O'Carroll, S.J., Nicholson, L.F., Green, C.R., Moalem-Taylor, G. & Gorrie, C.A. 2017, 'Systemic administration of Connexin43 mimetic peptide improves functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rats.', Journal of neurotrauma, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 707-719.
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Blocking of Connexin43 hemichannels, the main gap junction protein located on astrocytes in the central nervous system, has been shown to reduce neural injury in a number of models. We previously demonstrated that local administration of a Connexin43 mimetic peptide, Peptide5, reduces secondary tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we investigated whether acute systemic delivery of Peptide5 is also protective in a model of SCI. Rats were subjected to a mild spinal cord contusion using the MASCIS impactor and were injected intraperitoneally with Peptide5 or a scrambled peptide immediately and at 2 and 4 hours post-injury. Rats were tested for locomotor recovery and pain hypersensitivity and euthanised at 8 hours, 24 hours, 2 weeks or 6 weeks post-injury. Compared to control rats, Peptide5 treated rats showed significant improvement in hindlimb locomotor function between 3 and 6 weeks post-injury and reductions in at-level mechanical allodynia from week 1 post-injury. Immunohistochemistry showed that Peptide5 treatment led to a reduction in total Connexin43 and increased phosphorylated Connexin43 at 8 hours compared to scrambled peptide. At 2 and 6 weeks, lesion size, the astrocytic and the activated macrophage and/or microglial response were all decreased in the Peptide5 animals. Additionally, neuronal cell numbers were higher in the Peptide5 animals compared to the scrambled peptide treated rats at 2 and 6 weeks. These results show for the first time that systemic administration of Peptide5 to block the pathological opening of Connexin43 hemichannels is a feasible treatment strategy in this setting, ameliorating the secondary SCI.

Marquez-Ortiz, R.A., Haggerty, L., Sim, E.M., Duarte, C., Castro-Cardozo, B.E., Beltran, M., Saavedra, S., Vanegas, N., Escobar-Perez, J. & Petty, N.K. 2017, 'First Complete Providencia rettgeri Genome Sequence, the NDM-1-Producing Clinical Strain RB151.', Genome Announc, vol. 5, no. 3.
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Providencia rettgeri is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of clinical significance due to its association with urinary tract infections and multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of P. rettgeri The genome of strain RB151 consists of a 4.8-Mbp chromosome and a 108-kbp blaNDM-1-positive plasmid.

Matthijs, M., Fabris, M., Obata, T., Foubert, I., Franco-Zorrilla, M.J., Solano, R., Fernie, A.F., Vyverman, W. & Goossens, A. 2017, 'The transcription factor bZIP14 regulates the TCA cycle in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum', EMBO Journal, vol. e201696392.
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Diatoms are amongst the most important marine microalgae in terms of biomass, but little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate their versatile metabolism. Here, the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was studied at the metabolite and transcriptome level during nitrogen starvation and following imposition of three other stresses that impede growth. The coordinated upregulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle during the nitrogen stress response was the most striking observation. Through co‐expression analysis and DNA binding assays, the transcription factor bZIP14 was identified as a regulator of the TCA cycle, also beyond the nitrogen starvation response, namely in diurnal regulation. Accordingly, metabolic and transcriptional shifts were observed upon overexpression of bZIP14 in transformed P. tricornutum cells. Our data indicate that the TCA cycle is a tightly regulated and important hub for carbon reallocation in the diatom cell during nutrient starvation and that bZIP14 is a conserved regulator of this cycle.

McLaughlin, R.L., Schijven, D., van Rheenen, W., van Eijk, K.R., O'Brien, M., Kahn, R.S., Ophoff, R.A., Goris, A., Bradley, D.G., Al-Chalabi, A., van den Berg, L.H., Luykx, J.J., Hardiman, O., Veldink, J.H., Project MinE GWAS Consortium & Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2017, 'Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14774.
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We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome-wide association study data from over 100,000 unique individuals. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression, we estimate the genetic correlation between ALS and schizophrenia to be 14.3% (7.05-21.6; P=1 × 10(-4)) with schizophrenia polygenic risk scores explaining up to 0.12% of the variance in ALS (P=8.4 × 10(-7)). A modest increase in comorbidity of ALS and schizophrenia is expected given these findings (odds ratio 1.08-1.26) but this would require very large studies to observe epidemiologically. We identify five potential novel ALS-associated loci using conditional false discovery rate analysis. It is likely that shared neurobiological mechanisms between these two disorders will engender novel hypotheses in future preclinical and clinical studies.

McRobb, L.S., McGrath, K.C.Y., Tsatralis, T., Liong, E.C., Tan, J.T.M., Hughes, G., Handelsman, D.J. & Heather, A.K. 2017, 'Estrogen Receptor Control of Atherosclerotic Calcification and Smooth Muscle Cell Osteogenic Differentiation.', Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
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OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. The objective of this work was to examine the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to stimulate calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vivo, using aged apolipoprotein E-null mice with advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and subsequently to explore underlying mechanisms in vitro. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Silastic E2 capsules were implanted into male and female apolipoprotein E-null mice aged 34 weeks. Plaque and calcified area were measured in the aortic sinus and innominate artery after 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis examined expression of the estrogen receptors (estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta [ERβ]). VSMC expression of osteogenic markers was examined using digital polymerase chain reaction. Advanced atherosclerotic lesions were present in all mice at the end of 8 weeks. In both male and female mice, E2 increased calcified area in a site-specific manner in the aortic sinus independently of plaque growth or lipid levels and occurred in association with a site-specific decrease in the proportion of ERβ-positive intimal cells. Calcified lesions expressed collagen I and bone sialoprotein, with decreased matrix Gla protein. In vitro, E2 suppressed ERβ expression and increased VSMC mineralization, demonstrating increased collagen I and II, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, and reduced matrix Gla protein and osteopontin. Antagonism or RNA silencing of estrogen receptor alpha, ERβ, or both further increased VSMC mineralization. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that E2 can drive calcification in advanced atherosclerotic lesions by promoting the differentiation of VSMC to osteoblast-like cells, a process which is augmented by inhibition of estrogen receptor alpha or ERβ activity.

Michelot, H., Fu, S., Stuart, B., Shimmon, R., Raymond, T., Crandell, T. & Roux, C. 2017, 'Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 273, pp. 106-112.
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In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

Mittra, R., Pavy, M., Subramanian, N., George, A.M., O'Mara, M.L., Kerr, I.D. & Callaghan, R. 2017, 'Location of contact residues in pharmacologically distinct drug binding sites on P-glycoprotein.', Biochem Pharmacol, vol. 123, pp. 19-28.
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The multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is characterised by the ability to bind and/or transport an astonishing array of drugs. This poly-specificity is imparted by at least four pharmacologically distinct binding sites within the transmembrane domain. Whether or not these sites are spatially distinct has remained unclear. Biochemical and structural investigations have implicated a central cavity as the likely location for the binding sites. In the present investigation, a number of contact residues that are involved in drug binding were identified through biochemical assays using purified, reconstituted P-gp. Drugs were selected to represent each of the four pharmacologically distinct sites. Contact residues important in rhodamine123 binding were identified in the central cavity of P-gp. However, contact residues for the binding of vinblastine, paclitaxel and nicardipine were located at the lipid-protein interface rather than the central cavity. A key residue (F978) within the central cavity is believed to be involved in coupling drug binding to nucleotide hydrolysis. Data observed in this investigation suggest the presence of spatially distinct drug binding sites connecting through to a single translocation pore in the central cavity.

Mondal, A.K., Kretschmer, K., Zhao, Y., Liu, H., Fan, H. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Naturally nitrogen doped porous carbon derived from waste shrimp shells for high-performance lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors', Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 246, pp. 72-80.
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© 2017 Elsevier Inc.Transformation of biomass wastes into sustainable low cost carbon materials is now a topic of great interest. Here, we describe porous carbon from biomass derived waste shrimp shells and its application in two different energy storage systems. The unique porous structure with the presence of heteroatoms (O, N) makes it promising material for both lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. When applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared carbon showed a specific capacity as high as 1507 mA h g−1 and 1014 mA h g−1 at current densities of 0.1 A g−1 and 0.5 A g−1, respectively, good rate performance and superior cycling stability. The porous carbon-based supercapacitor also delivered a specific capacitance of 239 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The specific capacitance retention is 99.4% even after 5000 charge-discharge cycles, indicating excellent cycling stability. The superior electrochemical performances for both lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors could be ascribed to the high specific surface area, porous structure and nitrogen doping effect.

Mondal, A.K., Kretschmer, K., Zhao, Y., Liu, H., Wang, C., Sun, B. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Nanosheets from Eco-Friendly Eucalyptus Leaves as High Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries.', Chemistry, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 3683-3690.
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Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets were prepared from eucalyptus tree leaves by simply mixing the leaf powders with KHCO3 and subsequent carbonisation. Porous carbon nanosheets with a high specific surface area of 2133 m(2)  g(-1) were obtained and applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. For supercapacitor applications, the porous carbon nanosheet electrode exhibited a supercapacitance of 372 F g(-1) at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and excellent cycling stability over 15 000 cycles. In organic electrolyte, the nanosheet electrode showed a specific capacitance of 71 F g(-1) at a current density of 2 Ag(-1) and stable cycling performance. When applied as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared porous carbon nanosheets also demonstrated a high specific capacity of 819 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , good rate capability, and stable cycling performance. The outstanding electrochemical performances for both supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries are derived from the large specific surface area, porous nanosheet structure and nitrogen doping effects. The strategy developed in this paper provides a novel route to utilise biomass-derived materials for low-cost energy storage systems.

Murray, B.R., Martin, L.J., Phillips, M.L. & Pyšek, P. 2017, 'Taxonomic perils and pitfalls of dataset assembly in ecology: a case study of the naturalized Asteraceae in Australia', NeoBiota, vol. 34, pp. 1-20.
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The value of plant ecological datasets with hundreds or thousands of species is principally determined by the taxonomic accuracy of their plant names. However, combining existing lists of species to assemble a harmonized dataset that is clean of taxonomic errors can be a difficult task for non-taxonomists. Here, we describe the range of taxonomic difficulties likely to be encountered during dataset assembly and present an easy-to-use taxonomic cleaning protocol aimed at assisting researchers not familiar with the finer details of taxonomic cleaning. The protocol produces a final dataset (FD) linked to a companion dataset (CD), providing clear details of the path from existing lists to the FD taken by each cleaned taxon. Taxa are checked off against ten categories in the CD that succinctly summarize all taxonomic modifications required. Two older, publicly-available lists of naturalized Asteraceae in Australia were merged into a harmonized dataset as a case study to quantify the impacts of ignoring the critical process of taxonomic cleaning in invasion ecology. Our FD of naturalized Asteraceae contained 257 species and infra-species. Without implementation of the full cleaning protocol, the dataset would have contained 328 taxa, a 28% overestimate of taxon richness by 71 taxa. Our naturalized Asteraceae CD described the exclusion of 88 names due to nomenclatural issues (e.g. synonymy), the inclusion of 26 updated currently accepted names and four taxa newly naturalized since the production of the source datasets, and the exclusion of 13 taxa that were either found not to be in Australia or were in fact doubtfully naturalized. This study also supports the notion that automated processes alone will not be enough to ensure taxonomically clean datasets, and that manual scrutiny of data is essential. In the long term, this will best be supported by increased investment in taxonomy and botany in university curricula.

Najafpour, M.M., Heidari, S., Balaghi, S.E., Hołyńska, M., Sadr, M.H., Soltani, B., Khatamian, M., Larkum, A.W. & Allakhverdiev, S.I. 2017, 'Proposed mechanisms for water oxidation by Photosystem II and nanosized manganese oxides.', Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1858, no. 2, pp. 156-174.
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Plants, algae and cyanobacteria capture sunlight, extracting electrons from H2O to reduce CO2 into sugars while releasing O2 in the oxygenic photosynthetic process. Because of the important role of water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis and many solar fuel systems, understanding the structure and function of this unique biological catalyst forms a requisite research field. Herein the structure of the water-oxidizing complex and its ligand environment are described with reference to the 1.9Å resolution X-ray-derived crystallographic model of the water-oxidizing complex from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Proposed mechanisms for water oxidation by Photosystem II and nanosized manganese oxides are also reviewed and discussed in the paper.

Nasiri, N., Bo, R., Fu, L. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Three-dimensional nano-heterojunction networks: a highly performing structure for fast visible-blind UV photodetectors.', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 2059-2067.
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Visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors are a promising emerging technology for the development of wide bandgap optoelectronic devices with greatly reduced power consumption and size requirements. A standing challenge is to improve the slow response time of these nanostructured devices. Here, we present a three-dimensional nanoscale heterojunction architecture for fast-responsive visible-blind UV photodetectors. The device layout consists of p-type NiO clusters densely packed on the surface of an ultraporous network of electron-depleted n-type ZnO nanoparticles. This 3D structure can detect very low UV light densities while operating with a near-zero power consumption of ca. 4 × 10(-11) watts and a low bias of 0.2 mV. Most notably, heterojunction formation decreases the device rise and decay times by 26 and 20 times, respectively. These drastic enhancements in photoresponse dynamics are attributed to the stronger surface band bending and improved electron-hole separation of the nanoscale NiO/ZnO interface. These findings demonstrate a superior structural design and a simple, low-cost CMOS-compatible process for the engineering of high-performance wearable photodetectors.

Nguyen, L.T., Chen, H., Pollock, C.A. & Saad, S. 2017, 'Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?', FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1383-1390.
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Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, attributed to diverse and interactive genetic and environmental factors. The associated health consequences of obesity are pleiotropic, with individuals being more susceptible to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and lipotoxicity-related chronic diseases. The contribution of maternal obesity to the offspring's predisposition to both obesity and its complications is increasingly recognized. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these "transmissible" effects is critical to develop therapeutic interventions to reduce the risk for "programmed" obesity. Sirtuins (SIRTs), particularly SIRT1 and SIRT3, are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate metabolic balance and stress responses in both central and peripheral tissues, of which dysregulation is a well-established mediator for the development and effects of obesity. Nevertheless, their implication in the transmissible effects of maternal obesity across generations remains largely elusive. In this review, we examine multiple pathways and systems that are likely to mediate such effects, with particular emphasis on the role of SIRTs.-Nguyen, L. T., Chen, H., Pollock, C. A., Saad, S. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?

Nizalapur, S., Kimyon, O., Yee, E., Ho, K., Berry, T., Manefield, M., Cranfield, C.G., Willcox, M., Black, D.S. & Kumar, N. 2017, 'Amphipathic guanidine-embedded glyoxamide-based peptidomimetics as novel antibacterial agents and biofilm disruptors.', Org Biomol Chem, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2033-2051.
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Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is becoming increasingly prevalent, posing a critical challenge to global health. Bacterial biofilm formation is a common resistance mechanism that reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. Thus, the development of compounds that can disrupt bacterial biofilms is a potential strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. We report herein the synthesis of amphipathic guanidine-embedded glyoxamide-based peptidomimetics via ring-opening reactions of N-naphthoylisatins with amines and amino acids. These compounds were investigated for their antibacterial activity by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus and E. coli. Compounds 35, 36, and 66 exhibited MIC values of 6, 8 and 10 μg mL(-1) against S. aureus, respectively, while compounds 55 and 56 showed MIC values of 17 and 19 μg mL(-1) against E. coli, respectively. Biofilm disruption and inhibition activities were also evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most active compound 65 exhibited the greatest disruption of established biofilms by 65% in S. aureus, 61% in P. aeruginosa, and 60% in S. marcescens respectively, at 250 μM concentration, while compound 52 inhibited the formation of biofilms by 72% in S. marcescens at 250 μM. We also report here the in vitro toxicity against MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells. Finally, the pore forming capability of the three most potent compounds were tested using tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM) technology.

Nolan, T.H. & Wand, M.P. 2017, 'Accurate logistic variational message passing: algebraic and numerical details', Stat, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 102-112.
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Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.We provide full algebraic and numerical details required for fitting accurate logistic likelihood regression-type models via variational message passing with factor graph fragments. Existing methodology of this type involves the Jaakkola–Jordan device, which is prone to poor accuracy. We examine two alternatives: the Saul–Jordan tilted bound device and conjugacy enforcement via multivariate normal prespecification of a key message. Both of these approaches appear in related literature. Our contributions facilitate immediate implementation within variational message passing schemes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Novikov, A., Alexander, S., Khordzakhia, N. & Ling, T. 2017, 'Pricing of Asian-type and basket options via bounds', Theory of Probability and Its Applications, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 53-68.
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This paper sets out to provide a general framework for the pricing of average-type options via lower and upper bounds. This class of options includes Asian, basket, and options on the volume-weighted average price. The use of lower and upper bounds is proposed in response to the inherent difficulty in finding analytical representations for the true price of these options and the requirement for numerical procedures to be fast and efficient. We demonstrate that in some cases lower bounds allow for the dimensionality of the problem to be reduced and that these methods provide reasonable approximations to the price of the option.

Novikov, A., Alexander, S., Kordzakhia, N. & Ling, T. 2017, 'Pricing of asian-type and basket options via bounds', Theory of Probability and its Applications, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 94-106.
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© 2017 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.This paper sets out to provide a general framework for the pricing of average-type options via lower and upper bounds. This class of options includes Asian, basket, and options on the volume-weighted average price. The use of lower and upper bounds is proposed in response to the inherent difficulty in finding analytical representations for the true price of these options and the requirement for numerical procedures to be fast and efficient. We demonstrate that in some cases lower bounds allow for the dimensionality of the problem to be reduced and that these methods provide reasonable approximations to the price of the option.

Ong, M., Peng, J., Jin, X. & Qu, X. 2017, 'Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.', Am J Chin Med, pp. 1-18.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Existing pharmaceutical agents such as hormonal therapies have been associated with side effects and are not appropriate for PCOS women with infertility. Additionally, insulin sensitizing agents useful for treating the metabolic abnormalities in PCOS have limited efficacy for treating reproductive aspects of the disorder. Chinese herbal medicines have a long history of treating gynaecological problems and infertility and therefore may be a novel approach to the treatment of PCOS. Current research demonstrates that the compounds isolated from herbs have shown beneficial effects for PCOS and when combined in an herbal formula can target both reproductive and metabolic defects simultaneously. Therefore, further investigation into Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PCOS is warranted.

O'Rourke, M.B. & Padula, M.P. 2017, 'A new standard of visual data representation for imaging mass spectrometry.', Proteomics Clin Appl, vol. 11, no. 3-4.
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PURPOSE: MALDI imaging MS (IMS) is principally used for cancer diagnostics. In our own experience with publishing IMS data, we have been requested to modify our protocols with respect to the areas of the tissue that are imaged in order to comply with the wider literature. In light of this, we have determined that current methodologies lack effective controls and can potentially introduce bias by only imaging specific areas of the targeted tissue EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A previously imaged sample was selected and then cropped in different ways to show the potential effect of only imaging targeted areas. RESULTS: By using a model sample, we were able to effectively show how selective imaging of samples can misinterpret tissue features and by changing the areas that are acquired, according to our new standard, an effective internal control can be introduced. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current IMS sampling convention relies on the assumption that sample preparation has been performed correctly. This prevents users from checking whether molecules have moved beyond borders of the tissue due to delocalization and consequentially products of improper sample preparation could be interpreted as biological features that are of critical importance when encountered in a visual diagnostic.

O'Rourke, M.B., Djordjevic, S.P. & Padula, M.P. 2017, 'The Quest for Improved Reproducibility In MALDI Mass Spectrometry', Mass Spectrometry Reviews.
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Reproducibility has been one of the biggest hurdles faced when attempting to develop quantitative protocols for MALDI mass spectrometry. The heterogeneous nature of sample recrystallization has made automated sample acquisition somewhat “hit and miss” with manual intervention needed to ensure that all sample spots have been analyzed. In this review, we explore the last 30 years of literature and anecdotal evidence that has attempted to address and improve reproducibility in MALDI MS. Though many methods have been attempted, we have discovered a significant publication history surrounding the use of nitrocellulose as a substrate to improve homogeneity of crystal formation and therefore reproducibility. We therefore propose that this is the most promising avenue of research for developing a comprehensive and universal preparation protocol for quantitative MALDI MS analysis

O'Rourke, M.B., Raymond, B.B.A. & Padula, M.P. 2017, 'The Characterization of Laser Ablation Patterns and a New Definition of Resolution in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS).', J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 895-900.
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Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a technique that has seen a sharp rise in both use and development. Despite this rapid adoption, there have been few thorough investigations into the actual physical mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of IMS images. We therefore set out to characterize the effect of IMS laser ablation patterns on the surface of a sample. We also concluded that the governing factors that control spatial resolution have not been correctly defined and therefore propose a new definition of resolution. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

Padula, M.P., Berry, I.J., O Rourke, M.B., Raymond, B.B.A., Santos, J. & Djordjevic, S.P. 2017, 'A Comprehensive Guide for Performing Sample Preparation and Top-Down Protein Analysis.', Proteomes, vol. 5, no. 2.
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Methodologies for the global analysis of proteins in a sample, or proteome analysis, have been available since 1975 when Patrick O'Farrell published the first paper describing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). This technique allowed the resolution of single protein isoforms, or proteoforms, into single 'spots' in a polyacrylamide gel, allowing the quantitation of changes in a proteoform's abundance to ascertain changes in an organism's phenotype when conditions change. In pursuit of the comprehensive profiling of the proteome, significant advances in technology have made the identification and quantitation of intact proteoforms from complex mixtures of proteins more routine, allowing analysis of the proteome from the 'Top-Down'. However, the number of proteoforms detected by Top-Down methodologies such as 2D-PAGE or mass spectrometry has not significantly increased since O'Farrell's paper when compared to Bottom-Up, peptide-centric techniques. This article explores and explains the numerous methodologies and technologies available to analyse the proteome from the Top-Down with a strong emphasis on the necessity to analyse intact proteoforms as a better indicator of changes in biology and phenotype. We arrive at the conclusion that the complete and comprehensive profiling of an organism's proteome is still, at present, beyond our reach but the continuing evolution of protein fractionation techniques and mass spectrometry brings comprehensive Top-Down proteome profiling closer.

Pan, S., Sharma, P., Shah, S. & Deshpande, D. 2017, 'Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Alter Mitochondrial Function and Induce Autophagy in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells', American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.
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Pandey, A.K., Mishra, A.K., Kumar, R., Berwal, S., Devadas, R., Huete, A. & Kumar, K. 2017, 'CO variability and its association with household cooking fuels consumption over the Indo-Gangetic Plains.', Environ Pollut, vol. 222, pp. 83-93.
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This study examines the spatio-temporal trends obtained from decade long (Jan 2003-Dec 2014) satellite observational data of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) on carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region. The time sequence plots of columnar CO levels over the western, central and eastern IGP regions reveal marked seasonal behaviour, with lowest CO levels occurring during the monsoon months and the highest CO levels occurring during the pre-monsoon period. A negative correlation between CO levels and rainfall is observed. CO vertical profiles show relatively high values in the upper troposphere at ∼200 hPa level during the monsoon months, thus suggesting the role of convective transport and advection in addition to washout behind the decreased CO levels during this period. MOPITT and AIRS observations show a decreasing trend of 9.6 × 10(15) and 1.5 × 10(16) molecules cm(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in columnar CO levels over the IGP region. The results show the existence of a spatial gradient in CO from the eastern (higher levels) to western IGP region (lower levels). Data from the Census of India on the number of households using various cooking fuels in the IGP region shows the prevalence of biomass-fuel (i.e. firewood, crop residue, cowdung etc.) use over the eastern and central IGP regions and that of liquefied petroleum gas over the western IGP region. CO emission estimates from cooking activity over the three IGP regions are found to be in the order east > central > west, which support the existence of the spatial gradient in CO from eastern to the western IGP region. Our results support the intervention of present Indian government on limiting the use of biomass-fuels in domestic cooking to achieve the benefits in terms of the better air quality, household health and regional/global climate change mitigation.

Pasin, D., Cawley, A., Bidny, S. & Fu, S. 2017, 'Characterization of hallucinogenic phenethylamines using high-resolution mass spectrometry for non-targeted screening purposes.', Drug Test Anal.
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Hallucinogenic phenethylamines such as 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C-X) and their N-(2-methoxybenzyl) derivatives (25X-NBOMe) have seen an increase in novel analogues in recent years. These rapidly changing analogues make it difficult for laboratories to rely on traditional targeted screening methods to detect unknown new psychoactive substances (NPS). In this study, twelve 2C-X, six 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines (DOX), and fourteen 25X-NBOMe derivatives, including two deuterated derivatives (2C-B-d6 and 25I-NBOMe-d9 ), were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed using collision energies set at 10, 20, and 40 eV. For 2C-X and DOX derivatives, common losses were observed including neutral and radical losses such as NH3 (17.0265 Da), •CH6 N (32.0500 Da), C2 H7 N (45.0578 Da) and C2 H9 N (47.0735 Da). 2C-X derivatives displayed common product ions at m/z 164.0837 ([C10 H12 O2 ](+•) ), 149.0603 ([C9 H9 O2 ](+) ), and 134.0732 ([C9 H10 O](+•) ) while DOX derivatives had common product ions at m/z 178.0994 ([C11 H14 O2 ](+•) ), 163.0754 ([C10 H11 O2 ](+) ), 147.0804 ([C10 H11 O](+) ), and 135.0810 ([C9 H11 O](+) ). 25X-NBOMe had characteristic product ions at m/z 121.0654 ([C8 H9 O](+) ) and 91.0548 ([C7 H7 ](+) ) with minor common losses corresponding to 2-methylanisole (C8 H10 O, 122.0732 Da), 2-methoxybenzylamine (C8 H11 NO, 137.0847 Da), and •C9 H14 NO (152.1074 Da). Novel analogues of the selected classes can be detected by applying neutral loss filters (NLFs) and extracting the common product ions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Patel, B.S., Kugel, M.J., Baehring, G. & Ammit, A.J. 2017, 'Doxofylline does not increase formoterol-induced cAMP nor MKP-1 expression in ASM cells resulting in lack of anti-inflammatory effect.', Pulm Pharmacol Ther.
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The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 'novofylline' doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether doxofylline has anti-inflammatory impact on primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. We conduct a series of investigations comparing and contrasting doxofylline with the archetypal xanthine, theophylline, and the specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, cilomilast. We confirm that the xanthine drugs do not have action as PDE inhibitors in ASM cells. Unlike cilomilast, doxofylline (and theophylline) do not increase cAMP production in ASM cells induced by long-acting β2-agonist formoterol. Similar to theophylline, and consistent with the lack of cAMP potentiation, doxofylline does not augment formoterol-induced upregulation of the anti-inflammatory protein mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). However, when we examine the effect of doxofylline on secretion of the interleukin 8 from ASM cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor (an in vitro surrogate measure of inflammation), there was no repression of inflammation. This is in contrast to the anti-inflammatory impact exerted by theophylline and cilomilast in confirmatory experiments. In summary, our study is the first to examine the effect of doxofylline on ASM cells in vitro and highlights some distinct differences between two key members of xanthine drug family, doxofylline and theophylline.

Patel, B.S., Rahman, M.M., Baehring, G., Xenaki, D., Tang, F.S.-.M., Oliver, B.G. & Ammit, A.J. 2017, 'Roflumilast N-Oxide in Combination with Formoterol Enhances the Antiinflammatory Effect of Dexamethasone in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.', Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 532-538.
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Roflumilast is an orally active phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor approved for use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Roflumilast N-oxide (RNO) is the active metabolite of roflumilast and has a demonstrated antiinflammatory impact in vivo and in vitro. To date, the effect of RNO on the synthetic function of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells is unknown. We address this herein and investigate the effect of RNO on β2-adrenoceptor-mediated, cAMP-dependent responses in ASM cells in vitro, and whether RNO enhances steroid-induced repression of inflammation. RNO (0.001-1,000 nM) alone had no effect on AMP production from ASM cells, and significant potentiation of the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol-induced cAMP could only be achieved at the highest concentration of RNO tested (1,000 nM). At this concentration, RNO exerted a small, but not significantly different, potentiation of formoterol-induced expression of antiinflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1. Consequently, tumor necrosis factor-induced IL-8 secretion was unaffected by RNO in combination with formoterol. However, because there was the potential for phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors and long-acting β2-agonists to interact with corticosteroids to achieve superior antiinflammatory efficacy, we examined whether RNO, alone or in combination with formoterol, enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of dexamethasone by measuring the impact on IL-8 secretion. Although RNO alone did not significantly enhance the cytokine repression achieved with steroids, RNO in combination with formoterol significantly enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of dexamethasone in ASM cells. This was linked to increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 expression in ASM cells, suggesting that a molecular mechanism is responsible for augmented antiinflammatory actions of combination therapeutic approaches that include RNO.

Paul, B., Kim, H.S., Kerr, M.C., Huston, W.M., Teasdale, R.D. & Collins, B.M. 2017, 'Structural basis for the hijacking of endosomal sorting nexin proteins by Chlamydia trachomatis.', Elife, vol. 6.
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During infection chlamydial pathogens form an intracellular membrane-bound replicative niche termed the inclusion, which is enriched with bacterial transmembrane proteins called Incs. Incs bind and manipulate host cell proteins to promote inclusion expansion and provide camouflage against innate immune responses. Sorting nexin (SNX) proteins that normally function in endosomal membrane trafficking are a major class of inclusion-associated host proteins, and are recruited by IncE/CT116. Crystal structures of the SNX5 phox-homology (PX) domain in complex with IncE define the precise molecular basis for these interactions. The binding site is unique to SNX5 and related family members SNX6 and SNX32. Intriguingly the site is also conserved in SNX5 homologues throughout evolution, suggesting that IncE captures SNX5-related proteins by mimicking a native host protein interaction. These findings thus provide the first mechanistic insights both into how chlamydial Incs hijack host proteins, and how SNX5-related PX domains function as scaffolds in protein complex assembly.

Penfold, S., Dayananda, B. & Webb, J.K. 2017, 'Chemical cues influence retreat-site selection by flat rock spiders', Behaviour, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 149-161.
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© 2017 Copyright 2017 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.Many animals use chemical cues to detect conspecifics and predators. On sandstone outcrops, flat rock spiders Morebilus plagusius and Polyrachis ants use sun-exposed rocks as nest sites, and defend rocks from intruders. We investigated whether chemical cues influenced retreat-site selection by spiders. In the field, spiders showed significant avoidance of rocks used by ants. In laboratory trials, we gave spiders the choice between conspecific-scented and unscented refuges, and ant-scented and unscented refuges. In conspecific scent trials, spiders showed no avoidance of spider scented refuges during the night, but significantly more spiders chose unscented refuges as their diurnal retreat-site. In ant scent trials, spiders made more visits to unscented refuges than ant-scented refuges during the night, and significantly more spiders chose unscented refuges as their diurnal retreat site. Our results demonstrate that spiders can detect chemical cues from ants and conspecifics, and that such cues influence retreat-site selection.

Peng, D., Zhang, B., Wu, C., Huete, A.R., Gonsamo, A., Lei, L., Ponce-Campos, G.E., Liu, X. & Wu, Y. 2017, 'Country-level net primary production distribution and response to drought and land cover change', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 574, pp. 65-77.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can offset emissions and thereby offers an alternative way of achieving the target of reducing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Net primary production (NPP) is the first step in the sequestration of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems. This study quantifies moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP from 2000 to 2014 at the country level along with its response to drought and land cover change. Our results indicate that the combined NPP for 53 countries represents > 90% of global NPP. From 2000 to 2014, 29 of these 53 countries had increasing NPP trends, most notably the Central African Republic (23 g C/m2/y). The top three and top 12 countries accounted for 30% and 60% of total global NPP, respectively, whereas the mean national NPP per unit area in the countries with the 12 lowest values was only around ~ 300 g C/m2/y - the exception to this was Brazil, which had an NPP of 850 g C/m2/y. Large areas of Russia, Argentina, Peru and several countries in southeast Asia showed a marked decrease in NPP (~ 15 g C/m2/y). About 37% of the NPP decrease was caused by drought while ~ 55% of NPP variability was attributed to changes in water availability. Land cover change explained about 20% of the NPP variability. Our findings support the idea that government policies should aim primarily to improve water management in drought-afflicted countries; land use/land cover change policy could also be used as an alternative method of increasing NPP.

Peng, D., Zhang, X., Wu, C., Huang, W., Gonsamo, A., Huete, A.R., Didan, K., Tan, B., Liu, X. & Zhang, B. 2017, 'Intercomparison and evaluation of spring phenology products using National Phenology Network and AmeriFlux observations in the contiguous United States', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 242, pp. 33-46.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Many remote sensing based spring phenology products have been developed to monitor and study vegetation phenology at regional and global scales. It is important to understand how these products perform relative to each other and to ground observations. In this study, we extracted spring green-up onset dates (GUD) over the contiguous United States (CONUS) from six major land surface phenology (LSP) products: (1) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Cover Dynamics Phenology (MCD12Q2); (2) Vegetation Index and Phenology Multi-sensor Phenology (VIPPHENEVI2); (3) Global Long-Term Climate Modeling Grid Land Surface Phenology (CMGLSP); (4 and 5) North American Carbon Program (NACP) Phenology (MOD09Q1PEVI and MOD15PHN); and (6) USGS/EROS advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) phenology (AVHRRP). We characterized and compared the GUD data in these LSP products, and evaluated their accuracy using ground-based phenology observations [i.e., human observations of first leaf and sensor readings of gross primary productivity (GPP)] from the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) and AmeriFlux. The results revealed the consistencies and discrepancies of GUD estimates among LSP products. Intercomparison of the six products indicated that the root mean square error (RMSE) of these products range from 17.8 days to 31.5 days, whereas AVHRRP GUD has the lowest correlation and largest RMSE (∼30 days) relative to other products. When compared to ground observations, GUD estimates in six LSP products generally have RMSE values of ∼20 days and significant correlations (p < 0.001). For the products (MCD12Q2, AVHRRP, MOD09Q1PEVI, and MOD15PHN) available for comparisons in the short-term period (from 2001–2007), AVHRRP GUD presented relatively weaker correlations and a lower index of agreement (IOA), however, MCD12Q2 GUD showed overall slightly better consistencies with ground observations. In the two long-term products (CMGLSP and VIPPH...

Peng, K., Parkinson, P., Gao, Q., Boland, J.L., Li, Z., Wang, F., Mokkapati, S., Fu, L., Johnston, M.B., Tan, H.H. & Jagadish, C. 2017, 'Single n+-i-n+ InP nanowires for highly sensitive terahertz detection', Nanotechnology, vol. 28, no. 12.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.Developing single-nanowire terahertz (THz) electronics and employing them as sub-wavelength components for highly-integrated THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) applications is a promising approach to achieve future low-cost, highly integrable and high-resolution THz tools, which are desirable in many areas spanning from security, industry, environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics to fundamental science. In this work, we present the design and growth of n+-i-n+ InP nanowires. The axial doping profile of the n+-i-n+ InP nanowires has been calibrated and characterized using combined optical and electrical approaches to achieve nanowire devices with low contact resistances, on which the highly-sensitive InP single-nanowire photoconductive THz detectors have been demonstrated. While the n+-i-n+ InP nanowire detector has a only pA-level response current, it has a 2.5 times improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with the undoped InP nanowire detector and is comparable to traditional bulk THz detectors. This performance indicates a promising path to nanowire-based THz electronics for future commercial applications.

Petrou, K., Ralph, P.J. & Nielsen, D.A. 2017, 'A novel mechanism for host-mediated photoprotection in endosymbiotic foraminifera.', ISME J, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 453-462.
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Light underpins the health and function of coral reef ecosystems, where symbiotic partnerships with photosynthetic algae constitute the life support system of the reef. Decades of research have given us detailed knowledge of the photoprotective capacity of phototrophic organisms, yet little is known about the role of the host in providing photoprotection in symbiotic systems. Here we show that the intracellular symbionts within the large photosymbiotic foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis exhibit phototactic behaviour, and that the phototactic movement of the symbionts is accomplished by the host, through rapid actin-mediated relocation of the symbionts deeper into the cavities within the calcium carbonate test. Using a photosynthetic inhibitor, we identified that the infochemical signalling for host regulation is photosynthetically derived, highlighting the presence of an intimate communication between the symbiont and the host. Our results emphasise the central importance of the host in photosymbiotic photoprotection via a new mechanism in foraminifera that can serve as a platform for exploring host-symbiont communication in other photosymbiotic organisms.

Pierangelini, M., Raven, J.A. & Giordano, M. 2017, 'The relative availability of inorganic carbon and inorganic nitrogen influences the response of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum to elevated CO2.', Journal of phycology.
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This work originates from three facts: 1) changes in CO2 availability influence metabolic processes in algal cells. 2) Spatial and temporal variations of nitrogen availability cause repercussions on phytoplankton physiology. 3) Growth and cell composition are dependent on the stoichiometry of nutritional resources. In this study we assess whether the impact of rising pCO2 is influenced by N availability, through the impact that it would have on the C/N stoichiometry, in condition of N sufficiency. Our experiments used the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum, which we cultured under three CO2 regimes (400, 1000 and 5000 ppmv, pH of 8.1) and either variable (the NO3 (-) concentration was always 2.5 mmol • L(-1) ) or constant (NO3 (-) concentration varied to maintain the same Ci /NO3 (-) ratio at all pCO2 ) Ci  /NO3 (-) ratio. Regardless of N availability, cells had higher specific growth rates, but lower cell dry weight and C and N quotas, at elevated CO2 . The carbohydrate pool size and the C/N was unaltered in all treatments. The lipid content only decreased at high pCO2 at constant Ci  /NO3 (-) ratio. In the variable Ci  /NO3 (-) conditions, the relative abundance of Rubisco (and other proteins) also changed; this did not occur at constant Ci  /NO3 (-) . Thus, the biomass quality of P. reticulatum for grazers was affected by the Ci  /NO3 (-) ratio in the environment and not only by the pCO2 , both with respect to the size of the main organic pools and the composition of the expressed proteome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Portbury, S.D., Hare, D.J., Sgambelloni, C.J., Bishop, D.P., Finkelstein, D.I., Doble, P.A. & Adlard, P.A. 2017, 'Age modulates the injury-induced metallomic profile in the brain.', Metallomics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 402-410.
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The biological transition metals iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are thought to contribute to the neuronal pathologies that occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and indeed our previously published work in young (3 month-old) mice clearly demonstrates a significant spatiotemporal modulation of metals following TBI. Of note, however, is the literature observation that there is both an apparent detrimental effect of aging on TBI outcomes and an alteration in metals and their various transporters with normal advancing age. Therefore, to determine whether there was an interaction between aging, metals and TBI, we have utilised laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of Fe, Zn and Cu following an acute controlled cortical impact brain injury in aged (24 months) rodents. The relative abundance of metals in corresponding regions within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres as well as the hippocampus was assessed. Substantial region and time point specific alterations in Fe, Zn and Cu were identified immediately and up to 28 days post-TBI. The data from this follow-up study has also been compared to our previous data from young animals, and aged mice exhibit an appreciably enhanced and persistent elevation of all metals in every region surveyed, with individual metal disparities at various time points observed post-injury. This may potentially contribute to the acceleration in the onset of cognitive decline and neurological disease that has been observed in the aged population following head trauma.

Prakash, Y.S., Halayko, A.J., Gosens, R., Panettieri, R.A., Camoretti-Mercado, B., Penn, R.B., Aiyar, R., Ammit, A., Berkman, N., Bond, R., Brown, R., Boulet, L., Burgess, J., Chung, K.F., Debley, J., Deshpande, D., Freemer, M., Glass, M., Haczku, A., Holgate, S., Irvin, C., Jacoby, D., Johnson, J., Meurs, H., Murphy, T., Murthy, M., Noel, P., O'Byrne, P., Pabelick, C., Pera, T., Poynter, M., Robinson, G., Saglani, S., Solway, J., Stewart, A., Tliba, O., Togias, A. & Woodruff, P. 2017, 'An official American thoracic society research statement: Current challenges facing research and therapeutic advances in airway remodeling', American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 195, no. 2, pp. e4-e19.
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© Copyright 2017 by the American Thoracic Society.Background: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulatory issues that deter progress of AR research and development of therapeutics targeting AR and to propose approaches and solutions to these specific problems. This Statement is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on any disease in which AR is observed and/or plays a role. Methods: An international multidisciplinary group from within academia, industry, and the National Institutes of Health, with expertise in multimodal approaches to the study of airway structure and function, pulmonary research and clinical practice in obstructive lung disease, and drug discovery platforms was invited to participate in one internet-based and one face-to-face meeting to address the above-stated goals. Although the majority of the analysis related to AR was in asthma, AR in other diseases was also discussed and considered in the recommendations. A literature search of PubMed was performed to support conclusions. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Results: Multiple conceptual, logistical, economic, and regulatory deterrents were identified that limit the performance of AR research and impede accelerated, intensive development of AR-focused therapeutics. Complementary solutions that leverage expertise of academia and industry were proposed to address them. Conclusions: To date, numerous factors related to the intrinsic difficulty in performing AR research, and economic forces that are disincentives for the pursuit of AR treatments, have thwarted the ability to understandARpathology and mechanisms and to address it clinically. This ATS Research Statement identifies potential solutions for each of the...

Pyke, G.H. & Szabo, J.K. 2017, 'Conservation and the four Rs, which are rescue, rehabilitation, release, and research.', Conserv Biol.
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Vertebrate animals can be injured or threatened with injury through human activities, thus warranting their 'rescue'. Details of wildlife Rescue, Rehabilitation, Release, and associated Research (our 4 R's) are often recorded in large databases, resulting in a wealth of information. This information has huge research potential and can contribute to our understanding of animal biology, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife, and species conservation. However, such databases have been little used, few studies have evaluated factors influencing success of rehabilitation and/or release, recommended actions to conserve threatened species have rarely arisen, and direct benefits for species conservation are yet to be demonstrated. We therefore recommend additional research based on rescue, rehabilitation and release of animals, broader in scope than previously carried out, which would also maintain support from the general human community. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

R Cardoso, B., Hare, D.J., Lind, M., McLean, C.A., Volitakis, I., Laws, S.M., Masters, C.L., Bush, A.I. & Roberts, B.R. 2017, 'The APOE ε4 Allele Is Associated with Lower Selenium Levels in the Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.', ACS Chem Neurosci.
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The antioxidant activity of selenium, which is mainly conferred by its incorporation into dedicated selenoproteins, has been suggested as a possible neuroprotective approach for mitigating neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. However, there is inconsistent information with respect to selenium levels in the Alzheimer's disease brain. We examined the concentration and cellular compartmentalization of selenium in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer's disease and control brain tissue. We found that Alzheimer's disease was associated with decreased selenium concentration in both soluble (i.e., cytosolic) and insoluble (i.e., plaques and tangles) fractions of brain homogenates. The presence of the APOE ε4 allele correlated with lower total selenium levels in the temporal cortex and a higher concentration of soluble selenium. Additionally, we found that age significantly contributed to lower selenium concentrations in the peripheral membrane-bound and vesicular fractions. Our findings suggest a relevant interaction between APOE ε4 and selenium delivery into brain, and show changes in cellular selenium distribution in the Alzheimer's disease brain.

Rahman, M.A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Efficient multi-coloured Li-doped ZnO thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis', JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, vol. 691, pp. 339-342.
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Rahman, M.A., Westerhausen, M.T., Nenstiel, C., Choi, S., Hoffmann, A., Gentle, A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Charge state switching of Cu acceptors in ZnO nanorods', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 110, no. 12.
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© 2017 Author(s).Undoped and Ga-doped ZnO nanorods both exhibit an intense green luminescence (GL) band centered at ∼2.4 eV. Unlike the defect-related GL in undoped nanorods, the GL band in Ga-doped nanorods displays a periodic fine structure separated by 72 meV, which consists of doublets with an energy spacing of 30 ± 3 meV. The emergence of the structured GL is due to the Cu+ state being stabilized by the rise in the Fermi level above the 0/- (Cu2+/Cu+) charge transfer level as a result of Ga donor incorporation. From a combination of optical characterization and simulation using the Brownian oscillator model, the doublet fine structures are shown to originate from two hole transitions with the Cu+ state located at 390 meV above the valence band.

Rahmati-Najarkolaei, F., Pakpour, A.H., Saffari, M., Hosseini, M.S., Hajizadeh, F., Chen, H. & Yekaninejad, M.S. 2017, 'Determinants of Lifestyle Behavior in Iranian Adults with Prediabetes: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior.', Arch Iran Med, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 198-204.
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OBJECTIVE: Prediabetic condition can lead to development of type 2 diabetes, especially in individuals who do not adhere to a healthy lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to investigate the socio-cognitive factors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that may be associated with the choice of lifestyle in prediabetic patients. METHODS: A prospective study with one-month follow up was designed to collect data from 350 individuals with prediabetic conditions. A questionnaire was used to collect the information, including demographic variables, exercise behavior, food consumption, as well as the constructs of the TPB (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention) regarding physical activity and dietary choice. The correlations between TPB variables and the dependent variables (dietary choice, physical activity) were assessed using Spearman correlation and multiple regression models. RESULT: In total, 303 people participated. The mean age of the participants was 53.0 (SD 11.5) years and 42% were males. Significant correlations were found between all TPB constructs and both dependent variables (healthy eating and exercise behaviors) both at baseline and after one month (P < 0.01). The predictive validity of the TPB over time was proved for both dependent variables where past and future behaviors were significantly correlated with the constructs. Nearly 87% of the variance in exercise behavior and 72% of the variance in healthy eating behavior were explainable by TPB constructs. CONCLUSION: The TPB may be a useful model to predict behaviors of physical activity and dietary choice among prediabetic people. Therefore, it may be used to monitor lifestyle modification to prevent development of diabetes among people with prediabetic conditions.

Raina, J.-.B., Clode, P.L., Cheong, S., Bougoure, J., Kilburn, M.R., Reeder, A., Forêt, S., Stat, M., Beltran, V., Thomas-Hall, P., Tapiolas, D., Motti, C.M., Gong, B., Pernice, M., Marjo, C.E., Seymour, J.R., Willis, B.L. & Bourne, D.G. 2017, 'Subcellular tracking reveals the location of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in microalgae and visualises its uptake by marine bacteria.', Elife, vol. 6.
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Phytoplankton-bacteria interactions drive the surface ocean sulfur cycle and local climatic processes through the production and exchange of a key compound: dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Despite their large-scale implications, these interactions remain unquantified at the cellular-scale. Here we use secondary-ion mass spectrometry to provide the first visualization of DMSP at sub-cellular levels, tracking the fate of a stable sulfur isotope ((34)S) from its incorporation by microalgae as inorganic sulfate to its biosynthesis and exudation as DMSP, and finally its uptake and degradation by bacteria. Our results identify for the first time the storage locations of DMSP in microalgae, with high enrichments present in vacuoles, cytoplasm and chloroplasts. In addition, we quantify DMSP incorporation at the single-cell level, with DMSP-degrading bacteria containing seven times more (34)S than the control strain. This study provides an unprecedented methodology to label, retain, and image small diffusible molecules, which can be transposable to other symbiotic systems.

Rapin, W., Meslin, P.Y., Maurice, S., Wiens, R.C., Laporte, D., Chauviré, B., Gasnault, O., Schröder, S., Beck, P., Bender, S., Beyssac, O., Cousin, A., Dehouck, E., Drouet, C., Forni, O., Nachon, M., Melikechi, N., Rondeau, B., Mangold, N. & Thomas, N.H. 2017, 'Quantification of water content by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy on Mars', Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 130, pp. 82-100.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as performed by the ChemCam instrument, provides a new technique to measure hydrogen at the surface of Mars. Using a laboratory replica of the LIBS instrument onboard the Curiosity rover, different types of hydrated samples (basalts, calcium and magnesium sulfates, opals and apatites) covering a range of targets observed on Mars have been characterized and analyzed. A number of factors related to laser parameters, atmospheric conditions and differences in targets properties can affect the standoff LIBS signal, and in particular the hydrogen emission peak. Dedicated laboratory tests were run to identify a normalization of the hydrogen signal which could best compensate for these effects and enable the application of the laboratory calibration to Mars data. We check that the hydrogen signal increases linearly with water content; and normalization of the hydrogen emission peak using to oxygen and carbon emission peaks (related to the breakdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide) constitutes a robust approach. Moreover, the calibration curve obtained is relatively independent of the samples types.

Raven, J.A. 2017, 'Chloride: essential micronutrient and multifunctional beneficial ion.', J Exp Bot, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 359-367.
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Cl(-) is an essential micronutrient for oxygenic photolithotrophs. About half of global primary productivity is carried out by oxygenic photolithotrophs exposed to saline waters with Cl(-) concentrations orders of magnitude higher than that needed to satisfy the micronutrient requirement. The other half of primary productivity involves terrestrial and freshwater glycophytes sometimes in environments containing significantly more Cl(-) than is needed for the micronutrient requirement, but less than the toxic Cl(-) concentration for glycophytes. Intracellular Cl(-) acts in regulation of cell turgor and volume, including that of stomatal and pulvinar nastic movements, is a major ion in streptophyte and ulvophycean action potentials, and is involved in ion currents flowing around apices of pollen tubes and Acetabularia cells. More work is needed on the essentiality of Cl(-) in these processes, as well as the recent finding that Cl(-) at 1-5 mol m(-3) increases water use efficiency of growth and leaf area in Nicotiana tabacum.

Ren, J., Song, J., Ellis, J. & Li, J. 2017, 'Staged heterogeneity learning to identify conformational B-cell epitopes from antigen sequences.', BMC Genomics, vol. 18, no. Suppl 2, p. 113.
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BACKGROUND: The broad heterogeneity of antigen-antibody interactions brings tremendous challenges to the design of a widely applicable learning algorithm to identify conformational B-cell epitopes. Besides the intrinsic heterogeneity introduced by diverse species, extra heterogeneity can also be introduced by various data sources, adding another layer of complexity and further confounding the research. RESULTS: This work proposed a staged heterogeneity learning method, which learns both characteristics and heterogeneity of data in a phased manner. The method was applied to identify antigenic residues of heterogenous conformational B-cell epitopes based on antigen sequences. In the first stage, the model learns the general epitope patterns of each kind of propensity from a large data set containing computationally defined epitopes. In the second stage, the model learns the heterogenous complementarity of these propensities from a relatively small guided data set containing experimentally determined epitopes. Moreover, we designed an algorithm to cluster the predicted individual antigenic residues into conformational B-cell epitopes so as to provide strong potential for real-world applications, such as vaccine development. With heterogeneity well learnt, the transferability of the prediction model was remarkably improved to handle new data with a high level of heterogeneity. The model has been tested on two data sets with experimentally determined epitopes, and on a data set with computationally defined epitopes. This proposed sequence-based method achieved outstanding performance - about twice that of existing methods, including the sequence-based predictor CBTOPE and three other structure-based predictors. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method uses only antigen sequence information, and thus has much broader applications.

Restrepo-Coupe, N., Levine, N., Christoffersen, B.O., Albert, L.P., Wu, J., Costa, M.H., Galbraith, D., Imbuzeiro, H., Martins, G., da Araujo, A.C., Malhi, Y.S., Zeng, X., Moorcroft, P. & Saleska, S.R. 2017, 'Do dynamic global vegetation models capture the seasonality of carbon fluxes in the Amazon basin? A data-model intercomparison.', Global change biology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 191-208.
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To predict forest response to long-term climate change with high confidence requires that dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) be successfully tested against ecosystem response to short-term variations in environmental drivers, including regular seasonal patterns. Here, we used an integrated dataset from four forests in the Brasil flux network, spanning a range of dry season intensities and lengths, to determine how well four state-of-the-art models (IBIS, ED2, JULES, and CLM3.5) simulated the seasonality of carbon exchanges in Amazonian tropical forests. We found that most DGVMs poorly represented the annual cycle of gross primary productivity (GPP), of photosynthetic capacity (Pc), and of other fluxes and pools. Models simulated consistent dry season declines in GPP in the equatorial Amazon (Manaus K34, Santarem K67, and Caxiuanã CAX); a contrast to observed GPP increases. Model simulated dry season GPP reductions were driven by an external environmental factor, "soil water stress" and consequently by a constant or decreasing photosynthetic infrastructure (Pc), while observed dry-season GPP resulted from a combination of internal biological (leaf-flush and abscission and increased Pc) and environmental (incoming radiation) causes. Moreover, we found models generally overestimated observed seasonal net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and respiration (Re) at equatorial locations. In contrast, a southern Amazon forest (Jarú RJA) exhibited dry season declines in GPP and Re consistent with most DGVMs simulations. While water-limitation was represented in models and the primary driver of seasonal photosynthesis in southern Amazonia, changes in internal biophysical processes, light harvesting adaptations (e.g. variations in leaf area index (LAI) and increasing leaf-level assimilation rate related to leaf demography), and allocation lags between leaf and wood, dominated equatorial Amazon carbon flux dynamics and were deficient or absent from current model formulations. Co...

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Ovarian Follicular Waves in Alpacas and Implications for Embryo Transfer Programs', Alpaca Culture Magazine, vol. 6, no. 1 (March).
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Alpaca female reproductive physiology, in comparison with other domestic species (cattle and sheep), is still considered to be under-researched and in its infancy. Nevertheless, there are commercial embryo transfer protocols available, but the ovarian response is characterised by being extremely variable and unpredictable. Embryo transfer in alpacas has not been critically and systematically studied. The reason behind is attributed to a lack funding and promotion of investigations in Peru and internationally. The aim of this article is to present a simple explanation on how ovarian follicular waves occur in alpacas. Understanding reproductive physiology is crucial for any reproductive program such as embryo transfer and artificial insemination.

Ribaux, O., Roux, C. & Crispino, F. 2017, 'Expressing the value of forensic science in policing', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, pp. 1-13.
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© 2016 Australian Academy of Forensic SciencesOnly a small part of forensic science activities scattered across criminal justice systems is the object of scientific scrutiny, and is taken into account when evaluating the added-value brought by this discipline. Even in its more restricted definition, forensic science faces many embarrassing questions about its capacity to provide valid and reliably interpreted information in court. The inflation of control mechanisms increases costs and reduces the scope or availability of forensic information. The viability of forensic science, viewed through this lens, is questioned. To address this challenge, it is imperative to validly express forensic science contributions that are otherwise diluted across earlier processes. These include abductive and inductive species of inferences used in crime investigation, crime analysis and criminal intelligence. The ‘scientificity’ of these processes may be questioned, but it is not contested that they largely determine the global outcome of justice systems. As a result, they cannot be ignored. To unlock the debate, it is proposed to turn the forensic science focus from means (instruments, techniques, methods) to ends (what is the problem, what are the objectives?). This perspective naturally leads to proactive models of policing. It also provides possible frameworks to express various uses of the information conveyed by traces for solving problems. Reframed forensic science contributions are more validly expressed and the current debate can ultimately be transcended.

Saffari, M., Pakpour, A.H. & Chen, H. 2017, 'Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study.', Health Promot Perspect, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 34-41.
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Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status.

Scott, P.D., Coleman, H.M., Colville, A., Lim, R., Matthews, B., McDonald, J.A., Miranda, A., Neale, P.A., Nugegoda, D., Tremblay, L.A. & Leusch, F.D.L. 2017, 'Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).', Aquat Toxicol, vol. 185, pp. 105-120.
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In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p<0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p=0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a low risk to fish in most Australian rivers monitored to-date except for some species of fish at the most polluted sites.

Seo, D.H., Pineda, S., Fang, J., Gozukara, Y., Yick, S., Bendavid, A., Lam, S.K.H., Murdock, A.T., Murphy, A.B., Han, Z.J. & Ostrikov, K.K. 2017, 'Single-step ambient-air synthesis of graphene from renewable precursors as electrochemical genosensor.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14217.
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Thermal chemical vapour deposition techniques for graphene fabrication, while promising, are thus far limited by resource-consuming and energy-intensive principles. In particular, purified gases and extensive vacuum processing are necessary for creating a highly controlled environment, isolated from ambient air, to enable the growth of graphene films. Here we exploit the ambient-air environment to enable the growth of graphene films, without the need for compressed gases. A renewable natural precursor, soybean oil, is transformed into continuous graphene films, composed of single-to-few layers, in a single step. The enabling parameters for controlled synthesis and tailored properties of the graphene film are discussed, and a mechanism for the ambient-air growth is proposed. Furthermore, the functionality of the graphene is demonstrated through direct utilization as an electrode to realize an effective electrochemical genosensor. Our method is applicable to other types of renewable precursors and may open a new avenue for low-cost synthesis of graphene films.

Sharma, P., Kota, A., Deshpande, D., Haghi, M. & Oliver, B. 2017, 'Autophagy and airway fibrosis: Is there a link?', F1000 Research, vol. 6, no. 409.
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In the past decade, an emerging process named “autophagy” has generated intense interest in many chronic lung diseases. Tissue remodeling and fibrosis is a common feature of many airway diseases, and current therapies do not prevent or reverse these structural changes. Autophagy has evolved as a conserved process for bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components to maintain basal cellular homeostasis and healthy organelle populations in the cell. Furthermore, autophagy serves as a cell survival mechanism and can also be induced by chemical and physical stress to the cell. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays an essential role in vital cellular processes, including tissue remodeling. This review will discuss some of the recent advancements made in understanding the role of this fundamental process in airway fibrosis with emphasis on airway remodeling, and how autophagy can be exploited as a target for airway remodeling in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Sharma, P., Yi, R., Nayak, A., Wang, N., Knight, M.J., Pan, S., Oliver, B. & Deshpande, D.A. 2017, 'Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in MiceRoslyn Yi, Ajay Nayak, Nadan Wang, Francesca Tang, Morgan J Knight, Shi Pan, Brian Oliver, and Deepak Deshpande', Scientific Reports.

Shi, H., Li, L., Eamus, D., Huete, A., Cleverly, J., Tian, X., Yu, Q., Wang, S., Montagnani, L., Magliulo, V., Rotenberg, E., Pavelka, M. & Carrara, A. 2017, 'Assessing the ability of MODIS EVI to estimate terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production of multiple land cover types', Ecological Indicators, vol. 72, pp. 153-164.
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tTerrestrial ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) is the largest component in the global carbon cycle.The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) has been proven to be strongly correlated with annual GPP withinseveral biomes. However, the annual GPP-EVI relationship and associated environmental regulationshave not yet been comprehensively investigated across biomes at the global scale. Here we exploredrelationships between annual integrated EVI (iEVI) and annual GPP observed at 155 flux sites, whereGPP was predicted with a log-log model: ln(GPP) = a × ln(iEVI) + b. iEVI was computed from MODISmonthly EVI products following removal of values affected by snow or cold temperature and withoutcalculating growing season duration. Through categorisation of flux sites into 12 land cover types, theability of iEVI to estimate GPP was considerably improved (R2from 0.62 to 0.74, RMSE from 454.7 to368.2 g C m−2yr−1). The biome-specific GPP-iEVI formulae generally showed a consistent performancein comparison to a global benchmarking dataset (R2= 0.79, RMSE = 387.8 g C m−2yr−1). Specifically, iEVIperformed better in cropland regions with high productivity but poorer in forests. The ability of iEVI inestimating GPP was better in deciduous biomes (except deciduous broadleaf forest) than in evergreendue to the large seasonal signal in iEVI in deciduous biomes. Likewise, GPP estimated from iEVI was ina closer agreement to global benchmarks at mid and high-latitudes, where deciduous biomes are morecommon and cloud cover has a smaller effect on remote sensing retrievals. Across biomes, a significant andnegative correlation (R2= 0.37, p < 0.05) was observed between the strength (R2) of GPP-iEVI relationshipsand mean annual maximum leaf area index (LAImax), and the relationship between the strength andmean annual precipitation followed a similar trend. LAImaxalso revealed a scaling effect on GPP-iEVIrelationships. Our results suggest that iEVI provides a very simple but robust approach to ...

Smith, J.J., Herzig, V., Ikonomopoulou, M.P., Dziemborowicz, S., Bosmans, F., Nicholson, G.M. & King, G.F. 2017, 'Insect-Active Toxins with Promiscuous Pharmacology from the African Theraphosid Spider Monocentropus balfouri.', Toxins (Basel), vol. 9, no. 5.
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Many chemical insecticides are becoming less efficacious due to rising resistance in pest species, which has created much interest in the development of new, eco-friendly bioinsecticides. Since insects are the primary prey of most spiders, their venoms are a rich source of insect-active peptides that can be used as leads for new bioinsecticides or as tools to study molecular receptors that are insecticidal targets. In the present study, we isolated two insecticidal peptides, µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b, from venom of the African tarantula Monocentropus balfouri. Recombinant µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b paralyzed both Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly) and Musca domestica (housefly), but neither peptide affected larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworms). Both peptides inhibited currents mediated by voltage-gated sodium (NaV) and calcium channels in Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) dorsal unpaired median neurons, and they also inhibited the cloned Blattella germanica (German cockroach) NaV channel (BgNaV1). An additional effect seen only with Mb1a on BgNaV1 was a delay in fast inactivation. Comparison of the NaV channel sequences of the tested insect species revealed that variations in the S1-S2 loops in the voltage sensor domains might underlie the differences in activity between different phyla.

Smith, K.F., Kohli, G.S., Murray, S.A. & Rhodes, L.L. 2017, 'Assessment of the metabarcoding approach for community analysis of benthic-epiphytic dinoflagellates using mock communities', New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, pp. 1-22.
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© 2017 The Royal Society of New ZealandIn this study, we assessed the use of DNA metabarcoding as a method for biodiversity assessment of benthic-epiphytic dinoflagellate communities and for detecting rare, toxin-producing taxa. Mock communities and three primer pairs were used to establish the recovery of species signal and quantitative representation of species in the samples, as well as to determine primer biases, bioinformatic filtering steps, and threshold levels. Samples were analysed using high-throughput sequencing Illumina™ MiSeq technology. We did not find a relationship between read number and cell abundance for all treatments. However, the method was extremely sensitive, with two of the primer pairs detecting a single cell representing less than 0.001% of the cells in the sample. Benthic and epiphytic dinoflagellate communities were also collected from the Bay of Islands (Northland, New Zealand). Dinophyceae species richness was much higher when samples were analysed using metabarcoding than when analysed by microscopy, and we detected several new taxonomic records for New Zealand.

Solntsev, A.S. & Sukhorukov, A.A. 2017, 'Path-entangled photon sources on nonlinear chips', Reviews in Physics, vol. 2, pp. 19-31.
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Sønderholm, M., Kragh, K.N., Koren, K., Jakobsen, T.H., Darch, S.E., Alhede, M., Jensen, P.Ø., Whiteley, M., Kühl, M. & Bjarnsholt, T. 2017, 'Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregate Formation in an Alginate Bead Model System Exhibits In Vivo-Like Characteristics.', Appl Environ Microbiol, vol. 83, no. 9.
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Alginate beads represent a simple and highly reproducible in vitro model system for diffusion-limited bacterial growth. In this study, alginate beads were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and followed for up to 72 h. Confocal microscopy revealed that P. aeruginosa formed dense clusters similar in size to in vivo aggregates observed ex vivo in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. Bacterial aggregates primarily grew in the bead periphery and decreased in size and abundance toward the center of the bead. Microsensor measurements showed that the O2 concentration decreased rapidly and reached anoxia ∼100 μm below the alginate bead surface. This gradient was relieved in beads supplemented with NO3(-) as an alternative electron acceptor allowing for deeper growth into the beads. A comparison of gene expression profiles between planktonic and alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa confirmed that the bacteria experienced hypoxic and anoxic growth conditions. Furthermore, alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa exhibited a lower respiration rate than the planktonic counterpart and showed a high tolerance toward antibiotics. The inoculation and growth of P. aeruginosa in alginate beads represent a simple and flexible in vivo-like biofilm model system, wherein bacterial growth exhibits central features of in vivo biofilms. This was observed by the formation of small cell aggregates in a secondary matrix with O2-limited growth, which was alleviated by the addition of NO3(-) as an alternative electron acceptor, and by reduced respiration rates, as well as an enhanced tolerance to antibiotic treatment.IMPORTANCEPseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied intensively for decades due to its involvement in chronic infections, such as cystic fibrosis and chronic wounds, where it forms biofilms. Much research has been dedicated to biofilm formation on surfaces; however, in chronic infections, most biofilms form small aggregates of cells not attached to a surface, but embedded in hos...

Stayte, S. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'New hope for devastating neurodegenerative disease', Brain, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 1177-1179.
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Stayte, S., Rentsch, P., Tröscher, A.R., Bamberger, M., Li, K.M. & Vissel, B. 2017, 'Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo.', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 1, p. e0167211.
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Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta region and a subsequent loss of dopamine within the striatum. A promising avenue of research has been the administration of growth factors to promote the survival of remaining midbrain neurons, although the mechanism by which they provide neuroprotection is not understood. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory following acute brain injury and has been demonstrated to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against MPP+-induced degeneration in vitro. We hypothesized that activin A may offer similar anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vivo mouse models of Parkinson's disease. We found that activin A significantly attenuated the inflammatory response induced by both MPTP and intranigral administration of lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6 mice. We found that administration of activin A promoted survival of dopaminergic and total neuron populations in the pars compacta region both 8 days and 8 weeks after MPTP-induced degeneration. Surprisingly, no corresponding protection of striatal dopamine levels was found. Furthermore, activin A failed to protect against loss of striatal dopamine transporter expression in the striatum, suggesting the neuroprotective action of activin A may be localized to the substantia nigra. Together, these results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects in the MPTP and lipopolysaccharide mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

Stroud, L.J., Šlapeta, J., Padula, M.P., Druery, D., Tsiotsioras, G., Coorssen, J.R. & Stack, C.M. 2017, 'Comparative proteomic analysis of two pathogenic Tritrichomonas foetus genotypes: there is more to the proteome than meets the eye', International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 203-213.
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© 2017 Australian Society for ParasitologyCertain clinical isolates of Tritrichomonas foetus infect the urogenital tract of cattle while others infect the gastrointestinal tract of cats. Previous studies have identified subtle genetic differences between these isolates with the term “genotype” adopted to reflect host origin. The aim of this work was to seek evidence of host-specific adaptation and to clarify the relationship between T. foetus genotypes. To do this we characterised the proteomes of both genotypes using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with LC-MS/MS. Our comparative analysis of the data revealed that both genotypes exhibited largely similar proteoform profiles; however differentiation was possible with 24 spots identified as having a four-fold or greater change. Deeper analysis using 2DE zymography and protease-specific fluorogenic substrates revealed marked differences in cysteine protease (CP) expression profiles between the two genotypes. These variances in CP activities could also account for the pathogenic and histopathological differences previously observed between T. foetus genotypes in cross-infection studies. Our findings highlight the importance of CPs as major determinants of parasite virulence and provide a foundation for future host-parasite interaction studies, with direct implications for the development of vaccines or drugs targeting T. foetus.

Stuart, B.H. & Thomas, P.S. 2017, 'Pigment characterisation in Australian rock art: A review of modern instrumental methods of analysis', Heritage Science, vol. 5, no. 1.
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© 2017 The Author(s).The many thousands of Aboriginal rock art sites extending across Australia represent an important cultural record. The styles and materials used to produce such art are of great interest to archaeologists and those concerned with the protection of these significant works. Through an analysis of the mineral pigments utilised in Australian rock art, insight into the age of paintings and practices employed by artists can be gained. In recent years, there has been an expansion in the use of modern analytical techniques to investigate rock art pigments and this paper provides a review of the application of such techniques to Australian sites. The types of archaeological information that may be extracted via chemical analysis of specimens collected from or at rock art sites across the country are discussed. A review of the applicability of the techniques used for elemental analysis and structural characterisation of rock art pigments is provided and how future technological developments will influence the discipline is investigated.

Su, D., McDonagh, A., Qiao, S.-.Z. & Wang, G. 2017, 'High-Capacity Aqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries for Large-Scale Energy Storage.', Adv Mater, vol. 29, no. 1.
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A potassium iron (II) hexacyanoferrate nanocube cathode material is reported, which operates with an aqueous electrolyte to deliver exceptionally high capacities (up to 120 mA h g(-1) ). The cathode material exhibits excellent structural integrity, leading to fast kinetics and highly reversible properties. All of the battery materials are safe, inexpensive, and provide superior high-rate, long-cycle-life electrochemical performance.

Sun, B., Kretschmer, K., Xie, X., Munroe, P., Peng, Z. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries', Advanced Materials.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O2 batteries, Na-O2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO2 cubes in Na-O2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO2. This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O2 batteries.

Szychlinska, M.A., Yamakado, K., Castorina, A. & Ljubisavljevic, M. 2017, 'The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Musculoskeletal Disorders', Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, vol. 2, no. 2.
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Tam, R., Heather, E., Shimmon, R., Lam, B. & McDonagh, A.M. 2017, 'Synthesis and organic impurity profiling of 4-methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride and its precursors.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 272, pp. 184-189.
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4-Methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) was synthesised from star anise and from 4-methoxytoluene and the organic impurity profiles examined. These two starting materials are unrestricted chemicals in many jurisdictions and contain the requisite functional groups and are thus well suited for clandestine manufacturers. trans-Anethole was extracted from star anise and oxidised to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-propanone (PMP2P). 4-Methoxytoluene was oxidised to anisaldehyde, converted to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-nitropropene, and then reduced to PMP2P. The PMP2P obtained by both methods was then converted to PMMA via the Leuckart reaction. 4-Methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (PMMA·HCl) was synthesised from PMMA using hydrogen chloride gas. Both of the examined synthetic methods were found to be feasible routes into PMMA·HCl. The products of each step were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). Impurities were examined in an attempt to identify route specific compounds, which may provide valuable information about the synthetic pathway and precursors.

Taudte, R.V., Roux, C. & Beavis, A. 2017, 'Stability of smokeless powder compounds on collection devices.', Forensic Sci Int, vol. 270, pp. 55-60.
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The current trend towards the implementation of organic gunshot residue (OGSR) analysis into gunshot residue (GSR) investigation protocols typically involves the sequential analysis of inorganic and organic GSR. However, to allow for the consecutive analysis of inorganic and organic GSR, specimens will often be stored for different lengths of time which may result in compounds of interest degrading. In order to optimise storage conditions, it is important to consider compound degradation on collection devices during storage. This study investigated the degradation over time of compounds potentially present in smokeless powders and OGSR on two collection devices, alcohol swabs and GSR stubs. Over a period of 63 days, the highest degree of degradation was found in the first four days. Interestingly, energetic compounds were generally found to be more stable than smokeless powder additives such as stabilisers including diphenylamine and ethyl centralite, which might be problematic considering that these compounds are common targets for OGSR. The findings can provide valuable information to operational forensic laboratories to optimise their storage durations.

Tawfik, S.A., Weston, L., Cui, X.Y., Ringer, S.P. & Stampfl, C. 2017, 'Near-Perfect Spin Filtering and Negative Differential Resistance in an Fe(II)S Complex.', J Phys Chem Lett, pp. 2189-2194.
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Density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function calculations have been used to explore spin-resolved transport through the high-spin state of an iron(II)sulfur single molecular magnet. Our results show that this molecule exhibits near-perfect spin filtering, where the spin-filtering efficiency is above 99%, as well as significant negative differential resistance centered at a low bias voltage. The rise in the spin-up conductivity up to the bias voltage of 0.4 V is dominated by a conductive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and this is accompanied by a slight increase in the magnetic moment of the Fe atom. The subsequent drop in the spin-up conductivity is because the conductive channel moves to the highest occupied molecular orbital, which has a lower conductance contribution. This is accompanied by a drop in the magnetic moment of the Fe atom. These two exceptional properties, and the fact that the onset of negative differential resistance occurs at low bias voltage, suggests the potential of the molecule in nanoelectronic and nanospintronic applications.

Teng, B., Ma, P., Yu, C., Zhang, X., Feng, Q., Wen, L., Li, C., Cheng, Z., Jin, D. & Lin, J. 2017, 'Upconversion nanoparticles loaded with eIF4E siRNA and platinum(IV) prodrug to sensitize platinum based chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer and bioimaging', Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 307-317.
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© The Royal Society of Chemistry.Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E is a valuable marker in cancer prognostics in many human cancers. Silencing eIF4E via delivery of siRNA may be able to overcome chemoresistance. Cisplatin, used as a first-line anti-cancer reagent, has been widely accepted for its great success in clinical applications but it is restricted due to severe side effects such as nephrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, and hearing loss. Moreover, platinum drug resistance is a major obstacle to its use. Platinum(iv) prodrugs (denoted as Pt(iv)) which could be reduced to Pt(ii) by various reductants, including mercaptan and glutathione, within cancer cells have very limited toxicity and might overcome platinum resistance because of their chemical inertness. Moreover, combinational therapies that could sensitize the cancer cells to Pt drugs have received great attention nowadays around the world. Here we report a simple and effective upconversion nanoparticle carrier system loaded with both eIF4E siRNA and Pt(iv). We find that this theranostic system could sensitize laryngeal cancer cells to cisplatin based chemotherapy and allow bioimaging both in vitro and in vivo.

Teng, Z., Lv, H., Wang, C., Xue, H., Pang, H. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Bandgap engineering of ultrathin graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets with controllable oxygenous functionalization', Carbon, vol. 113, pp. 63-75.
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© 2016 Elsevier LtdSeeking effective approaches of bandgap engineering with increased carrier lifetime is critical for designing semiconductor photoelectronic devices and photocatalysis systems. Ultrathin graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets have shown promising prospect in photocatalysis, whereas no preparation strategy for adjusting their bandgap in a wide range has ever been reported. Here in, high yield-rate synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional carbon nitride nanosheets with controllable oxygenous functionalization (the relative mass ratio of oxygen ranges from 0.523% to 19.9%) was firstly achieved by an improved hummer's method combining concentrated sulfuric acid protonation and potassium permanganate assisted exfoliation, and reduction employing hydrazine hydrate. Protonation and intercalation behavior of different acids in the treatment of bulk-g-C3N4 was elaborated at molecule level for the first time. Introduced oxygenous groups are firstly found to have the capability for adjusting the bandgap of graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets from 2.54 eV to 3.07 eV and significantly increased the lifetime of the photo carriers. Our strategy may open a new vista for design and construction of various carbon nitride nanocomposites and give detailed instructions in bandgap engineering of other two-dimensional functional materials for wider applications.

Tisdell, C.C., Liu, Z. & MacNamara, S. 2017, 'Basic existence and uniqueness results for solutions to systems of nonlinear fractional differential equations', Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems Series A: Mathematical Analysis, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 181-193.
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© 2017 Watam Press.We produce new global existence and uniqueness results for solutions to systems of initial value problems involving fractional differential equations. The uniqueness results rely on differential inequalities and a comparison with monotonically converging sequences of functions. The existence results involve fixed-point theorems that rely on a strategic choice of Liapunov function and harness new a priori bounds on solutions. We present an example where the new results yield existence of solutions, but the classical global Cauchy-Lipschitz approach does not directly apply.

Torpy, F., Zavattaro, M. & Irga, P. 2017, 'Green wall technology for the phytoremediation of indoor air: a system for the reduction of high CO2 concentrations', Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 575-585.
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© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media DordrechtAlong with the growing requirement to reduce building carbon emissions, a need has arisen to find energy efficient means of improving the quality of indoor air. Indoor plants have been shown to be capable of reducing most air pollutants; however, practical numbers of potted plants will not have the capacity to control many forms of air pollution, especially CO2. Green walls are space-efficient means of increasing the density of indoor plants. We assessed an active green wall for its potential to reduce CO2 in chambers and a test room. Chlorophytum comosum and Epipremnum aureum were both effective cultivars for CO2 removal at light densities greater than 50 μmol m−2 s−1. Substrate ventilation increased the rate of CO2 draw down from chambers, possibly due to increased leaf gas exchange rates. Green walls were then tested in a 15.65-m3 sealed simulation room, allowing the calculation of clean air delivery rate (CADR) and air changes per hour (ACH) equivalents based on CO2 draw down. Rates of CO2 draw down were modest under typical brightly lit indoor conditions (50 μmol m−2 s−1); however, when light intensity was increased to relatively bright levels, similar to indoor conditions next to a window or with the addition of supplementary lighting (250 μmol m−2 s−1), a 1-m2 green wall was capable of significant quantifiable reductions of high CO2 concentrations within a sealed room environment. Extrapolating these findings indicates that a 5-m2 green wall containing C. comosum could balance the respiratory emissions of a full-time occupant.

Tran, T.T., Choi, S., Scott, J.A., Xu, Z.Q., Zheng, C., Seniutinas, G., Bendavid, A., Fuhrer, M.S., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Oxidized Tungsten Disulfide Multilayers', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 5, no. 5.
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Tran, T.T., Wang, D., Xu, Z.-.Q., Yang, A., Toth, M., Odom, T.W. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Deterministic Coupling of Quantum Emitters in 2D Materials to Plasmonic Nanocavity Arrays.', Nano Lett, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2634-2639.
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Quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for studies of light-matter interaction and next generation, integrated on-chip quantum nanophotonics. However, the realization of integrated nanophotonic systems requires the coupling of emitters to optical cavities and resonators. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid systems in which quantum emitters in 2D hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are deterministically coupled to high-quality plasmonic nanocavity arrays. The plasmonic nanoparticle arrays offer a high-quality, low-loss cavity in the same spectral range as the quantum emitters in hBN. The coupled emitters exhibit enhanced emission rates and reduced fluorescence lifetimes, consistent with Purcell enhancement in the weak coupling regime. Our results provide the foundation for a versatile approach for achieving scalable, integrated hybrid systems based on low-loss plasmonic nanoparticle arrays and 2D materials.

Trevathan-Tackett, S.M., Seymour, J.R., Nielsen, D.A., Macreadie, P.I., Jeffries, T.C., Sanderman, J., Baldock, J., Howes, J.M., Steven, A.D.L. & Ralph, P. 2017, 'Sediment anoxia limits microbial-driven seagrass carbon remineralization under warming conditions.', FEMS Microbiol Ecol.
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Seagrass ecosystems are significant carbon sinks, and their resident microbial communities ultimately determine the quantity and quality of carbon sequestered. However, environmental perturbations have been predicted to affect microbial-driven seagrass decomposition and subsequent carbon sequestration. Utilizing techniques including 16S-rDNA sequencing, solid-state NMR and microsensor profiling, we tested the hypothesis that elevated seawater temperatures and eutrophication enhance the microbial decomposition of seagrass leaf detritus and rhizome/root tissues. Nutrient additions had a negligible effect on seagrass decomposition, indicating an absence of nutrient limitation. Elevated temperatures caused a 19% higher biomass loss for aerobically decaying leaf detritus, coinciding with changes in bacterial community structure and enhanced lignocellulose degradation. Although, community shifts and lignocellulose degradation were also observed for rhizome/root decomposition, anaerobic decay was unaffected by temperature. These observations suggest that oxygen availability constrains the stimulatory effects of temperature increases on bacterial carbon remineralization, possibly through differential temperature effects on bacterial functional groups, including putative aerobic heterotrophs (e.g. Erythrobacteraceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae) and sulfate-reducers (e.g. Desulfobacteraceae). Consequently, under elevated seawater temperatures, carbon accumulation rates may diminish due to higher remineralization rates at the sediment surface. Nonetheless, the anoxic conditions ubiquitous to seagrass sediments can provide a degree of carbon protection under warming seawater temperatures.

Tricoli, A., Nasiri, N. & De, S. 2017, 'Wearable and Miniaturized Sensor Technologies for Personalized and Preventive Medicine', Advanced Functional Materials.
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.The unprecedented medical achievements of the last century have dramatically improved our quality of life. Today, the high cost of many healthcare approaches challenges their long-term financial sustainability and translation to a global scale. The convergence of wearable electronics, miniaturized sensor technologies, and big data analysis provides novel opportunities to improve the quality of healthcare while decreasing costs by the very early stage detection and prevention of fatal and chronic diseases. Here, some exciting achievements, emerging technologies, and standing challenges for the development of non-invasive personalized and preventive medicine devices are discussed. The engineering of wire- and power-less ultra-thin sensors on wearable biocompatible materials that can be placed on the skin, pupil, and teeth is reviewed, focusing on common solutions and current limitations. The integration and development of sophisticated sensing nanomaterials are presented with respect to their performance, showing exemplary implementations for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of biomarkers in complex mixtures such as the human sweat and breath. This review is concluded by summarizing achievements and standing challenges with the aim to provide directions for future research in miniaturized medical sensor technologies.

Triff, K., McLean, M.W., Konganti, K., Pang, J., Callaway, E., Zhou, B., Ivanov, I. & Chapkin, R.S. 2017, 'Assessment of Histone Tail Modifications and Transcriptional Profiling During Colon Cancer Progression Reveals a Global Decrease in H3K4me3 Activity', Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease.
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Trussart, M., Yus, E., Martinez, S., Baù, D., Tahara, Y.O., Pengo, T., Widjaja, M., Kretschmer, S., Swoger, J., Djordjevic, S., Turnbull, L., Whitchurch, C., Miyata, M., Marti-Renom, M.A., Lluch-Senar, M. & Serrano, L. 2017, 'Defined chromosome structure in the genome-reduced bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14665.
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DNA-binding proteins are central regulators of chromosome organization; however, in genome-reduced bacteria their diversity is largely diminished. Whether the chromosomes of such bacteria adopt defined three-dimensional structures remains unexplored. Here we combine Hi-C and super-resolution microscopy to determine the structure of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae chromosome at a 10 kb resolution. We find a defined structure, with a global symmetry between two arms that connect opposite poles, one bearing the chromosomal Ori and the other the midpoint. Analysis of local structures at a 3 kb resolution indicates that the chromosome is organized into domains ranging from 15 to 33 kb. We provide evidence that genes within the same domain tend to be co-regulated, suggesting that chromosome organization influences transcriptional regulation, and that supercoiling regulates local organization. This study extends the current understanding of bacterial genome organization and demonstrates that a defined chromosomal structure is a universal feature of living systems.

Tsz, T.U., Nizalapur, S., Ho, K.K.K., Yee, E., Berry, T., Cranfield, C.G., Willcox, M., Black, D.S. & Kumar, N. 2017, 'Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of N-Sulfonylphenyl glyoxamide-Based Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics as Novel Antimicrobial Agents', Chemistry Select, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 3452-3461.
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Antibiotic resistance is a major global health concern. There is an urgent need for the development of novel antimicrobials. Recently, phenylglyoxamide-based small molecular antimicrobial peptide mimics have been identified as potential new leads to treat bacterial infections. Here, we describe the synthesis of novel phenylglyoxamide derivatives via the ring-opening reaction of N-sulfonylisatins with primary amines, followed by conversion into hydrochloride, quaternary ammonium iodide or gunidinium salts. The antibacterial activity of the compounds against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by in vitro assays. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that 5-bromo-substituent at the phenyl ring, octyl group appended to the ortho sulfonamide group or guanidine hydrochloride salt as the terminal group significantly contributed to potency. The most potent compound, the gunidinium salt 35 d, exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 12 μM and a therapeutic index of 15. It also demonstrated its potential to act as antimicrobial pore-forming agent. Overall, the results identified 35 d as a new lead antimicrobial compound.

Venuleo, M., Raven, J.A. & Giordano, M. 2017, 'Intraspecific chemical communication in microalgae.', New Phytol.
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Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: The relevance of infochemicals in the relationships between organisms is emerging as a fundamental aspect of aquatic ecology. Exchanges of chemical cues are likely to occur not only between organisms of different species, but also between conspecific individuals. Especially intriguing is the investigation of chemical communication in microalgae, because of the relevance of these organisms for global primary production and their key role in trophic webs. Intraspecific communication between algae has been investigated mostly in relation to sexuality and mating. The literature also contains information on other types of intraspecific chemical communication that have not always been explicitly tagged as ways to communicate to conspecifics. However, the proposed role of certain compounds as intraspecific infochemicals appears questionable. In this article, we make use of this plethora of information to describe the various instances of intraspecific chemical communication between conspecific microalgae and to identify the common traits and ecological significance of intraspecific communication. We also discuss the evolutionary implications of intraspecific chemical communication and the mechanisms by which it can be inherited. A special focus is the genetic diversity among conspecific algae, including the possibility that genetic diversity is an absolute requirement for intraspecific chemical communication.

Vodstrcil, L.A., Rupasinghe, T.W.T., Kong, F.Y.S., Tull, D., Worthington, K., Chen, M.Y., Huston, W.M., Timms, P., McConville, M.J., Fairley, C.K., Bradshaw, C.S., Tabrizi, S.N. & Hocking, J.S. 2017, 'Measurement of tissue azithromycin levels in self-collected vaginal swabs post treatment using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 5, p. e0177615.
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BACKGROUND: Azithromycin is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital chlamydia infection although the standard 1gram dose sometimes fails to eradicate the infection (treatment failure). One hypothesis proposed for treatment failure has been insufficient levels of the antibiotic at the site of infection. We developed an assay using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure azithromycin concentration in high-vaginal swabs and monitor how concentration changes over time following routine azithromycin treatment. METHODS: Azithromycin concentrations were measured in two groups of women either within the first 24h of taking a 1g dose (N = 11) or over 9 days (N = 10). Azithromycin concentrations were normalised to an internal standard (leucine enkephalin), and the bulk lipid species phosphatidylcholine [PC(34:1)], using an Agilent 6490 triple quadrupole instrument in positive ionisation mode. The abundances of azithromycin, PC(34:1), and leu-enkephalin were determined by multiple reaction monitoring and absolute levels of azithromycin estimated using standard curves prepared on vaginal specimens. RESULTS: Vaginal azithromycin concentrations of women were rapidly obtained after 5h post-treatment (mean concentration = 1031mcg/mg of lipid, range = 173-2693mcg/mg). In women followed for 9 days, peak concentrations were highest after day 2 (mean concentration = 2206mcg/mg, range = 721-5791mcg/mg), and remained high for at least 9 days with a mean concentration of 384mcg/mg (range = 139-1024mcg/mg) on day 9. CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that a single 1g dose of azithromycin is rapidly absorbed and remains in the vagina at relatively high levels for at least a week, suggesting that poor antibiotic absorption is unlikely to be an explanation for treatment failure.

Wallach, A., Ramp, D. & O'Neill, A.J. 2017, 'Cattle mortality on a predator-friendly station in central Australia', Journal of Mammology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 45-52.
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Large predators are declining worldwide primarily due to hunting and persecution by humans, driven in large part by the livestock industry. Some ranchers are transitioning to “predator-friendly” farming by adopting nonlethal predator deterrents. On very large rangeland properties, such as the vast stations of the Australian arid zone, ending lethal control may in itself reduce livestock losses by enabling the predator’s social structure to stabilize. The dingo (Canis dingo), Australia’s apex predator, is commonly subjected to eradication campaigns to protect livestock. We analyzed causes of cattle (Bos taurus) deaths on Evelyn Downs, a 2,300-km2 predator-friendly station in central Australia, for 2 years after dingo protection was established. Husbandry-related challenges, associated with deteriorating environmental conditions, were the leading causes of deaths of cattle. Predation by dingoes was minor and declined as the indices of dingo abundance stabilized and social stability increased. Shifting from killing predators to improving husbandry standards is likely to improve livestock survival and welfare.

Wang, J., Wang, M., Guan, J., Wang, C. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Construction of a non-enzymatic sensor based on the poly(o-phenylenediamine)/Ag-NPs composites for detecting glucose in blood.', Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, vol. 71, pp. 844-851.
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A non-enzymatic glucose sensor, based on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs)/poly (o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) composites, is developed by the electrochemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine and electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on an indium tin oxide electrode. The Ag-NPs/PoPD composites are characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed glucose sensor demonstrates a wide linear range from 0.15 to 13mmolL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The proposed glucose sensor can be used to detect glucose in blood sample with a satisfactory result. In addition, the proposed sensor presents the advantages, such as facile preparation, low cost, high sensitivity and fast response time. It also exhibits good anti-interference performance and stability.

Wang, J.J.J., Bartlett, M. & Ryan, L. 2017, 'On the impact of nonresponse in logistic regression: application to the 45 and Up study.', BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 80.
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BACKGROUND: In longitudinal studies, nonresponse to follow-up surveys poses a major threat to validity, interpretability and generalisation of results. The problem of nonresponse is further complicated by the possibility that nonresponse may depend on the outcome of interest. We identified sociodemographic, general health and wellbeing characteristics associated with nonresponse to the follow-up questionnaire and assessed the extent and effect of nonresponse on statistical inference in a large-scale population cohort study. METHODS: We obtained the data from the baseline and first wave of the follow-up survey of the 45 and Up Study. Of those who were invited to participate in the follow-up survey, 65.2% responded. Logistic regression model was used to identify baseline characteristics associated with follow-up response. A Bayesian selection model approach with sensitivity analysis was implemented to model nonignorable nonresponse. RESULTS: Characteristics associated with a higher likelihood of responding to the follow-up survey include female gender, age categories 55-74, high educational qualification, married/de facto, worked part or partially or fully retired and higher household income. Parameter estimates and conclusions are generally consistent across different assumptions on the missing data mechanism. However, we observed some sensitivity for variables that are strong predictors for both the outcome and nonresponse. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated in the context of the binary outcome under study, nonresponse did not result in substantial bias and did not alter the interpretation of results in general. Conclusions were still largely robust under nonignorable missing data mechanism. Use of a Bayesian selection model is recommended as a useful strategy for assessing potential sensitivity of results to missing data.

Wangpraseurt, D., Holm, J.B., Larkum, A.W.D., Pernice, M., Ralph, P.J., Suggett, D.J. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'In vivo Microscale Measurements of Light and Photosynthesis during Coral Bleaching: Evidence for the Optical Feedback Loop?', Front Microbiol, vol. 8, p. 59.
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Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of Symbiodinium cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached Pocillopora damicornis corals, Symbiodinium light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of Symbiodinium gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached P. damicornis compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. Symbiodinium light exposure in Favites sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of in vivo light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching.

Wangpraseurt, D., Wentzel, C., Jacques, S.L., Wagner, M. & Kühl, M. 2017, 'In vivo imaging of coral tissue and skeleton with optical coherence tomography.', J R Soc Interface, vol. 14, no. 128.
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Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals enabled the non-invasive visualization of coral tissue layers (endoderm versus ectoderm), skeletal cavities and special structures such as mesenterial filaments and mucus release from intact living corals. Coral host chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein-like pigment granules appeared hyper-reflective to near-infrared radiation allowing for excellent optical contrast in OCT and a rapid characterization of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance. In vivo tissue plasticity could be quantified by the linear contraction velocity of coral tissues upon illumination resulting in dynamic changes in the live coral tissue surface area, which varied by a factor of 2 between the contracted and expanded state of a coral. Our study provides a novel view on the in vivo organization of coral tissue and skeleton and highlights the importance of microstructural dynamics for coral ecophysiology.

Ward, T., Booth, D.J., Fairweather, P.G., Ford, J.R., Jenkins, G.I., Keough, M.J., Prince, J.D. & Smyth, C. 2017, 'Australia's coastal fisheries and farmed seafood: an ecological basis for determining sustainability', Australian Zoologist.
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In response to consumer concerns about the sustainability of Australian-sourced seafood we derive a set of criteria within an explicit decision-process that can be used to determine whether locally farmed and wild-caught Australian seafood products meet standards of ecological sustainability and Ecologically Sustainable Development. These criteria substantially address the ecological deficiencies we identified in other systems commonly used for assessing seafood sustainability. The criteria address the issues that are relevant to local seafood production, and are populated with indicators (metrics) and benchmarks relevant to the Australian context. The indicators establish performance thresholds drawn from public domain data about the products, including observed empirical data and proxies, and include default decisions to be applied in the absence of adequate information. This decision structure is set within a peer-reviewed expert jury decision-making process. The criteria, decision process and decision outcomes from assessment of a number of pilot products were tested in a real seafood market (Melbourne), where we found a high level of producer, reseller and consumer acceptance of the judgements and ratings. The use of ecologically-derived standards results in several outcomes that differ from those of other seafood assessment systems, especially those assessments more focused on production standards, such as government, industry and NGO-supported programs, popularly used in Australia and worldwide. We conclude that despite high levels of uncertainty surrounding many of the population parameters, ecological patterns and processes, empirical cost-effective proxies can be used to reasonably estimate a form of sustainability that matches consumer interests/expectations for production of fresh local seafood. Despite the plethora of industry and government programs, there remains a significant but presently unmet consumer demand for ecologically-based, technically ...

Watanabe, S., Kuzhiumparambil, U., Nguyen, M.A., Cameron, J. & Fu, S. 2017, 'Metabolic Profile of Synthetic Cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, PB-22, XLR-11 and UR-144 by Cunninghamella elegans.', AAPS J.
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The knowledge of metabolic profile of synthetic cannabinoids is important for the detection of drugs in urinalysis due to the typical absence or low abundance of parent cannabinoids in human urine. The fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been reported to be a useful tool for metabolism study and thus applicability to synthetic cannabinoid metabolism was examined. In this study, 8-quinolinyl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (5F-PB-22), 8-quinolinyl 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (PB-22), [1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl](2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (XLR-11) and (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (UR-144) were incubated with C. elegans and the metabolites were identified using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The obtained metabolites were compared with reported human metabolites to assess the suitability of the fungus to extrapolate human metabolism. 5F-PB-22 underwent dihydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, oxidative defluorination, oxidative defluorination to carboxylic acid, ester hydrolysis and glucosidation, alone and/or in combination. The metabolites of PB-22 were generated by hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, trihydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, ketone formation, carboxylation, ester hydrolysis and glucosidation, alone and/or in combination. XLR-11 was transformed through hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, aldehyde formation, carboxylation, oxidative defluorination, oxidative defluorination to carboxylic acid and glucosidation, alone and/or in combination. UR-144 was metabolised by hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, trihydroxylation, aldehyde formation, ketone formation, carboxylation, N-dealkylation and combinations. These findings were consistent with previously reported human metabolism except for the small extent of ester hydrolysis observed and the absence of glucuronidation. Despite the limitations, C. elegans demonstrated the capacity to produce a wide variety of met...

Watanabe, S., Vikingsson, S., Roman, M., Green, H., Kronstrand, R. & Wohlfarth, A. 2017, 'In Vitro and In Vivo Metabolite Identification Studies for the New Synthetic Opioids Acetylfentanyl, Acrylfentanyl, Furanylfentanyl, and 4-Fluoro-Isobutyrylfentanyl', AAPS Journal, pp. 1-21.
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© 2017 American Association of Pharmaceutical ScientistsNew fentanyl analogs have recently emerged as new psychoactive substances and have caused numerous fatalities worldwide. To determine if the new analogs follow the same metabolic pathways elucidated for fentanyl and known fentanyl analogs, we performed in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification studies for acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, 4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl, and furanylfentanyl. All compounds were incubated at 10 μM with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 5 h. For each compound, four or five authentic human urine samples from autopsy cases with and without enzymatic hydrolysis were analyzed. Data acquisition was performed in data-dependent acquisition mode during liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry analyses. Data was analyzed (1) manually based on predicted biotransformations and (2) with MetaSense software using data-driven search algorithms. Acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, and 4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl were predominantly metabolized by N-dealkylation, cleaving off the phenethyl moiety, monohydroxylation at the ethyl linker and piperidine ring, as well as hydroxylation/methoxylation at the phenyl ring. In contrast, furanylfentanyl’s major metabolites were generated by amide hydrolysis and dihydrodiol formation, while the nor-metabolite was minor or not detected in case samples at all. In general, in vitro results matched the in vivo findings well, showing identical biotransformations in each system. Phase II conjugation was observed, particularly for acetylfentanyl. Based on our results, we suggest the following specific and abundant metabolites as analytical targets in urine: a hydroxymethoxy and monohydroxylated metabolite for acetylfentanyl, a monohydroxy and dihydroxy metabolite for acrylfentanyl, two monohydroxy metabolites and a hydroxymethoxy metabolite for 4-fluoro-isobutyrylfentanyl, and a dihydrodiol metabolite and the amide hydrolysis metabolite for furanylfentanyl...

Watson, D.M., Milner, K.V. & Leigh, A. 2017, 'Novel application of species richness estimators to predict the host range of parasites.', Int J Parasitol, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 31-39.
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Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges. We selected three mistletoe species (hemiparasitic plants in the Loranthaceae) to evaluate our approach: a strict host specialist (Amyema lucasii, dependent on a single host species), an intermediate species (Amyema quandang, dependent on hosts in one genus) and a generalist (Lysiana exocarpi, dependent on many genera across multiple families), comparing results from geographically-stratified surveys against known host lists derived from herbarium specimens. The results-based stopping rule (stop sampling bioregion once observed host richness exceeds 80% of the host richness predicted using the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator) worked well for most bioregions studied, being satisfied after three to six sampling plots (each representing 25 host trees) but was unreliable in those bioregions with high host richness or high proportions of rare hosts. Although generating stable predictions of host range with minimal variation among six estimators trialled, distribution-wide estimates fell well short of the number of hosts known from herbarium records. This mismatch, coupled with the discovery of nine previously unrecorded mistletoe-host combinations, further demonstrates the limited ecological relevance of simple host-parasite lists. By collecting estimates of host range of constrained completeness, our approach maximises sampling efficiency while generating comparable estimates of the number of primar...

Wei, Z., Niu, Q., Zhang, F., Xiao, K., Liu, L., Wang, Y., Jia, J., Cao, J., Fu, S. & Yun, K. 2017, 'The effect of sodium fluoride, formaldehyde, and storage temperature on the stability of methamidophos in post-mortem blood and liver.', Int J Legal Med, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 667-675.
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Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos makes up a significant portion of forensic identification cases in China. Stability of methamidophos during specimen storage remains largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the long-term stability of methamidophos in postmortem specimens. Three experimental dogs after oral administration of methamidophos were sacrificed, and blood and liver specimens were collected and stored at various conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to measure the methamidophos concentrations after 0, 4, 7, 12, 16, 60, and 180 days of storage. The results showed that methamidophos was not stable and followed first-order degradation kinetics at all storage conditions investigated. The degradation half-life in blood was 12.2, 16.9, 11.0, and 1.0 days when the samples were stored at room temperature (RT, 20 °C), 4 °C, -20 °C, and at RT with 1 % sodium fluoride (NaF), respectively. The degradation half-life in liver was 4.1, 9.8, 17.8, and 2.0 days when the samples were stored at RT, 4 °C, -20 °C, and at RT with liver fixed in 10 % formaldehyde solution, respectively. These findings are significant in guiding sample storage and data interpretation. Specimens containing methamidophos should be stored at -20 °C and analyzed as early as possible. Addition of NaF in blood and fixation of liver in formaldehyde should be avoided due to the accelerated degradation of methamidophos under these conditions. The preliminary study suggests that it might be possible to calculate methamidophos concentration at the time of death based on its first-order degradation kinetic under specific storage conditions.

Wells, M.L., Potin, P., Craigie, J.S., Raven, J.A., Merchant, S.S., Helliwell, K.E., Smith, A.G., Camire, M.E. & Brawley, S.H. 2017, 'Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding', Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 949-982.
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© 2016 The Author(s)Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches.

Weynberg, K.D., Neave, M., Clode, P.L., Voolstra, C.R., Brownlee, C., Laffy, P., Webster, N.S., Levin, R.A., Wood-Charlson, E.M. & van Oppen, M.J.H. 2017, 'Prevalent and persistent viral infection in cultures of the coral algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium', Coral Reefs, pp. 1-12.
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© 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergReef corals are under threat from bleaching and disease outbreaks that target both the host animal and the algal symbionts within the coral holobiont. A viral origin for coral bleaching has been hypothesized, but direct evidence has remained elusive. Using a multifaceted approach incorporating flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, DNA and RNA virome sequencing, we show that type C1 Symbiodinium cultures host a nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA virus (NCLDV) related to Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae, a novel filamentous virus of unknown phylogenetic affiliation, and a single-stranded RNA virus related to retroviruses. We discuss implications of these findings for laboratory-based experiments using Symbiodinium cultures.

Whyte, T., Gibson, T., Eager, D. & Milthorpe, B. 2017, 'Full-face motorcycle helmet protection from facial impacts: an investigation using THOR dummy impacts and SIMon finite element head model.', Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention.
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Facial impacts are both common and injurious for helmeted motorcyclists who crash; however, there is no facial impact requirement in major motorcycle helmet standards. This study examined the effect of full-face motorcycle helmet protection on brain injury risk in facial impacts using a test device with biofidelic head and neck motion. A preliminary investigation of energy absorbing foam in the helmet chin bar was carried out.Flat-faced rigid pendulum impacts were performed on a THOR dummy in an unprotected (no helmet) and protected mode (two full-face helmet conditions). The head responses of the dummy were input into the simulated injury monitor finite element head model to analyse the risk of brain injury in these impacts.Full-face helmet protection provides a significant reduction in brain injury risk in facial impacts at increasing impact speeds compared with an unprotected rider (p<0.05). The effect of low-density crushable foam added to the chin bar could not be distinguished from an unpadded chin bar impact.Despite the lack of an impact attenuation requirement for the face, full-face helmets do provide a reduction in head injury risk to the wearer in facial impacts. The specific helmet design factors that influence head injury risk in facial impacts need further investigation if improved protection for helmeted motorcyclists is to be achieved.

Wilkinson, A.D., Collier, C.J., Flores, F., Langlois, L., Ralph, P.J. & Negri, A.P. 2017, 'Combined effects of temperature and the herbicide diuron on Photosystem II activity of the tropical seagrass Halophila ovalis.', Sci Rep, vol. 7, p. 45404.
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Tropical seagrasses are at their highest risk of exposure to photosystem II (PSII) herbicides when elevated rainfall and runoff from farms transports these toxicants into coastal habitats during summer, coinciding with periods of elevated temperature. PSII herbicides, such as diuron, can increase the sensitivity of corals to thermal stress, but little is known of the potential for herbicides to impact the thermal optima of tropical seagrass. Here we employed a well-plate approach to experimentally assess the effects of diuron on the photosynthetic performance of Halophila ovalis leaves across a 25 °C temperature range (36 combinations of these stressors across 15-40 °C). The thermal optimum for photosynthetic efficiency (▵) in H. ovalis was 31 °C while lower and higher temperatures reduced ▵ as did all elevated concentrations of diuron. There were significant interactions between the effects of temperature and diuron, with a majority of the combined stresses causing sub-additive (antagonistic) effects. However, both stressors caused negative responses and the sum of the responses was greater than that caused by temperature or diuron alone. These results indicate that improving water quality (reducing herbicide in runoff) is likely to maximise seagrass health during extreme temperature events that will become more common as the climate changes.

Williams, S.G., Bhadbhade, M., Bishop, R. & Ung, A.T. 2017, 'An alkaloid-like 3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-ene library obtained from the bridged Ritter reaction', Tetrahedron, pp. 116-128.
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Williams, T.J., Liao, Y., Ye, J., Kuchel, R.P., Poljak, A., Raftery, M.J. & Cavicchioli, R. 2017, 'Cold adaptation of the Antarctic haloarchaea Halohasta litchfieldiae and Halorubrum lacusprofundi', Environmental Microbiology.
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Windley, M.J., Vetter, I., Lewis, R.J. & Nicholson, G.M. 2017, 'Lethal effects of an insecticidal spider venom peptide involve positive allosteric modulation of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.', Neuropharmacology.
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κ-Hexatoxins (κ-HXTXs) are a family of excitotoxic insect-selective neurotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders that are lethal to a wide range of insects, but display no toxicity towards vertebrates. The prototypic κ-HXTX-Hv1c selectively blocks native and expressed cockroach large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa or KCa1.1) channels, but not their mammalian orthologs. Despite this potent and selective action on insect KCa1.1 channels, we found that the classical KCa1.1 blockers paxilline, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, which all block insect KCa1.1 channels, are not lethal in crickets. We therefore used whole-cell patch-clamp analysis of cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons to study the effects of κ-HXTX-Hv1c on sodium-activated (KNa), delayed-rectifier (KDR) and 'A-type' transient (KA) K(+) channels. 1 μM κ-HXTX-Hv1c failed to significantly inhibit cockroach KNa and KDR channels, but did cause a 30 ± 7% saturating inhibition of KA channel currents, possibly via a Kv4 (Shal-like) action. However, this modest action at such a high concentration of κ-HXTX-Hv1c would indicate a different lethal target. Accordingly, we assessed the actions of κ-HXTX-Hv1c on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in cockroach DUM neurons. We found that κ-HXTX-Hv1c failed to produce any major effects on GABAA or glutamate-Cl receptors but dramatically slowed nicotine-evoked ACh receptor (nAChR) current decay and reversed nAChR desensitization. These actions occurred without any alterations to nAChR current amplitude or the nicotine concentration-response curve, and are consistent with a positive allosteric modulation of nAChRs. κ-HXTX-Hv1c therefore represents the first venom peptide that selectively modulates insect nAChRs with a mode of action similar to the excitotoxic insecticide spinosyn A.

Wolff, C., Stiller, B., Eggleton, B.J., Steel, M.J. & Poulton, C.G. 2017, 'Cascaded forward Brillouin scattering to all Stokes orders', New Journal of Physics, vol. 19, no. 2.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.Inelastic scattering processes such as Brillouin scattering can often function in cascaded regimes and this is likely to occur in certain integrated opto-acoustic devices. We develop a Hamiltonian formalism for cascaded Brillouin scattering valid for both quantum and classical regimes. By regarding Brillouin scattering as the interaction of a single acoustic envelope and a single optical envelope that covers all Stokes and anti-Stokes orders, we obtain a compact model that is well suited for numerical implementation, extension to include other optical nonlinearities or short pulses, and application in the quantum-optics domain. We then theoretically analyze intra-mode forward Brillouin scattering (FBS) for arbitrary waveguides with and without optical dispersion. In the absence of optical dispersion, we find an exact analytical solution. With a perturbative approach, we furthermore solve the case of weak optical dispersion. Our work leads to several key results on intra-mode FBS. For negligible dispersion, we show that cascaded intra-mode FBS results in a pure phase modulation and discuss how this necessitates specific experimental methods for the observation of fiber-based and integrated FBS. Further, we discuss how the descriptions that have been established in these two classes of waveguides connect to each other and to the broader context of cavity opto-mechanics and Raman scattering. Finally, we draw an unexpected striking similarity between FBS and discrete diffraction phenomena in waveguide arrays, which makes FBS an interesting candidate for future research in quantum-optics.

Wong, W.S.Y., Liu, G., Nasiri, N., Hao, C., Wang, Z. & Tricoli, A. 2017, 'Omnidirectional Self-Assembly of Transparent Superoleophobic Nanotextures.', ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 587-596.
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Engineering surface textures that are highly transparent and repel water, oil, and other low surface energy fluids can transform our interaction with wet environments. Despite extensive progress, current top-down methods are based on directional line-of-sight fabrication mechanisms that are limited by scale and cannot be applied to highly uneven, curved, and enclosed surfaces, while bottom-up techniques often suffer from poor optical transparency. Here, we present an approach that enables the rapid, omnidirectional synthesis of flexible and up to 99.97% transparent superhydrophobic and -oleophobic textures on many variable surface types. These features are obtained by the spontaneous formation of a multi re-entrant morphology during the controlled self-assembly of nanoparticle aerosols. We also develop a mathematical model to explain and control the self-assembly dynamics, providing important insights for the rational engineering of functional materials. We envision that our findings represent a significant advance in imparting superoleophobicity and superamphiphobicity to a so-far inapplicable family of materials and geometries for multifunctional applications.

Xie, F., Zhang, L., Su, D., Jaroniec, M. & Qiao, S.-.Z. 2017, 'Na2 Ti3 O7 @N-Doped Carbon Hollow Spheres for Sodium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Rate Performance.', Adv Mater.
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Uniform Na2 Ti3 O7 hollow spheres assembled from N-doped carbon-coated ultrathin nanosheets are synthesized. A unique multilayer structure of nanosheets is presumed to significantly reduce energy consumption during the diffusion process of sodium ions, while the carbon-coated structure can increase the overall conductivity. The as-prepared sample used as an anode in sodium-ion batteries exhibits the best rate performance ever reported for Na2 Ti3 O7 , delivering more than 60 mAh g(-1) after 1000 continuous cycles at the high rate of 50 C, which was achieved due to its unique structure.

Xie, X., Wang, S., Kretschmer, K. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Two-dimensional layered compound based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.', J Colloid Interface Sci, vol. 499, pp. 17-32.
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Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, have been considered as promising energy conversion and storage devices with applications ranging from small portable electronics, medium-sized power sources for electromobility, to large-scale grid energy storage systems. Wide implementations of these rechargeable batteries require the development of electrode materials that can provide higher storage capacities than current commercial battery systems. Within this greater context, this review will present recent progresses in the development of the 2D material as anode materials for battery applications represented by studies conducted on graphene, molybdenum disulfide, and MXenes. This review will also discuss remaining challenges and future perspectives of 2D materials in regards to a full utilization of their unique properties and interactions with other battery components.

Xing, H., Liu, D.L., Li, G., Wang, B., Anwar, M.R., Crean, J., Lines-Kelly, R. & Yu, Q. 2017, 'Incorporating grain legumes in cereal-based cropping systems to improve profitability in southern New South Wales, Australia', Agricultural Systems, vol. 154, pp. 112-123.
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© 2017 Elsevier LtdGrain legumes, such as lupins and field peas, are one of key rotation components in Australian agricultural systems, supplying nitrogen (N) to following crops, and potentially increasing farm profitability. In this study, we used a modelling approach to investigate the profitability of incorporating field pea (Pisum sativum) and narrowleaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in cereal-based (wheat/canola) cropping systems in southern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We calibrated and validated the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) with three-year's experimental data to predict yields of field pea and lupin, and N contribution of grain legumes in cereal-based (wheat/canola) crop rotations. We conducted a gross margin analysis to analyse the profitability of adding grain legumes into cereal-based crop rotations at both crop and rotation levels. The simulated results showed that field pea and lupin could contribute 30–65 kg N ha− 1 to the next crop and 60–110 kg N ha− 1 to subsequent crops (wheat/canola) for two years, corresponding to 30–55% and 60–86% of net N inputs of legume-fixed N, respectively. This greatly increased the yields and profitability of wheat/canola in the following two years. Including grain legumes in cereal-based crop rotations was more profitable than non-legume crop rotations, even though the grain legumes were less profitable than wheat/canola in the year of growing. However, N and economic benefits would be reduced to zero if N fertilizer applied to wheat/canola was over the optimal level, i.e. 100–125 kg N ha− 1 in terms of N benefit, or 75 kg N ha− 1 for farm-economic profit. In general, incorporation of grain legumes into cereal-based crop rotations offers an obvious N benefit to subsequent crops and provides an economic benefit for farmers (reduced N applications). This suggests that the contribution of grain legumes to cereal-based cropping systems should be assessed as part of a rotation rather than as a ...

Yu, B., Min, H., Wu, H., Wang, S., Ding, Y. & Wang, G. 2017, 'Production of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids and their performance as oxygen reduction reaction catalysts', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 52, pp. 3188-3198.
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© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New YorkA series of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids with different weight ratios of MoS2 and CoSe2 were prepared by two different hydrothermal methods. The synthesized MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical activity and durability of MoS2/CoSe2 hybrids towards oxygen reduction reaction were studied in 0.5 M H2SO4 using rotating disk electrode. The results showed that all of them demonstrated catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction. Furthermore, loading 30% MoS2 on CoSe2 by the first method (CoSe2-30a) displayed the best electrocatalytic activity. The onset potential (0.741 V vs. RHE) and half-wave potential (0.570 V vs. RHE) were higher than those of loading 20% MoS2 on CoSe2 by the second method (CoSe2-20b, 0.737 and 0.565 V vs. RHE), CoSe2 (0.708 and 0.560 V vs. RHE), and MoS2 (0.698 and 0.429 V vs. RHE). Most important, CoSe2-30a showed superior stability and better methanol tolerance than CoSe2-20b, CoSe2, and MoS2.

Yu, W., Bajorek, J., Jayade, S., Miele, A., Mirza, J., Rogado, S., Sundararajan, A., Faig, J., Ferrage, L. & Uhrich, K.E. 2017, 'Salicylic acid (SA)-eluting bone regeneration scaffolds with interconnected porosity and local and sustained SA release.', J Biomed Mater Res A, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 311-318.
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In previous work, we observed that localized and sustained delivery of an anti-inflammatory drug, salicylic acid (SA), via a SA-based polymer (SAP) powder significantly enhanced diabetic bone regeneration through long-term mitigation of local inflammation. In this study, SAP was formulated into uniform microspheres and then sintered into a scaffold with an interconnected porous structure and modulus suitable for bone regeneration. The SAP scaffolds have ∼45% SA loading, which is the highest among drug-eluting bone regeneration scaffolds to-date. In addition, the scaffold provides localized, controlled and sustained SA release that has been proven to enhance diabetic bone regeneration. With the combination of physical (interconnected porosity) and chemical therapeutic features (high drug loading and sustained release), the novel SAP scaffolds offer unique therapeutic advantages and are promising diabetic bone regeneration candidates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 311-318, 2017.

Zachreson, C., Wolff, C., Whitchurch, C.B. & Toth, M. 2017, 'Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm.', Phys Rev E, vol. 95, no. 1-1, p. 012408.
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Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

Zaslawski, C.J. 2017, 'Ginseng for erectile dysfunction (Protocol)', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 5.
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Zhang, J., Sun, B., McDonagh, A.M., Zhao, Y., Kretschmer, K., Guo, X. & Wang, G. 2017, 'A multi-functional gel co-polymer bridging liquid electrolyte and solid cathode nanoparticles: An efficient route to Li–O2 batteries with improved performance', Energy Storage Materials, vol. 7, pp. 1-7.
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© 2016Lithium-oxygen (Li–O2) batteries have the highest theoretical energy density amongst all rechargeable batteries and have attracted significant attention. However, large over-potentials originating from sluggish reaction kinetics often lead to low round-trip energy efficiency and short cycle life. We report here a novel multi-functional gel co-polymer that efficiently enhances the discharge and charge performances in Li–O2 batteries by intimately connecting the liquid electrolyte and solid cathode nanoparticles. On one hand, the co-polymer material, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(TMA-MMA)), functions as a binder during the fabrication of the cathode and forms a gel polymer membrane to retain liquid electrolyte and to increase ionic conductivity. On the other hand, the TMA units, containing N–O radical groups that catalyse Li2O2 formation and decomposition during charge and discharge cycles, are distributed throughout the polymer membrane. This allows more effective formation and decomposition of Li2O2 than surface bound catalytic units. The combination of gelable MMA and catalytic TMA moieties enhances the interface between liquid electrolyte and solid cathode by functioning as a medium both to transport Li+ (enhancing discharge process) and to carry electrons (reducing charge over-potential). Consequently, the optimized P(TMA-MMA) co-polymers provide exceptional electrochemical performance in Li–O2 batteries.

Zheng, M., Reimers, J.R., Waller, M.P. & Afonine, P.V. 2017, 'Q', Acta Crystallographica Section D: Structural Biology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 45-52.
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© International Union of Crystallography, 2017.Quantum-based refinement utilizes chemical restraints derived from quantum-chemical methods instead of the standard parameterized library-based restraints used in refinement packages. The motivation is twofold: firstly, the restraints have the potential to be more accurate, and secondly, the restraints can be more easily applied to new molecules such as drugs or novel cofactors. Here, a new project called Q|R aimed at developing quantum-based refinement of biomacromolecules is under active development by researchers at Shanghai University together with PHENIX developers. The central focus of this long-term project is to develop software that is built on top of open-source components. A development version of Q|R was used to compare quantum-based refinements with standard refinement using a small model system.Quantum-based refinement software is being developed to refine biomacromolecules against crystallographic or cryo-electron microscopy data.

Zhou, Y., Rasmita, A., Li, K., Xiong, Q., Aharonovich, I. & Gao, W.-.B. 2017, 'Coherent control of a strongly driven silicon vacancy optical transition in diamond.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14451.
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The ability to prepare, optically read out and coherently control single quantum states is a key requirement for quantum information processing. Optically active solid-state emitters have emerged as promising candidates with their prospects for on-chip integration as quantum nodes and sources of coherent photons connecting these nodes. Under a strongly driving resonant laser field, such quantum emitters can exhibit quantum behaviour such as Autler-Townes splitting and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Here we demonstrate coherent control of a strongly driven optical transition in silicon vacancy centre in diamond. Rapid optical detection of photons enabled the observation of time-resolved coherent Rabi oscillations and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Detection with a probing transition further confirmed Autler-Townes splitting generated by a strong laser field. The coherence time of the emitted photons is comparable to its lifetime and robust under a very strong driving field, which is promising for the generation of indistinguishable photons.

Zhu, A., Greaves, I.K., Dennis, E.S. & Peacock, W.J. 2017, 'Genome-wide analyses of four major histone modifications in Arabidopsis hybrids at the germinating seed stage.', BMC Genomics, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 137.
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BACKGROUND: Hybrid vigour (heterosis) has been used for decades in cropping agriculture, especially in the production of maize and rice, because hybrid varieties exceed their parents in plant biomass and seed yield. The molecular basis of hybrid vigour is not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that epigenetic systems could play a role in heterosis. RESULTS: In this project, we investigated genome-wide patterns of four histone modifications in Arabidopsis hybrids in germinating seeds. We found that although hybrids have similar histone modification patterns to the parents in most regions of the genome, they have altered patterns at specific loci. A small subset of genes show changes in histone modifications in the hybrids that correlate with changes in gene expression. Our results also show that genome-wide patterns of histone modifications in geminating seeds parallel those at later developmental stages of seedlings. CONCLUSION: Ler/C24 hybrids showed similar genome-wide patterns of histone modifications as the parents at an early germination stage. However, a small subset of genes, such as FLC, showed correlated changes in histone modification and in gene expression in the hybrids. The altered patterns of histone modifications for those genes in hybrids could be related to some heterotic traits in Arabidopsis, such as flowering time, and could play a role in hybrid vigour establishment.

Zhu, L., Khachadorian, S., Hoffmann, A., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Chemical, vibrational and optical signatures of nitrogen in ZnO nanowires', Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing.
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.ZnO nanowires with various concentrations of nitrogen molecules have been fabricated by remote plasma annealing. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveals that nitrogen exists mainly in two chemical states: atomic nitrogen substituting oxygen (NO) and molecular nitrogen (N2) weakly bound to the ZnO lattice; the latter state increases substantially with prolonged plasma time. Cathodoluminescence microanalysis of individual nanowires reveals a broad emission band at 3.24eV at 10K, attributable to the recombination of a shallow donor and a N2 acceptor state. The Raman modes at 547 and 580cm-1 from the N-doped nanowires are found to rise in proportion to the N2 concentration, indicating they are related to N2 molecules or defects caused by the incorporation of N2 in the nanowires.

Zhu, L., Lem, L.L.C., Nguyen, T.P., Fair, K., Ali, S., Ford, M.J., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2017, 'Indirect excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 11.
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.We present a correlative experimental and theoretical study of bound excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO, with a particular focus on the dynamics of their metastable state confined in the sub-surface region, using a combination of surface-sensitive characterisation techniques and density functional theory calculations. A metastable sub-surface emission at 3.31 eV found in H-doped ZnO is attributed to the radiative recombination of indirect excitons localised at basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) where the excitonic transition involves electrons bound to bond-centre hydrogen donors in the potential well of the BSF. Additionally, our work shows the electrical transport of ZnO Schottky junctions is dominated by electrons confined at BSFs in the near-surface region.

Zolfaghar, S., Villalobos-Vega, R., Zeppel, M., Cleverly, J., Rumman, R., Hingee, M., Boulain, N., Li, Z., Eamus, D. & Tognetti, R. 2017, 'Transpiration of Eucalyptus woodlands across a natural gradient of depth-to-groundwater', Tree Physiology.
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Zou, R., Huang, J., Shi, J., Huang, L., Zhang, X., Wong, K.L., Zhang, H., Jin, D., Wang, J. & Su, Q. 2017, 'Silica shell-assisted synthetic route for mono-disperse persistent nanophosphors with enhanced in vivo recharged near-infrared persistent luminescence', Nano Research, pp. 1-13.
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© 2016 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergNear-infrared (NIR) persistent-luminescence nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of background-free contrast agents that are promising for in vivo imaging. The next key roadblock is to establish a robust and controllable method for synthesizing monodisperse nanoparticles with high luminescence brightness and long persistent duration. Herein, we report a synthesis strategy involving the coating/etching of the SiO2 shell to obtain a new class of small NIR highly persistent luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+,Sn4+ (ZGOCS) nanoparticles. The optimized ZGOCS nanoparticles have an excellent size distribution of ~15 nm without any agglomeration and an NIR persistent luminescence that is enhanced by a factor of 13.5, owing to the key role of the SiO2 shell in preventing nanoparticle agglomeration after annealing. The ZGOCS nanoparticles have a signal-to-noise ratio ~3 times higher than that of previously reported ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ (ZGC-1) nanoparticles as an NIR persistent-luminescence probe for in vivo bioimaging. Moreover, the persistent-luminescence signal from the ZGOCS nanoparticles can be repeatedly re-charged in situ with external excitation by a white lightemitting diode; thus, the nanoparticles are suitable for long-term in vivo imaging applications. Our study suggests an improved strategy for fabricating novel high-performance optical nanoparticles with good biocompatibility.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Conferences

Irga, P.J. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'Can urban forestry really reduce air pollution? A field study on a city scale.', Green Infrastructure: Nature Based Solutions for Sustainable and Resilient Cities, Orvieto, Italy.
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Irga, P.J. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'Reducing indoor air pollutants through horticultural biotechnology.', Green Infrastructure: Nature Based Solutions For Sustainable and Resilient Cities, Orvieto, Italy.
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Kota, A., Xenaki, D., Deshpande, D., Oliver, B. & Sharma, P. 2017, 'ASK1 Inhibition Prevented Mitogen-Induced Human Airway Smooth Muscle Growth in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease', American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, American Thoracic Society.

Kusrini, E., Prassanti, R., Nurjaya, D.M. & Gunawan, C. 2017, 'Multifunctional microsphere formulation of fluorescent magnetic properties for drug delivery system', AIP Conference Proceedings.
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© 2017 Author(s).The microsphere formulations of Chit/TPP/Sm/Fe3O4/Rn were prepared by an ionic gelation technique, where Chit=chitosan, TPP=tripolyphosphate, Sm=samarium and Rn=ranitidine. Optimum of microsphere formulation exhibit magnetic and fluorescent properties with adsorption efficiency of ∼92% was obtained for Chit/TPP/Sm/Fe3O4/Rn with ratio 400:500:50:1:20. Fluorescence intensity of microsphere formulations increased with the cumulative amount release of ranitidine, so that the changing of fluorescence intensity at wavelength of 590 nm referring to the Sm3+ ion could be used as indicator in DDS. With the demonstration of sustained release from microsphere formulation, it allows to investigate the applications to other drugs.

McAlinden, K., Chan, Y., Kota, A., Chen, H., Oliver, B. & Sharma, P. 2017, 'Maternal E-cigarette Vaping Enhances Development of Allergic Asthma In the Offspring', American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, American Thoracic Society.
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Rationale: E-cigarettes (eCig) are being considered as an alternative to quit cigarette smoking (CS) while their long-term safety and effect on lung patho-physiology are not known. Maternal eCig-vaping may be considered as a safer CS-replacement during pregnancy. Thus the effect of maternal eCig vaping needs further assessment, particularly the effect this has on offspring and development of allergic asthma later in life. Combining mouse models of maternal vaping and allergic asthma and human airway smooth muscle cells (ASM) in vitro we tested whether maternal eCig vaping enhances features of allergic asthma in the offspring. Methods: Female BALB/c mice were vaped with either eCig vapour (± nicotine) or CS+eCig (+nicotine) or room air (control group). The eCig vaping was started prior to mating and continued during gestation and lactation while CS-exposure was used prior to mating and replaced with eCig during gestation and mating. The female offspring from these mothers were subjected to an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model. 24 hours after the last aerosolized OVA or saline challenge, lung function measurements were performed using flexiVent (Scireq, Canada) to increasing concentration of methacholine (MCh). Airway inflammation was assessed by counting total immune cell influx in BAL fluid. Human ASM cells were treated with varying concentrations of eCig liquid condensate and key parameters of mitochondrial function were measured with a Seahorse XF analyzer. Results: Repeated allergen-exposure induced Th2-driven inflammation in OVA-exposed mice, characterized by massive influx of leukocytes predominantly eosinophils (OVA: 3x105±8.3x104 vs Saline: 1.1x102±1x102) and to some extent neutrophils (OVA: 1.3x104±4.4x103 vs Saline: 1.3x102±1.1x102) into the airways. The effect of allergen on airway eosinophilia was significantly enhanced in the offsprings from eCig OVA (+Nic)-exposed mothers when compared with eCig OVA (-Nic) or CS+eCig animals. OVA-exposed ...

Paull, N.J., Irga, P.J. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, 'Active green wall technology for the phytoremediation of indoor air pollutants', Green Infrastructure: Nature Based Solutions for Sustainable and Resilient Cities.
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Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Student’s Experience in Online Intensive Mode (IM) Units at The Faculty of Business and Economics.', https://iated.org/inted/, The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017,, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain).
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The Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE) at Macquarie University conducted a pilot to explore online Intensive Mode (IM) as a delivery option. A project team was assembled to carry out the pilot. The aims were to support academics to introduce pedagogical innovation, address internationalisation, and create new opportunities for students that cannot enrol in full session units due to competing schedules. Additionally, IM units would give students a chance to fast-track their degree and increase flexibility. This paper is a discussion of students’ experience undertaking online IM units that will inform on good learning designs.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'Surfing the Waves of Self-Regulated Learning to Evaluate Flipped Classrooms (FC)', The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED, Valencia (Spain).
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Flipped classrooms (FC) are becoming a standard instructional strategy in higher education in the last five years. Although the research in the field is increasing, it is still considered in its infancy and with the lack of pedagogical integrity. Most of the studies up to date do not count on solid theoretical foundations and assumed students would buy-in this way of instruction. There are limited frameworks available to guide FC implementations, and most of them consider three stages: before, during and after the classroom. A research gap has been identified; there is not any model available to evaluate learning in FC. This paper offers an evidence-based framework to measure self-regulation learning during FC. The model links goal setting, environmental structuring and time management before the classroom. During the classroom, task strategies and help-seeking and self-evaluation and self-consequences after the classroom. The aim is to gain an in-depth understanding on how students self-regulate their learning in FC interventions. Implications for the implementation of FC are considered.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L. 2017, 'The Nightmare is Over: A Simple Guide to Design Effective Subject Outlines', The EdMedia World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, EdMedia, Washington, DC, USA.
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Higher education institutions worldwide are continuously implementing evidence-based educational approaches and quality control of subjects, courses, and programs. In this regard, a subject outline is a learning design document and an agreement between academics and students. It needs to address the subject structure, what are the requirements, assessment tasks, expectations and so on. A useful subject outline requires sound pedagogical and instructional approaches and to be clearly written, succinct, and conversational when possible. If information is missing or is not easily accessible, it will cause student confusion, unnecessary email traffic and potentially, loss of interest in the subject. Anecdotal reports indicate that students do not engage in the reading subject outlines and their attitude towards the usefulness of this document is not well-known in the literature. This paper covers five sections commonly used in subject outlines in Australian universities. Each of them presents evidence-based practices to help the design process considering educational taxonomies, constructive alignment, principles of active learning, authentic assessments and levels of feedback for learners. The aim of this paper is to guide early career academics new to teaching in higher education but also traditional academics moving towards a blended learning approach.

Reyna Zeballos, J.L., horgan, F., ramp, D. & meier, P. 2017, 'Using Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) as an Assessment Tool in Geological Sciences.', The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain).
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This study explores learner-generated digital media (LGDM) as an assessment tool in Geological Sciences. The aim was to engage students with the geology subject further and to develop their digital media literacies. For this purpose, a cohort of 97 students from the undergraduate Geological Processes subject (Autumn 2016) at the University of Technology Sydney, were randomly allocated to groups of 2-5 students. The students were asked to produce a five-minute digital media presentation on a chosen study topic. A lecture and workshop on digital media principles were delivered to prepare the students for the task early in the semester. Support and feedback were provided across the entire semester by the lecturer and digital media tutor through computer practicals and preparatory assignments. Group contribution was monitored using the SPARKPlus application. An online questionnaire was used at the end of the semester to gauge students’ attitude towards LGDM. The survey assessed demographics, digital media support, attitudes toward the assignment, and the contribution of LGDM to skills development. Methodological triangulation was used with data sets from the questionnaire, group work and marks obtained. Our preliminary results indicate that students had a positive attitude towards LGDM as an assessment tool and that the assessment provided a novel opportunity for students to apply attributes such as ‘creativity’ to their learning experience of geology. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

Teherani, F., Rogers, D.J., Sandana, V.E., Bove, P., Ton-That, C., Lem, L., Chikoidze, E., Neumann-Spallart, M., Dumont, Y., Huynh, T., Phillips, M.R., Chapon, P., McClintock, R. & Razeghi, M. 2017, 'A Study into the Impact of sapphire substrate orientation on the properties of nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition', Proc. SPIE 10105, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VIII, SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco.
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Wilkinson, S.J., Stoller, P., Ralph, P., Hamdorf, B., Navarro Catana, L. & Santana Kuzava, G. 2016, 'Exploring the feasibility of algae building technology in NSW', SBE16 International High Performance Built Environments Conference, Sydney NSW.
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For some time, Biochemists have been exploring the potential to produce biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy. Biofuels can be derived from crops such as corn, soybean and sugarcane however these crops can contribute to water scarcity and deforestation. Furthermore, large areas of land are used that could otherwise be used for food production. Another possibility is to use microalgae, which does not have the disadvantages associated with crop-based biofuels. Depending on conditions, microalgae can produce bio compounds that are converted into biofuels. The built environment is responsible for around 40 to 50% of total greenhouse gas emissions through fossil fuel consumption. Not only is it necessary to design and to retrofit our built environment to be more energy efficient, but it is also necessary to consider alternative fuel sources. To date, this has mostly focused on solar, wind and geothermal sources, however one residential building in Hamburg Germany has adopted algae building technology in the form of façade panels which act as a source of energy for heating the apartments and for hot water. The climate in northern Germany is very different to Australia, and the question arises; what is the feasibility to adopt algae building technology in New South Wales? There are issues around the physical and technical aspects of the technology, the social and environmental aspects, the regulatory and planning aspects, as well as the economic considerations. This paper reports on a study with key stakeholders in New South Wales to explore barriers and drivers associated with the adoption of algae building technology.

Reports

Irga, P.J., Paull, N.J., Abdo, P., Huynh, B.P., Avakian, V., Nguyen, T. & Torpy, F.R. 2017, DEVELOPING THE JUNGLEFY BREATHING WALL FOR ENHANCED INDOOR AIR QUALITY REMEDIATION.
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KEY RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Operational parameters of the Junglefy Breathing Wall system were determined and characterised. Data collected included system water loss, pressure drop, air distribution and the system’s effect on ambient temperature and relative humidity. Clean air delivery rates were calculated utilising the removal efficiencies. The system produced 25.86¬–28.70 m3/h per module, depending on particle size and airflow rate. A typical Breathing Wall of 10 m2, utilising 40 modules would thus produce up to 12,700 m3/h of particle-free air. Tests were conducted to identify the most appropriate plant species for survival in high pollution environments. All of the plant species tested, which are currently used in commercial applications of the Breathing Wall, recorded moderate air pollutant tolerance, and thus the system using the current plant species could possibly be used in industrial applications. Pollutant effect on air filled porosity of the substrate was negligible, even under extremely high pollutant loads. Air quality tests were conducted at the Lend Lease Head Office, and the efficiency of the first Breathing Wall installation was monitored. The Breathing Wall is successfully reducing ambient particulate matter and carbon dioxide relative to outdoors and other areas throughout the building. Additionally, air pollutants including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide were below the detection limit of the equipment being used, indicating excellent indoor environmental quality. The results indicate that the Breathing Wall is working as intended.

Labbate, M. Australian Academy of Sciences 2017, ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE: A COMPLEX MULTI-FACTORIAL PROBLEM REQUIRING AN ORCHESTRATED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESPONSE, pp. 17-20, Canberra.

Other

Reyna Zeballos, J.L., meier, P., hanham, J., Vlachopoulos, P. & rodgers, K. 2017, 'Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Framework'.
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Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) has been incorporated as a tool to assess students in K-12 and higher education in the last decade. There are frameworks developed for video making in the classroom that considers technical know-how and a model that incorporate pedagogies. However, there is the absence of a practical framework to inform academics and students on the implementation of digital presentations as an assessment tool in the curricula. The aim of this poster is to propose a model for how to design, implement and evaluate LGDM as assessment tools in tertiary education. This evidence-based framework considers the following elements: (1) pedagogy; (2) student training; (3) hosting of videos; (4) marking schemes; (5) group contribution; (6) feedback; (7) reflection, and; (8) evaluation. The model serves as a conduit between theory and good practice.

Sharma, P. 2017, 'Lung experts warn against legalising nicotine in e-cigarettes'.

Sharma, P., Yi, R., Nayak, A., Wang, N., Tang, F., Knight, M., Pan, S., Oliver, B. & Deshpande, D. 2017, 'Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice'.
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Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma. Asthma was induced in mice using intranasal house dust mite or aerosol ova-albumin challenge, and chloroquine or quinine were tested in both prophylactic and treatment models. Allergen challenge resulted in airway inflammation as evidenced by increased immune cells infiltration and release of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs, which were significantly attenuated in TAS2R agonists treated mice. TAS2R agonists attenuated features of airway remodeling including smooth muscle mass, extracellular matrix deposition and pro-fibrotic signaling, and also prevented mucus accumulation and development of AHR in mice. Mechanistic studies using human neutrophils demonstrated that inhibition of immune cell chemotaxis is a key mechanism by which TAS2R agonists blocked allergic airway inflammation and exerted anti-asthma effects. Our comprehensive studies establish the effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in mitigating multiple features of allergic asthma.

Woodcock, S. 2017, 'How predictable are the Oscars? More than you might think', The Conversation.

Woodcock, S. 2017, 'Paradoxes of probability and other statistical strangeness', The Conversation.