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Publications

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Books

Tilbury, D. & Ross, K.E. 2005, Living change: documenting good practice in education for sustainability in NSW, Macquarie University, Sydney and the Nature Conservation Council, NSW, Sydney, Australia.
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Many current texts explain the 'what' and the 'why' of Education for Sustainability but few texts capture the intricacies of 'how' to bring it into practice. Living Change attempts to fill this gap by capturing the experiences of educators who are making changes to their programs orienting them towards Education for Sustainability. This much needed resource has been jointly developed by Macquarie University and the Nature Conservation Council, NSW. It has been designed to assist those seeking to educate for sustainability and consists of three different sections: The Framework section provides an introduction to the resource and the concepts underpinning Education for Sustainability. Based on these concepts this section presents a framework which can be used by practitioners to document their experiences in order to inspire and educate others. Using this framework two case studies have been provided as examples: Case Study: Cool Communities is a nationwide partnership program focused on making changes in households towards greenhouse gas abatement. Case Study: Sustainable Schools is a program which invites all schools both government and non-government to participate in incorporating the sustainability agenda in two main target areas, the school itself, and then, into the broader community.

Journal articles

Brakmann, G., Aringhoff, R., Geyer, M. & Teske, S. 2005, 'Exploiting the heat from the sun to combat climate change: Concentrated Solar Thermal Power-Now', Joint publication by Greenpeace International, ESTIA, and Solar PACES.

Fane, S.A., Willetts, J.R., Abeysuriya, K., Mitchell, C.A., Etnier, C. & Johnstone, S. 2005, 'Decentralised wastewater systems: an asset management approach', Water Asset Management International, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 5-9.
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Grossman, N. & Teske, S. 2005, 'Mediterranean sun-solar energy in Israel', RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD, vol. 8, pp. 131-131.

Holt, P.K., Barton, G.W. & Mitchell, C.A. 2005, 'The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology', Chemosphere, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 355-367.
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Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usuall

Mitchell, C.A., Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2005, 'Sustainable water use: efficient then effective', Built Environment Design Professionals Environment Design Guide, vol. 2, no. DES 27.

Mukheibir, P. 2005, 'Municipal water resource management', Tiempo, vol. 57, no. October, pp. 26-26.

Nkomo, J.C., Winkler, H., Mwakasonda, S., Mukheibir, P. & Sparks, D. 2005, 'Climate change mitigation: A training manual', Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 139-142.
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A training manual on climate change mitigation courses with the overall objective of meeting the challenges of climate change in the future and providing a support and skills is developed by the Energy Research Center (ERC).The objectives of the training include, improve participation in the UNESCO, provide a timely implementation of UNFCCC and Kyoto protocol, and transfer skills and know-how to trainees. Groups targeted for the training include, negotiators policy analysts, country teams, and other relevant stakeholders. Intellectual and management skills associated with the design, development, preparation and delivery of skills training in negotiation, policy analysis and co-ordination are expected to be the outcome of the training.

Teske, S. 2005, 'Time for us to win-renewable energy must succeed', RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD, vol. 8, pp. 117-117.

Turner, A.J. 2005, 'IWA's International Demand Management Framework', Water Demand Management Bulletin, vol. 73.

Turner, A.J., White, S. & Bickford, G. 2005, 'The Canberra least cost planning case study', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 257-263.
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This paper provides details of a preliminary least cost planning (LCP) assessment carried out for Canberra, the capital city of Australia, as part of the development of a 50 year Water Resources Strategy. In the assessment a suite of options consisting of demand management, source substitution, reuse and supply were developed to determine how to satisfy water demand requirements for the projected population over the 50 year planning horizon whilst also achieving the identified demand reduction targets. The options developed were then compared on an equal basis using the principles of LCP to identify the suite of lowest cost options to be considered for further analysis and implementation. The suite of demand management options developed was found to have the lowest whole of society levelised cost. Since the preliminary analysis and release of the Water Resources Strategy in April 2004, a water efficiency team has been set up to develop an implementation plan, implement options, develop an end use model, conduct pilot studies and undertake program evaluations

Turner, A.J., White, S., Beatty, K. & Gregory, A. 2005, 'Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 249-256.
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Winkler, H., Nkomo, J.C., Mwakasonda, S., Mukheibir, P. & Sparks, D. 2005, 'Climate change mitigation: A training manual', Journal of Energy In South Africa, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 55-58.

Conferences

Abeysuriya, K., Mitchell, C.A. & Willetts, J.R. 2005, 'Cost recovery for urban sanitation in Asian countries: insurmountable barrier or opportunity for sustainability?', Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics Conference Proceedings, Ecological Economics in Action, Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Palmerston North, NZ, pp. 17-29.
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Urban sanitation and waste management services are in crisis in many Asian countries, attributed to a number of factors. In this paper we argue that the crisis is exacerbated by the application of inappropriate economic and technological models for urban sanitation. We examine why the dominant models, including full-cost pricing driven by neoclassical economics, are inappropriate in the context of Asian countries. On the basis of Ecological Economics and Buddhist Economics, we identify a set of principles for arriving at more sustainable solutions. Sanitation’s role as a service for waste removal and disposal is expanded to a synergistic group of economically feasible services provided through cooperation between service providers, community and government. The STEEP framework is shown to be a useful way to tailor the sanitation options on the basis of contextual factors.

Campbell, S. & White, S. 2005, 'Integrated Resource Planning for Transport: asking better questions', Urban Transport XI, International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment in the 21st Century, WIT Press, Algarve, Portugal, pp. 619-629.
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Current transport planning methods do not deliver accessibility in a sustainable way—a phenomenon illustrated by the dominance of road construction as a means to provide access in cities. This research proposes a comprehensive evaluation methodology for investment decisions aimed at improving urban accessibility—Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) for transport. Using IRP in transport planning means agreeing on a metric for improved accessibility in a location and then developing a range of ‘options’ to meet this need. Each ‘option’ is evaluated in terms of cost per unit of improved accessibility. We propose that cost effective decisions will only arise from comparison of the full range of options using a consistent methodology.

Carrard, N.R. 2005, 'Mainstream or marginal? Transboundary tributaries and the Mekong Agreement', 8th International RiverSymposium - Water and Food Security - Rivers in the Global Context, Brisbane.

Chong, J. 2005, 'Beyond the household survey: participatory approaches for wetland resource valuation', Multilateral Environmental Agreements - Economic Valuation Workshop, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2005, 'Understanding industrial ecology across scales: developing a reference schema', 11th Annual Sustainable Development Research Conference, 11th Annual Sustainable Development Research Conference, Inderscience Publishers, Helsinki.

Jazbec, M. & Haynes, B.S. 2005, 'Kinetic study of methanol oxidation and the effect of NOx at low oxygen concentrations', 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Combustion, ASPACC 2005: Celebrating Prof. Bob Bilger's 70th Birthday, pp. 245-248.
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A detailed kinetic mechanism for methanol oxidation in not only important to model methanol as a fuel but also it is a key sub-mechanism in hydrocarbon combustion mechanisms. The current study focuses on the reaction of methanol (400 ppm CH3OH/N2) in the temperature range of 573-1023 K (with residence times of 2.3-4.2 s) and at atmospheric pressure. The reaction was performed in a laminar flow reactor with the addition of small concentrations of O2 (0-1500 ppm), thus providing a range of mostly fuel rich conditions, and was perturbed by the addition of NOX (0-200 ppm). The main products of the reaction are formaldehyde (CH2O), hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and, in the presence of NOX, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Methanol reacts with O2 at temperatures above 923 K, but when NOX is added, the reaction temperature is lowered to 773 K. This paper presents experimental results in a range of oxygen conditions not studied before. The experimental data are also modelled with the kinetic mechanisms currently available in the literature.

Ladson, A. & Chong, J. 2005, 'Unseasonal flooding of the Barmah-Millewa forest', Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Conference on the Barmah Forest, Melbourne.

Mitchell, C.A. 2005, 'Synergy in the city? the new engineering playground', Global Colloquium on Engineering Education, jointly hosted by American Society for Engineering Education and the Australasian Association for Engineering Education, Sydney.

Mitchell, C.A. 2005, 'Synergy in the city? The new engineering playground', Global Colloquium on Engineering Education, jointly hosted by American Society for Engineering Education and the Australasian Association for Engineering Education, Sydney.

Mitchell, C.A. & Berry, T. 2005, 'Distributed infrastructure in urban centers - opportunities and barriers to development', Australian Sustainable Built Environment Conference, Sydney.

Mitchell, C.A. & Berry, T. 2005, 'Distributed infrastructure in urban centres: opportunities and barriers to development', Australian Sustainable Built Environment Conference, Sydney Hilton.

Mitchell, C.A. & Berry, T. 2008, 'Distributed infrastructure: drivers, potentials, management tools and frameworks', Water 05 - Implementing the National Water Initiative, Mebourne.

Mitchell, C.A. & Berry, T. 2005, 'Distributed infrastructure: drivers, potentials, management tools and frameworks', Water 05 Implementing the National Water Initiative, Melbourne.

Nelson, C., Willetts, J.R. & Bryce, P. 2005, 'Transdisciplinarity and development research: new ways of thinking about development', AEGIS Conference, SOAS, London, UK.
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This was a paper prepared for the AEGIS conference.

Nelson, C., Willetts, J.R. & Bryce, P. 2005, 'Transdisciplinary research and Mozambique: finding a new pathway to old problems', AFSAAP Conference, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.

Riedy, C. 2005, 'Developing a culture of climate change response', The Great Greenhouse Gamble Conference, Sydney, Australia.

Riedy, C. 2005, 'Energy and greenhouse impacts of water options for Sydney', Presentation to expert forum on Recycling: The Sustainable Alternative to Desalination, Parliament House, Sydney, Australia.

Riedy, C. 2005, 'Integrating Exterior and Interior Knowledge in Sustainable Development Policy', Transforming Environmental Governance For the 21st Century, Ecopolitics, Ecopolitics Association of Australasia/Centre for Governance and Public Policy, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 560-580.
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Stewart, M., Giurco, D., Brent, G. & Petrie, J. 2002, 'LCIs for minerals processing in South Africa and Australia and their use in decision making for technology choice', Life-cycle assessment of metals: Issues and research directions, International Workshop on Life Cycle Assessment and Metals, Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemist, Montreal, Canada, pp. 96-101.
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Turner, A.J., White, S., Smith, G., Al Ghafri, A., Aziz, A. & Al Suleimania, Z. 2005, 'Water efficiency - a sustainable way forward for Oman', Stockholm Water Symposium, Workshop 5, Stockholm Water Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden.

White, S. 2005, 'The coast, the dam and in-between: issues for Manly's future', Manly Futures Forum, Manly Council.

White, S. & Fane, S.A. 2005, 'Planning for environmental flows: an advanced least cost approach to Sydney's demand-supply balance', 15th Stockholm Water Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden.

White, S., Cordell, D.J. & Turner, A.J. 2005, 'A single planning framework applicable to urban water management around the world: an international demand management framework', World Water Week, Stockholm Water Symposium 2005, Stockholm, Sweden.

Willetts, J.R. & Mitchell, C.A. 2005, 'What does "best practice" mean for managing on-site systems?', Onsite 05: Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring Proceeding of On-site '05 Conference., Onsite 05: Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring, Lanfax Laboratories, Armidale, NSW.

Willetts, J.R., Mitchell, C.A. & Fane, S.A. 2005, 'Ideas and tools to shape long-term management and investment in decentralised wastewater infrastructure', Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring - Proceedings of On-site '05 Conference., Onsite 05: Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring, Lanfax Laboratories, University of New England, Armidale.

Zeibots, M.E. & Petocz, P. 2005, 'The relationship between increases in motorway capacity and declines in urban rail passenger journeys: a case study of Sydney's M4 Motorway and Western Sydney Rail Lines', Australasian Transport Research Forum - Transporting the Future: Transport in a Changing Environment, Australasian Transport Research Forum, Planning and Transport Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, pp. 1-14.
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This paper examines the relationship between the addition of urban motorway capacity and declines in rail passenger journeys on parallel alignments. The research presented here forms part of a wider study that investigates outcomes from the expansion of urban motorway capacity in Sydney and the phenomenon of induced traffic growth. I nduced traffic growth is defined as new and additional road traffic movements that occur in response to increases in road capacity. By increasing road capacity, congestion and travel times are reduced, making travel by car more attractive. This generates a rapid succession of changes in travel behaviour across the surrounding network including traffic reassignment, traffic redistribution, generated traffic and passengers switching from parallel rail and public transport services, or mode shifting. This last response is the focus of this paper. Together, all form part of the composite effect called induced traffic growth (SACTRA 1994, p.53). The effects of mode shifting and other travel behaviour responses are significant because they potentially undermine the primary benefit of supplying additional urban motorway capacity which is to reduce travel times (Thomson 1977; Downs 1992; Mogridge 1997). If road traffic volumes increase, travel time savings are quickly eroded and congestion returns. If public transport patronage falls and services sustain revenue losses, service levels may be cut, imposing additional costs on public transport users and operators (SACTRA 1994, pp.128–129). Investigating responses to urban motorway development, such as mode shifting, is therefore important as it assists in gauging whether or not additional motorway capacity has been an effective policy response for reducing congestion.

Reports

Aubrey, C., Kjaer, C., Millais, C. & Teske, S. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) Greenpeace 2005, WIND FORCE 12——A blueprint to achieve 12% of the world’s electricity from wind power by 2020 [R].

Carrard, N.R., Miller, F.P., Hirsch, P. & Wyatt, A. Australian Mekong Resource Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Sydney 2005, Drivers for change in water regulatory systems: Setting the scene for development assistance, pp. 1-16, Sydney.

Chong, J. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia 2005, Valuing the role of aquatic resources in livelihoods: Economic aspects of community wetland management in Stoeng Treng Ramsar Site, Cambodia, pp. 1-59, Colombo.
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Wetlands are vital to the livelihoods of hundred of millions of people residing in the Lower Mekong region, and particularly to the food security of many of the rural poor. There are many stakeholders with interest in the management of these precious resources including government agencies across different sectors and at different levels, private businesses, international and local non-governmental organisations, and local communities. In Cambodia, however, there exist a number of barriers to effective wetland management. These barriers include: lack of co-ordination between different sectoral approaches; weak policy frameworks and unsupportive economic environments; inadequate information on which to base wetland planning and management decisions and policies; inadequate human and technical resources; and lack of options for resource use by local communities. Economic assessments can help us manage wetland resources by improving our understanding of what drives resource-use decisions and why, and to what extent, wetlands are valuable to local communities. This document reports on a study which illustrated how economic assessments can improve wetland management. The aim of the study was to provide guidance on the use of environmental economic assessment methodologies to support wetlands management for poverty alleviation outcomes in Stoeng Treng Ramsar site. Village-level economic valuation techniques were employed to conduct livelihoods assessments in Veun Sean (one village within the Ramsar site) in order to draw more general conclusions about wetland resource use and management. The study extended beyond quantitative assessment to explore the context in which resource-use decisions are made and the linkages between poverty and the importance of wetland resources

Edgerton, N., Mitchell, C.A., Church, T. & Jordan, P. UTS 2005, Sustainable total water cycle management strategy, Sydney.

Etnier, C., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Mitchell, C.A. & Johnstone, S. Stone Environmental, Inc. 2005, Decentralized wastewater system reliability analysis handbook (Project No. WU-HT-03-57), pp. 1-181, Vermont, USA.
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McFarlane, D.J., Inman, M., White, S., Loh, M.T., Turner, A.J. & English, L. CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship 2005, Integrated resource planning for the integrated water supply scheme for: expert panel examining Kimberly water supply options, pp. 1-43, Canberra, Australia.
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Through the State Water Strategy the Government of Western Australia has committed to using Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) in its water allocation and licensing processes (Government of Western Australia, 2003). There is currently limited experience in using IRP methods within the state and methods used elsewhere may need to be adapted to take account of the specific water environment within Western Australia, especially the relative complexity of the states water sources, the high outdoor use component and self-supply options such as domestic bores. Improved management of existing water resources (e.g. catchment thinning, plantation management) to release more water are also not well covered in many past uses of the method. The Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) commissioned and recommends the use of an End Use Model (since renamed, the Supply and Demand Planning Model) to detail how water is used on both a customer sector (e.g. domestic, commercial) and end use basis (e.g. toilet flushing, garden watering). Such a model allows water suppliers to better predict future demand (forecasting) and to develop options to meet a future water supply demand balance (backcasting). Importantly, it allows water supply and demand management options to be compared on a consistent economic basis. Alternative methods of assessing supply and demand options often only consider the financial impact on the water service provider, whereas the government needs to also consider the impact on consumers and on the general community

McGee, C.M. & Mitchell, C.A. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2005, New generation builders training development, Sydney.

McGee, C.M. & Partridge, E.Y. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2005, Technical resources on sustainable mixed-use development: A framework for next steps, Sydney.

Plant, R. & Freudenberger, D. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) 2005, Changes in global agriculture: A framework for diagnosing ecosystem effects and identifying response options, pp. 1-19, Canberra.
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Riedy, C. & Partridge, E.Y. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2005, NSW water pricing guidelines and country town communities, Sydney.
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Tarlo, K., Jha, M. & Riedy, C. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2005, Water and climate change: Literature review, Sydney.

Teske, S. & Baker, C. Greenpeace International 2005, Energy Revolution. A Sustainable Pathway to a Clean Energy Future for Europe. A European Energy Scenario for EU-25, Amsterdam (Netherlands).

Tilbury, D., Crawley, C. & Berry, F. Australian Research Institute for Environment and Sustainability (ARIES) and Arup Sustainability 2005, Education about and for sustainability in Australian business schools: Stage 1, pp. 1-187, Sydney, Australia.
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Tilbury, D., Keogh, A., Leighton, A. & Kent, J.C. Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES) 2005, A national review of environmental education and its contribution to sustainability in Australia: further and higher education, pp. 1-60, Canberra, Australia.
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This report is Volume 5 in a five part series that reviews Environmental Education and its contribution to sustainability in Australia. The research which underpins it was undertaken between July and September 2004 by the Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES) for the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Turner, A.J., White, S., Westcott, H. & Edgerton, N. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2005, Water efficiency programs in Western Australia, pp. 1-89, Sydney.
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This report provides the findings of a review of the water efficiency programs being undertaken by the Water Corporation of Western Australia (WA). It has been undertaken to determine what might be improved to assist the Water Corporation to meet corporate and WA Government objectives, and to determine what other strategies might contribute to meeting those objectives. In addition the review has considered what would be required to implement best practice water efficiency programs, and to test the possibility that Perth could become one of Australia's most water efficient cities by tapping into greater conservation potential. The review has considered the large range of programs that the Water Corporation has in place to save water, including the WA Government funded Waterwise Rebate Program providing rebates on residential water efficient equipment. It has also investigated the regulatory environment in which the Water Corporation operates, the framework for economic assessment of water efficiency programs; the monitoring and evaluation of programs, and the internal support for development of water efficiency strategies. A model has been developed to estimate and summarise the relative unit costs and savings of the existing programs, and to estimate the potential for new extension programs to generate greater savings. These programs have then been compared with a range of reuse and supply augmentation options being considered by Water Corporation. The WA regulatory environment, as expressed through the WA State Water Strategy, places strong emphasis on the need to utilise an integrated resource planning framework for water supply and water efficiency programs. This framework requires that demand side be evaluated on the same basis as supply side options (source augmentation) and reuse options, based on the costs to all parties and that least cost options be investigated for implementation ahead of, or at least in conjunction with higher cost options.

White, S. & Cordell, D.J. Local Government and Shires Associations of New South Wales 2005, Beyond Recycling - An Integrated Waste Management Framework for Local Government - Part A: Developing an Integrated Waste Management Strategy and Empowering the Community, pp. 1-37, Sydney, Australia.
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Although the Australian community is concerned about the environment and committed to kerbside recycling, Australia creates more waste per person than almost any other country. Substantial increases in the cost of waste disposal over the past decade have not curbed total waste generation, and the net cost of kerbside recycling to local government continues to be substantial. Consistent with the Local Government Act 1993, significant efforts have been made in NSW and other States to manage waste in line with the principles of Ecologically Sustainable Development. However until recently these efforts have focused largely on managing the problem once waste has already been generated, such as increasing the efficiency of existing collection systems, new treatment technologies and turning waste into energy. There are significant opportunities for local government to explore other options in line with international developments in Extended Producer Responsibility. Such options typically operate higher up the waste hierarchy, and are more cost-effective than current practice, in addition to achieving greater environmental benefits.

Other

Chong, J. 2005, 'Protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems: A review of methods and evidence'.
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Mangrove and coral ecosystems have many values. Providing habitats for a wide range of species, coastal ecosystems are a source of food, medicines, and forestry products. In many regions, the tourism and recreational value of coastal ecosystems is significant, and if this value is realised can contribute significantly to financing the management of the ecosystems for local communities. In addition to these direct-use values, mangrove and coral ecosystem functions also indirectly support economic activity – for example through nutrient recycling, water purification, and flood control. One key indirect value is the protective function of coastal ecosystems against wave and storm energy, both in terms of ongoing coastal erosion and from potentially destructive cyclones or typhoons. However, decision-makers often undervalue these shoreline protection services (Burke 2004). This paper reviews evidence and methodologies for assessing the shoreline protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems. These studies tend to be based on hypothetical situations, comparing current situations to that if the protective values were destroyed. In tsunami-affected coastal areas, however, there is an opportunity to assess the protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems, supported by field-based evidence, to promote conservation of these ecosystems for the livelihoods of coastal communities.

Riedy, C.J. 2005, 'The Eye of the Storm: An Integral Perspective on Sustainable Development and Climate Change Response'.
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In this thesis, I explore the implications of integral theory for sustainable development and climate change response. Integral theory seeks to integrate objective and subjective perspectives using a developmental orientation. It addresses issues of subjectivity that have received inadequate attention in mainstream approaches to sustainable development, while also providing theoretical grounding for the developmental aspect of sustainable development. According to integral theory, there are four main epistemological approaches to any problem: behavioural, systemic, psychological and cultural. The first is objective and individual, the second objective and collective, the third subjective and individual and the fourth subjective and collective. Development occurs within each of these realms. To test the value and implications of integral theory for sustainable development, I adopt a case study on climate change response in Australia. I begin the case study by using the four perspectives of integral theory to guide a review of the energy and climate change literature. I follow the literature review with a critical review of Australian energy and greenhouse policy, providing the starting point for development of an integral climate change response. While there is attention to subjectivity in the literature, it is not reflected in Australian policy practices. An objective perspective and an instrumental form of rationality dominate policy. In the literature review, I identify two gaps in the literature that deserve attention. The first is the role of public subsidies in creating the observed cost differential between renewable energy sources and fossil fuel energy. I examine the relative magnitude of subsidies to fossil fuels and renewable energy in the Australian energy and transport sectors and conclude that the distribution of these subsidies distorts the market in favour of fossil fuels, particularly in the transport sector. The second is the application of a...