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Chapters

Brown, B. & Riedy, C. 2006, 'Use of the Integral Framework to Design Developmentally-Appropriate Sustainability Communications' in Filho, W.L. (ed), Innovation, Education and Communication for Sustainable Development, Peter Lang Scientific Publishers, Frankfurt, Germany, pp. 661-687.

Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'The secret life of water systems: least cost planning beyond demand management' in Beck, M.B. & Speers, A. (eds), 2nd IWA Leading-Edge on Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp. 35-41.
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The water industry in Australia and international is involved in a period of significant change. The conventional roles of water and wastewater utilities are being redefined with the objectives of resource conservation and sustainable development added to existing responsibilities. Least cost planning (LCP) has emerged as the way forward for water utilities in regions where water conservation has become an objective or where ongoing supply expansion is constrained. It involves techniques for the design and evaluation of demand management programs and aims to compare demand- and supply-side options on an equivalent basis. The approach is based on the key ideas that: demand is for the services water provides rather than the actual volume supplied; and that a drop of water saved is equal to a drop supplied. This paper contends that LCP has much to offer the water sector beyond demand management. It is an approach that has potential for options assessment across the water cycle and can aid planning towards more sustainable outcomes within the sector. The paper concludes that LCP concepts and techniques will have worth in addressing the challenges of sustainable development for both urban water systems and catchment management

Mitchell, C.A. & Campbell, S. 2006, 'Synergy in the city: making the sum of the parts more than the whole' in Beck, M.B. & Speers, A. (eds), 2nd IWA Leading-Edge on Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp. 125-135.
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The pressures on existing infrastructures are significant: demand is beginning to outstrip supply; aging infrastructure poorly maintained presents an increasing risk; and rejection of urban sprawl forces increasing population density. At the same time, the drivers for infrastructure are changing. We are beginning to recognise ecological limits to supply, leading to shifting expectations, for example, from 'remove waste' to 'recapture nutrients'. We now know that a sustainable future requires step changes in material use intensity, which has further infrastructure implications. We have witnessed it already in communications. For water and energy, and therefore, for transport also, the step changes are on the horizon. Community expectations are moving too, for example, from separating home and work towards co-locating them.

Ross, K.E. & Tilbury, D. 2006, 'Cool communities' in Tilbury, D. & Ross, K. (eds), Living change: documenting good practice in education for sustainability in NSW, Macquarie University and Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-34.

Winkler, H., Mukheibir, P. & Mwakasonda, S. 2006, 'Sustainability of electricity supply and climate change in South Africa' in Halsnaes, K. & Garg, A. (eds), Sustainable Development, Energy and Climate: Exploring Synergies and Tradeoffs. Methodological issues and case studies from Brazil, China, India, South Africa, Bangladesh and Senegal, UNEP Riso Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Roskilde, Denmark, pp. 37-42.

Journal articles

Carew, A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'Metaphors used by some engineering academics in Australia for understanding and explaining sustainability', Environmental Education Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 217-231.
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Metaphors can be powerful teaching and learning tools which may help us to understand novel, complex or abstract concepts using familiar language and thought structures. Academics routinely use metaphors in their university teaching to explain new or difficult ideas to students. In this article the authors argue that tertiary teachers’ metaphors for sustainability warrant formal investigation, as they will likely influence the construction and delivery of sustainability curricula. Based on this contention, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight Australian engineering academics which centred around the question ‘What do you mean by sustainability?’. From the interview transcripts, we explicated and described four distinctly different metaphors. These were: sustainability as weaving, sustainability as guarding, sustainability as trading, and sustainability as observing limits. We describe each of the metaphors in detail and speculate on some of the underlying assumptions which underpin them. In conclusion, we advance the idea that sustainability might be taught using an explicit multiplicity of metaphors and that each metaphor would express important aspects of the phenomenon of sustainability. This approach would capitalise on the diversity of existing metaphors in the academe, and could result in curricula which reflect the richness and depth that a variety of perspectives can bring to understanding a complex, abstract, flexible concept like sustainability.

Gero, A. & Pitman, A.J. 2006, 'The impact of land cover change on a simulated storm event in the Sydney Basin', Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 283-300.
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The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was run at a 1-km grid spacing over the Sydney basin in Australia to assess the impact of land cover change on a simulated storm event. The simulated storm used NCEPâNCAR reanalysis data, first with natural (i.e., pre-European settlement in 1788) land cover and then with satellite-derived land cover representing Sydneyâs current land use pattern. An intense convective storm develops in the model in close proximity to Sydneyâs dense urban central business district under current land cover. The storm is absent under natural land cover conditions. A detailed investigation of why the change in land cover generates a storm was performed using factorial analysis, which revealed the storm to be sensitive to the presence of agricultural land in the southwest of the domain. This area interacts with the sea breeze and affects the horizontal divergence and moisture convergenceâthe triggering mechanisms of the storm. The existence of the storm over the dense urban area of Sydney is therefore coincidental. The results herein support efforts to develop parameterization of urban surfaces in high resolution simulations of Sydneyâs meteorological environment but also highlight the need to improve the parameterization of other types of land cover change at the periphery of the urban area, given that these types dominate the explanation of the results.

Gero, A., Pitman, A.J., Narisma, G.T., Jacobson, C. & Pielke, R.A. 2006, 'The impact of land cover change on storms in the Sydney Basin, Australia', Global and Planetary Change, vol. 54, no. 1-2, pp. 57-78.
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This study has used a numerical model (RAMS) at 1 km horizontal grid intervals over the Sydney Basin to assess the impact of land cover change on storms. Multiple storms using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data were simulated with pre-European settlement land cover then re-simulated with land cover representing Sydney's current land use pattern. While all simulated storms did not respond to the change in land cover consistently, storms of similar types responded in comparable ways. All simulated synoptically forced storms (e.g. those triggered by cold fronts) were unresponsive to a changed land surface, while local convective storms were highly sensitive to the triggering mechanism associated with land surface influences. Storms travelling over the smoother agricultural land in the south-west of the Sydney Basin experienced an increase in velocity, and in a special case, the dense urban surface of Sydney's city core appears to trigger an intense convective storm. It is shown that the dynamical setting predominantly triggers storm outbreaks. This is seen most clearly in the isolated convective storm category where the sea breeze front often dictates the location of storm cell initiation.

Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2006, 'Decision-making to support sustainability in the copper industry: technology selection', Chemical Technology, vol. September.

Islam, M.A., Dowling, P.M., Milham, P.J., Campbell, L.C., Jacobs, B.C. & Garden, D.L. 2006, 'Ranking acidity tolerance and growth potential of Austrodanthonia accessions', Grassland Science, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 127-132.
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Riedy, C. 2006, 'Two Social Practices to Support Emergence of a Global Collective', Journal of Future Studies, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 45-60.
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In this paper, I develop an integral futures perspective on the global collective. The emergence of a global mind, soul or any kind of collective structure requires simultaneous development in behavioural, social, psychological and cultural realms. Development in any one of these realms has the potential to stimulate corresponding development in other realms. I focus particularly on two social practices that work together to draw out and integrate multiple perspectives and stimulate personal and cultural development. These practices are deliberation across difference and integral facilitation. Both have the potential to support the emergence of an inclusive global collective.

Teske, S. 2006, 'Power of reflection-the case for concentrating solar thermal power', RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD, vol. 9, pp. 112-112.

Teske, S. & Hoffmann, V.U. 2006, 'A History of Support for Solar Photovoltaics in Germany', Renewable Energy Policy and Politics: A Handbook for Decision-making, pp. 229-229.

Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2006, 'WDM down under', Water Demand Management Bulletin, vol. 79, pp. 4-4.

White, S. 2006, 'The future business of water, future water for business', WME Environment Business Media, vol. 0.

Conferences

Abeysuriya, K., Willetts, J.R. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'Kuhn on sanitation: dignity, health and wealth for the children of the revolution', Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics: Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-being, The International Society for Ecological Economics and The Indian Society for Ecological Economics, New Dehli, India, pp. 1-23.
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The urban sanitation practices of industrialised countries greatly influence the aspirations of most of the developing world for western style sewerage. The practices in industrialised countries arose out of a particular history: the set of economic, social and environmental conditions prevailing in industrialising Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. Examining that history and its logical trajectory may provide insights for resolving problematic sanitation for developing countries. Kuhn's analysis of the history of science, as a series of scientific revolutions whereby scientific paradigms rise and fall in the trajectory of scientific advancement, is a useful framework for examining the history of urban sanitation. It allows us to see a pattern in the history of sanitation and to map past sanitation practices of industrialised countries to various stages in the trajectory. Furthermore, it illuminates the present as leading up to the next paradigm revolution, indicated by the burgeoning of new problems and the emergence of a number of alternative approaches to resolving them consistent with the values of sustainability. We identify emerging concepts aligned with ecological economics that could potentially define the successor to the currently dominant paradigm for urban sanitation. The opportunity for innovation through the application of these concepts is greatest where no substantial investment in conventional sanitation has already been made, namely, cities in developing countries.

Cheney, H.E. & Willetts, J.R. 2006, 'Collaborative validation of qualitative evaluation', Proceedings of the 2006 ACSPRI Social Science Methodology Conference, ACSPRI Social Science Methodology Conference, Australian Consortium for Social and Political Research, Inc. (ACSPRI), University of Sydney, NSW, pp. 1-1.

Fane, S.A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'Appropriate cost analysis for decentralised water systems', Enviro 06 Conference and Exhibition: Building Sustainable Cities Proceedings, Enviro 06: Building Sustainable Cities, AWA, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-7.

Giurco, D. & Petrie, J. 2006, 'Managing material flows and impacts for copper', Material, Mineral and Metal Ecology MME06, Material, Mineral and Metal Ecology MME06, MME06, Cape Town.

Herriman, J., Willetts, J.R. & Partridge, E.Y. 2006, 'Learning together for sustainability: the value of group based peer learning', Proceedings of the 12th ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital, ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital, ANZSYS, Katoomba, Australia, pp. 406-420.
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Mitchell, C.A. & Edgerton, N. 2006, 'Seeing the forest and the trees : a framework for directing sustainable urban water action.', Enviro 06 Conference and Exhibition:Building Sustainable Cities Proceedings, Enviro 06 Conference and Exhibition:Building Sustainable Cities, AWA, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-8.

Prior, J.H. 2006, 'Sexuality, governance and urban space: the sexual restructuring of Sydney', Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ) Annual Conference, Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand Annual Conference, Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand, Fremantle, Western Australia, pp. 447-452.
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The aim of this brief paper is to develop an awareness of the role that sexuality plays in spatial development of our cities as contested terrains, through an investigation of the emerging dynamic relations be!ween homosexual. gay and queer culture, and urban space within Sydney in the 20lhand early 21 ,I century, which has seen these evolving cultures move from the peripheries of Sydney's urban space - beyond the pale of acceptability - to playing a key role within the formation of particular environs of the city and its international identity. This investigation is carried out through an analysis of the way in which ideas, beliefs, images, and anxieties about these sexual cultures have been conscripted into processes of governance that shape the urban environment. The paper will be of interest to queer studies, architecture, urban studies, sociology, geography and planning.

Riedy, C. 2006, 'A developmental perspective on climate policy discourse', Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics: Ecological sustainability and human well-being, Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics: Ecological sustainability and human well-being, ISEE, New Delhi, India.

Riedy, C. 2006, 'Participation barriers and social equity issues for small participants', Metering: A Portal for Change, University of NSW, Sydney, Australia.

Riedy, C. 2006, 'Pollution, politics and power: What should Australia do to meet the threat of climate change?', UTSpeaks lecture, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.

Riedy, C. 2006, 'Sustainability: Balancing markets and regulation', Delivering Sustainability: Households and Essential Services (2006 Conference of the Utility Consumers' Advocacy Program at the Public Interest Advocacy Centre), Sydney, Australia.

Riedy, C. 2006, 'The true cost of nuclear power', Baked or Fried? Is Nuclear Power the Only Viable Solution to Climate Change?, Labor Environment Activist Network Seminar, Surry Hills, Sydney, Australia.

Smith, T., Mitchell, C.A. & Willetts, J.R. 2006, 'An Ecological Framework for Sustainable Communities:Exploring the Possibilities and Limitations', 2nd International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Second International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Common Ground Publishing, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Smith, T., Willetts, J.R. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'Permaculture as a systems ecology approach to enhancing well-being and ecosystems services: aligning practice, theory and outcomes', Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Conference of International Society for Ecological Economics on Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-being, Ninth Biennial Conference of International Society for Ecological Economics on Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-being, International Society of Ecological Economics, New Delhi, India.

Turner, A.J. 2005, 'The Canberra least cost planning case study', International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water proceedings, International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International Water Association, Santiago, Chile, pp. 305-312.

Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2006, 'Does demand management work over the long term? What are the critical success factors?', Sustainable Water in the Urban Environment II Conference, Sustainable Water in the Urban Environment II, AWA Conference, Sippy Downs, Queensland.

Turner, A.J., White, S., Beatty, K. & Gregory, A. 2005, 'Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia', International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International Water Association, Santiago, Chile, pp. 58-65.

White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2006, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision making in an uncertain environment', Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics, New Delhi, India.

White, S., Vecellio, L., Waugh, N. & Hicks, R. 2006, 'The Boomerang Tariff: financing development through fair trade', Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-Being, New Delhi, India.
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Willetts, J.R. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'Learning to be a transdisciplinary researcher: a community of practice approach', Proceedings of the 12th ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital, ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital,, ANZSYS, Katoomba, Australia, pp. 1-8.
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This paper utilises a `community of practice model to reflect on the post-graduate research program at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS. Our work at the Institute involves resolution of complex problems in todays society, a task which requires insights generated through multiple disciplines. Over the last five years we have conducted an evolving program of activities for our post-graduate students to equip them with the necessary skills for this challenge. This program has been transformational for both individuals and the group, which now operates as a cohesive, mutually learning team. In this paper we look to the `community of practice model as a critical lens to examine our program and assist in identifying new opportunities to improve our approach to transdisciplinary research training.

Reports

Atherton, A.M., Riedy, C. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Moving on: the RTBU's public transport blueprint for Sydney - policy paper, pp. 1-81, Sydney.
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Atherton, A.M., Riedy, C. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Moving on: the RTBU's public transport blueprint for Sydney - summary paper, pp. 1-36, Sydney.
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Aubrey, C., Pullen, A., Zervos, A. & Teske, S. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Brussels 2006, Global wind energy outlook 2006.

Chong, J., Dwyer, G., Douglas, R., Peterson, D. & Maddern, K. Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper 2006, Irrigation Externalities: Pricing and Charges, Melbourne.

Cordell, D.J. The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies 2006, Urine diversion & reuse in Australia: A homeless paradigm or sustainable solution for the future? (Masters thesis), pp. 1-141, Linkoping University, Sweden.
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This thesis found that while urine diversion is likely to benefit the Australia situation and warrants further research, these benefits are fragmented and spread across a range of discourses and separate institutions. Its acceptance and effective introduction into Australia might therefore be challenged by its lack of a single obvious organisational home. To overcome this and other identified challenges, several recommendations are made. For example, an Australian demonstration trial of urine diversion and reuse is recommended where clear drivers and opportunities exist, such as: in new developments adjacent to agricultural land; in regions where algal blooms are a critical problem and are predominantly caused by municipal sewage discharges; and where synergies with waterless urinals are being considered for water conservation value. This thesis does not promote urine diversion and reuse as the `silver bullet to Australias water and nutrient problems, however it does recommend that it be considered on an equal basis next to other possible options. For example, if reducing nutrient loads on receiving water bodies is a key objective, then a cost-effective analysis of urine diversion and reuse, compared to other options to reduce nutrient loads, could be undertaken, ensuring all relevant costs and benefits to the whole of society are included in the analysis.

Herriman, J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Automated Metering - Scoping Paper, pp. 1-69, Sydney.
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The Wide Bay Water Corporation (WBWC) AMR Remote Read Water Meter Project is an innovative approach to metering and water efficiency. It represents the first large scale use in Australia of remote read metering technology for a water utility, and will result in both a more streamlined meter reading process and more detailed time of use data for water consumption. This is a great opportunity for both WBWC and the Australian water industry. The experience of WBWC in this project will be a valuable resource for other utilities wishing to explore options for metering to meet water efficiency and water conservation objectives. This research report considers the costs and benefits of the project from both the Wide Bay Water perspective (acting as a pioneer, with associated costs related to investigation of technology and communication of project results); and also from the perspective of another utility taking up the technology after the WBWC project. The cost of a one-time conversion are about $287 per connection or $192 per connection if the costs of pioneering are removed. The annualised costs to WBWC are about $482,000, or $385,000 for a routine installation where pioneering costs are removed.

Herriman, J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Practitioners review of the EarthWorks Programme in Southern Sydney, pp. 1-37, Sydney.
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ISF was asked to run a workshop for SSROC Council staff to reflect on their experiences of the EarthWorks program. This report is based on the outcomes of that workshop and additional submitted responses from council staff. It therefore provides a preliminary review of EarthWorks from a practitioner perspective. There are several paths now open to the councils and these options have been identified and outlined in this report. ISF has recognised that this is one input, and have recommended that further steps be taken to get feedback on these options. The key inputs of this review included: ·A workshop with practitioners ·Answers to a short questionnaire on evaluation ·Some information from DEC on historic and concurrent review processes The scope of the review was limited to consulting with waste educators in the Southern Sydney region with some experience of EarthWorks. The review did not include data from an empirical evaluation, or participant or agency perspectives. The focus was on program efficiency and efficacy rather than effectiveness (ie operational and tactical rather than strategic outcomes). The main constraints to the review were the limited resources (time) assigned to the review process, which therefore did not allow for input from a broad range of stakeholders or a comprehensive literature review. However despite this, some conclusions from the review are clear and beneficial: many councils in South Sydney are continuing to use EarthWorks as a basis for their community waste education programs, there are some common operational challenges to delivering the program, and there is an increasing tendency towards adapting the content of the program to meet broader sustainability objectives. A range of options for the future use of the program have been identified.

Hirsch, P., Jensen, K.M., Boer, B.W., Carrard, N.R., Fitzgerald, S.A. & Lyster, R. Australian Mekong Resource Centre, School of Geosciences, U. of Sydney in collaboration with Danida 2006, National Interests and Transboundary Water Governance in the Mekong, pp. 1-171, Sydney.
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Kelly 2006, Comparative analysis and economic viability of wave energy converters. Technical Report, New Zealand.

McFarlane, D.J., Inman, M., Loh, M.T., Scott, I., Turner, A.J. & Brennan, D. CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship 2006, An integrated Supply Demand Planning model for Perth. Client report to W.A. Government, pp. 1-87, Canberra, Australia.
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Section 2 of this report details the iSDP base case and compares the current demand prediction with one based on a more detailed understanding of the factors underpinning demand. Because the base case is based on year 2000 conditions, it also estimates the impact of introducing the two-days-per-week sprinkler restrictions on demand in late 2001 and the rebate scheme that was introduced in February 2003 and revised in June 2005.

McGee, C.M. Investa Property Group 2006, Green lease guide for commercial office tenants, Sydney, Australia.
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McGee, C.M. & Partridge, E.Y. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2006, Consumer and industry perceptions of sustainable housing, Sydney.

McGee, C.M., Partridge, E.Y. & Lewis, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2006, Perceptions of sustainable housing, pp. 1-90, Sydney.
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This project is an investigation of perceptions of sustainable housing among consumers and the building industry in QLD. Knowledge, attitude and perception are common barriers to sustainability in many contexts, and the identification of such barriers is key to designing effective interventions. The research separately analyses consumer and industry perceptions of sustainable housing and examines the interrelationship between them. It also examines the underlying drivers in housing choice and delivery that shape each group's perceptions. The aim of the project is to use the knowledge gained about industry and consumer perceptions to develop a range of policy options that respond to the key drivers, motivators and barriers. This approach helps to identify what the focus of policy in this area should be, by indicating where the greatest resistance to the uptake of sustainable housing exists as well as where the potential positive leverage points are. The project consists of two main components; a research element, using primary and secondary research to investigate building industry and consumer perceptions of sustainable housing; and a policy development element, using the findings of the research to inform the development and analysis of a series of policy options. The research component of this work consists of three parts. First, a literature review provides an analysis of existing research. The second element is a series of telephone and face to face interviews with key stakeholders. The third element, another piece of primary research, consists of two surveys conducted with visitors to the HIA Home & Building Expo 2006. As the outcome of the project, this report is designed to assist QLD EPA to further refine and develop a series of effective, appropriate and evidence based initiatives and measures to support the effective implementation of sustainable housing principles and practices in Queensland.

Mitchell, C.A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2006, Sustainable Water Management, pp. 1-31, Sydney.
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Total water cycle management represents a significant shift away from our conventional centralised and disaggregated approach. Our first well-intended forays as an industry into this new realm, characterised as transitional, have tended to increase costs, and deliver mixed outcomes for environment and society. In some instances, overall environmental outcomes have improved. In others, we have traded off better outcomes in one sector for greater impacts in another. Similarly in the societal realm, in some instances we have continued to decrease the public health risks, but in others, for example some water recycling scenarios, where action is ahead of understanding and/or regulation, public health risks have been increased. The emerging approach to total water cycle management has the potential to tunnel through these barriers, and deliver improved environmental and societal outcomes at lower total cost. There are three principles that characterise the emerging era: ⢠Reduce water demand ⢠Match source with use ⢠Minimise impacts This report provides some details about why these principles are key to a sustainable future, what they are, and how they manifest in an emerging approach to water, sewage, and stormwater management. In particular, this report focuses on the emerging understanding in urban stormwater management. A revolution is underway in this field. Very recent research and field trials have demonstrated that it is not the load of pollutants to receiving water that matters, but rather the frequency of overland flow events that is the primary determinant of the ecological health of urban streams. So, the emerging stormwater management objective is to retain all small-moderate storms. This shift necessitates a fundamental shift in the nature of the interventions provided by stormwater management.

Mitchell, C.A., McGee, C.M., Lewis, J., Roussac, C. & Stapledon, T.T. Institute of Sustainable Futures 2006, Strategic Planning Workshop, pp. 1-20, Sydney.
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ATP has a significant strategic opportunity Capacity to create change and influence Preserve heritage, improve existing facilities and plan sustainable future developments

Plant, R., Kazaglis, A. & Simard, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Every Drop Counts business program water savings and costs: Independent verification of savings calculation methods, pp. 1-56, Sydney.

Riedy, C. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2006, Interval Meter Technology Trials and Pricing Experiments: Issues for Small Consumers, Sydney.
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Riedy, C. & Partridge, E.Y. Transgrid 2006, Study of factors influencing electricity used in Newington, pp. 1-114, Sydney, Australia.
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Study of factors influencing electricity used in Newington

Riedy, C., Atherton, A.M. & Lewis, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Capital Region Climate Change Forum: Citizens' Report, pp. 1-62, Sydney.
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The Capital Region Climate Change Forum was organised, facilitated and evaluated by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). The NSW Greenhouse Office and the ACT Department of Territory and Municipal Services provided funding for the Forum. The Forum was held from Friday 1 December to Sunday 3 December 2006. The primary objectives of the Forum were to: * Test the use of a citizens jury as a way of helping the community to engage with the issue of climate change and develop informed recommendations on how to respond * Provide the NSW and ACT Governments with a greater understanding of how the community in the Capital Region would like to respond to climate change * Improve understanding of community perspectives on climate change more broadly. The Forum grew out of an earlier proposal for a National Conversation on Climate Change (NCCC), developed by ISF. The NCCC proposal is provided in Appendix A. The aim of the NCCC is to stimulate public debate on Australia's response to climate change by undertaking a series of high profile citizen forums in all Australian states and developing an associated website and other media outputs. It seeks to promote public deliberation on climate change response. Deliberation is an approach to decision making in which citizens consider relevant facts from multiple points of view, converse with one another to think critically about options before them and enlarge their perspectives, opinions and understandings. In a deliberative process, participants are provided with information, training, time and other resources to allow them to learn about and debate an issue and come to a considered view. A deliberative process acts as a capacity building exercise in which non expert members of the community are empowered to discuss and form valid opinions about the subject.

Riedy, C., Atherton, A.M. & Lewis, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Capital region Climate Change Forum: Project report, evaluation report, Sydney.

Riedy, C., Atherton, A.M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, A 10 point plan for a sustainable transport future, pp. 1-8, Sydney.
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Snelling, C.M., Simard, S., White, S. & Turner, A.J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Gold Coast Water - Evaluation of the Water Demand Management Program, pp. 1-57, Sydney.

Snelling, C.M., White, S. & Riedy, C. Institute of Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, The water conservation potential of an Australia - wide toilet retrofit, pp. 1-24, Sydney.
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Water use in toilets accounts for more than 25% of total indoor residential water demand in Australia. As such, toilet demand should be an important area of focus for demand management programs in Australia. One obvious demand management approach is to accelerate the rate at which single flush toilets are replaced by efficient dual flush toilets. This report describes the development and use of a toilet demand model to estimate the water conservation potential of a retrofit of all single flush toilets in Australia with Caroma SmartFlush toilets (dual flush toilets with 4.5 litre full flush and 3 litre half flush). The toilet demand model is a stock model that tracks the evolution of the stock of different toilet types over time. The following types of toilet are included in the model: ·Single flush toilets (SF) ·Dual flush toilets with full flush of 11 litres and half flush of 5.5 litres (DF 11/5.5) ·Dual flush toilets with full flush of 9 litres and half flush of 4.5 litres (DF 9/4.5) ·Dual flush toilets with full flush of 6 litres and half flush of 3 litres (DF 6/3) ·Caroma SmartFlush toilets with full flush of 4.5 litres and half flush of 3 litres (DF 4.5/3). An Australia-wide model is supported by separate models for capital cities and two regional centres (Goulburn and Toowoomba). Figure ES1 shows toilet demand projections for Australia under three scenarios: ·Scenario 1: Base case in which all toilets are single flush (i.e. no introduction of dual flush toilets) ·Scenario 2: Continued evolution of toilet stock without further intervention ·Scenario 3: A retrofit to replace all single flush toilets with DF 4.5/3 toilets in 2006-07. The figure shows the very significant impact that the introduction of dual flush toilets has had on total toilet demand in Australia. In 2006-07, the savings already achieved amount to 214 GL per year. A 2006-07 retrofit would immediately save an additional 79 GL per year.

Turner, A.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study: Discussion paper stage 2 situation analysis, pp. 1-29, Sydney.
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The Institute for Sustainable Futures is currently undertaking the ACTEW Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study. The project involves the development of a detailed water demand forecasting and options model using existing Water Services of Australia (WSAA) software. The options reflect the suite of responses to supplydemand imbalances as forecast by the model, and include both supply-side and demand management options. The project has been commissioned by ACTEW Corporation, and is co-funded by ACTEWAGL and the ACT Government's Office of Sustainability. A key feature of the study is the active engagement of the client in the development of the model, with a view of building in-house capacity and end-use modelling expertise. Three major project stages have been defined to enable key review points for theclient. Each stage involves one or more client workshops. Stage 1 - Planning of the process: review of available data Stage 2 - Situation analysis: development of Stage 3 - Development of the response (options) This report summarises the results from Stage 2 and identifies issues for discussion during delivery of the work in a client workshop on 6 December 2006

Turner, A.J., Giurco, D. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures UTS 2006, Demand management implementation planning study, pp. 1-61, Sydney.
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Central Highlands Water is required to reduce its water usage by 820 ML/a by 2015 in line with the targets for the Central Region Sustainable Water Strategy. This report reviews demand trends from the residential, commercial and concessional sectors along with non-revenue water usage to gain a historical understanding of water usage patterns. This covers both restricted and unrestricted periods. Together with population projections, this historical analysis provides a basis for initial projections of future demand on a sector basis. Additional detail has been included in the residential sector to understand demand for both single residential dwellings and flats/units as a separate category as their outdoor water usage is significantly less than for single residential dwellings. Options for reducing demand in the residential, commercial and concessional sectors were then developed and modelled, including the water savings, timing total resource costs (the total costs borne by CHW, Customers and Government) as well as who pays the costs for each option. Levelised unit cost (present value $/ present value kL of water saved or supplied) were used to rank the costs of options. It shows the total cost of the options to meet the targets and the breakdown by stakeholders and water saved by implementation year. An implementation plan, drawing on ISF experience in assisting other utilities to roll-out demand management programs was developed to outline the practical issues associated with staffing requirements, management strategies for each option, plus monitoring and evaluation strategies to ensure options are meeting savings targets. It is proposed that additional staff resources be dedicated to coordinating the implementation of the options. Option-specific implementation issues are detailed in the report.

Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, The International Demand Management Framework Stage 1, pp. 1-29, Sydney.
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This report forms part of a larger study (Stage 1 of the International Demand Management Framework (IDMF)) which has been undertaken under the auspices of the International Water Association Task Force 7 of the Specialist Group Efficient Operation and Management. Current practice often utilises litres per capita per day (LCD) to describe and forecast water demand; however this practice has been found to be limited for planning purposes within water utilities. In its place, an emerging way forward is based on disaggregation of demand and robust comparison of both demand and supply options to improve reliability. Disaggregation of demand into sectors and end uses allows accurate forecasting of demand and strategic design of demand management options which may be used in complement to supply options. The findings indicate that Canal de Isabel II has completed excellent work in certain areas, such as drought and risk management, management of water losses, knowledge of supply and distribution system, and sector and end use data collection. There remains significant opportunity for Canal de Isabel II to incorporate other improvements toward best practice, including the following: ·approach the planning process in a coherent way that considers both demand and supply options and works through a logical sequence of steps ·utilise in-depth knowledge of sector and end-uses to strategically identify and design demand management options ·compare demand and supply options using a consistent economic analysis so that the solutions with the lowest cost to society can be selected and implemented ·involve a larger group of stakeholders at appropriate points in the planning process ·conduct pilot and implementation of chosen demand management options to initiate on-going learning about what works and doesn't in the local context & ·monitor and evaluate pilot and implementation programs using robust statistical methods.

Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, The International Demand Management Framework Stage 1, Benchmarking CYII (Draft Report), Sydney.

White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study, pp. 1-29, Sydney.
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The Institute for Sustainable Futures is currently undertaking the ACTEW Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study. The project involves the development of a detailed water demand forecasting and options model using existing Water Services of Australia (WSAA) software. The options reflect the suite of responses to supply demand imbalances as forecast by the model, and include both supply-side and demand management options. The project has been commissioned by ACTEW Corporation, and is co-funded by ACTEWAGL and the ACT Government's Office of Sustainability. A key feature of the study is the active engagement of the client in the development of the model, with a view of building in-house capacity and end-use modelling expertise. Three major project stages have been defined to enable key review points for the client. Each stage involves one or more client workshops. Stage 1 - Planning of the process: review of available data Stage 2 - Situation analysis: development of Stage 3 - Development of the response (options) This report summarises the results from Stage 2 and identifies issues for discussion during delivery of the work in a client workshop on 6 December 2006

White, S., Campbell, D., Giurco, D., Snelling, C.M., Kazaglis, A. & Fane, S.A. Metropolitan Water 2006, Review of the Metropolitan Water Plan: Final Report, pp. 1-94, Sydney, Australia.
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This report was commissioned by the NSW Cabinet Office to review the Metropolitan Water Plan 2004 (DIPNR, 2004a), and was undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology, Sydney and ACIL Tasman with technical advice from SMEC Australia. In February 2006, our interim review report (ISF, 2006) showed how the supply-demand balance in 2015 could be met with rain-fed supply and a suite of demand management initiatives, and how Sydneys water needs could be secured against the risk of severe drought by having the capacity to deploy groundwater and desalination.

Willetts, J.R. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Life skills resource manual: schools total health program, Sydney.