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Books

Kent, J. 2016, Community Action and Climate Change, Routledge, UK.
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This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of climate change, citizen participation, environmental sociology and sustainable development.

Prior, J. & Cusack, C. 2016, Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Volume II: Gender - Roles, Bodies, Identities, Routledge, New York.

Prior, J.H. 2016, Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Volume III: Sexuality through Historical Traditions, Routledge, New York.

Prior, J.H. & Cusack, C. 2016, Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Volume I: Methodology, Routledge, New York.

Prior, J.H. & Cusack, C. 2016, Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Volume IV: The Sacred and Secular Spheres, Routledge, New York.

Chapters

Boronyak, L.J. & Jacobs, B. 2016, 'Managing Natural Resources for Extreme Climate Events: Differences in Risk Perception Among Urban and Rural Communities in Sydney, Australia' in Climate Change Adaptation, Resilience and Hazards, Springer, Germany, pp. 181-195.
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Lack of perception of the risks posed by climate change has been identified as a major constraint to social adaptation. Factors contributing to risk perception include experience of extreme weather events; socio-cultural factors (norms and values); knowledge of causes, impacts and responses, and socio-demographics. Qualitative data was collected from a series of participatory placed-based workshops conducted in the Greater Sydney and South East regions of New South Wales, Australia with participants drawn from a mix of 12 urban and rural communities. Workshop discussions were based on an Emergency Management Framework: Prepare, Prevent, Respond and Recover (PPRR) for the most important local climate hazards—bushfires, drought, storms, and flooding. Qualitative information from the workshops was examined for evidence of the role of risk perception in the management of natural resources for extreme climate events and the capacity of communities to adapt. Perception of risk differed among locations (urban vs. rural) and types of events, in particular bushfire and flood. Recent experience of an event, livelihood dependency on natural resources and the socio-demographic dynamics of communities were identified as factors contributing to adaptive responses to improve protection of natural resources (such as soils, water and biodiversity).

Jacobs, B., Lee, C., Watson, S., Dunford, S. & Coutts-Smith, A. 2016, 'Adaptation Planning Process and Government Adaptation Architecture Support Regional Action on Climate Change in New South Wales, Australia' in Leal Filho, W. (ed), Innovation in Climate Change Adaptation, Springer, Hamburg, Germany, pp. 17-29.
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This book introduces innovative approaches to pursue climate change adaptation and to support the long-term implementation of climate change policies.

Khalil, M., Jacobs, B. & Kuruppu, N. 2016, 'Grassroots Technologies and Community Trust in Climate Change Adaptation: Learning from Coastal Settlements of Bangladesh' in Leal Filho, W. (ed), Innovation in Climate Change Adaptation, Springer, Hamburg, Germany, pp. 297-311.
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This book introduces innovative approaches to pursue climate change adaptation and to support the long-term implementation of climate change policies.

Plant, R.A., Roche, P. & Barnaud, C. 2016, 'De la pensée des services écosystémiques à la représentation des interactions humaines avec la biosphère' in Roche, P., Geijzendorffer, I., Levrel, H. & Maris, V. (eds), Regards Croisés sur les Valeurs de la Biodiversité et les Services Ecosystémiques, Éditions Quae, Paris.
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This chapter revisits some important notions rooted in the sociological and ecological sciences that are, in the authors’ view, fundamental if ecosystem services thinking is to adequately represent human interactions with the biosphere1. Our aim is to explore how the ecosystem services concept can be reframed in order to redeem the seemingly lost message of human dependency on the biosphere. The ecosystem services concept came to prominence in the mid-1990s (Baskin, 1997; Daily, 1997) as a concerted effort by the conservation movement to put biodiversity on the global political agenda by riding the then-current wave of neo-liberal optimism and its associated belief in markets (Norgaard, 2010). A decade and a half on, it can be noted that an ever-increasing contingent of policy makers and researchers is embracing the ecosystem services concept for a variety of purposes associated with land, water and biodiversity management. This suggests a strong and rapid paradigm shift from a biodiversity conservation oriented approach towards a service provision oriented approach of ecosystem management (Potschin and Haines-Young, 2011). This paradigm shift is also reflected in science by the presence of the words ‘ecosystem services’ in such recently established journals as Ecosystem Services (Elsevier) and the International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management (Taylor & Francis).

Prior, J.H. 2016, 'Introduction Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality in Historical Traditions' in Prior, J.H. & Cusack, C. (eds), Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Volume III: Sexuality through Historical Traditions, Routledge, New York.
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Prior, J.H. 2016, 'Introduction: Sexualities in the Sacred and Secular Spheres' in Prior, J.H. & cusack, C. (eds), Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Volume IV: The Sacred and Secular Spheres, Routledge, New York.
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Prior, J.H. & Cusack, C. 2016, 'General Introduction' in Prior, J. & Cusack, C. (eds), Religion, Sexuality and Spirituality Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Volume I: Methodology, Routledge, New York.
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Raghav, P., Thacker, S., Hall, J., Barr, S., Alderson, D. & Kelly 2016, 'Analysing the risks of failure of interdependent infrastructure networks' in Hall, J., Tran, M., Hickford, A. & Nicholls, R. (eds), The Future of National Infrastructure A System-of-Systems Approach, Cambridge University Press.
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The. Future. of. National. Infrastructure. A. System-of-Systems. Approach. Infrastructure forms the economic backbone of modern society. It is a key determinant of economic competitiveness, social well-being and environmental sustainability.

Riedy, C.J. 2016, 'Climate Change' in Ritzer, G. (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing.
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Thoung, C., Beaven, R., Birkin, M., Tyler, P., Crawford-Brown, D., Oughton, E. & Kelly, S. 2016, 'Future demand for infrastructure services' in Hall, J., Tran, M., Nicholls, R. & Hickford, A. (eds), The Future of National Infrastructure A System-of-Systems Approach, Cambridge University Press.
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The. Future. of. National. Infrastructure. A. System-of-Systems. Approach. Infrastructure forms the economic backbone of modern society. It is a key determinant of economic competitiveness, social well-being and environmental sustainability.

Journal articles

Boot-Handford, M.E., Florin, N. & Fennell, P.S. 2016, 'Investigations into the effects of volatile biomass tar on the performance of Fe-based CLC oxygen carrier materials', Environmental Research Letters, vol. 11, no. 11.
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© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.In this study we present findings from investigations into interactions between biomass tar and two iron based oxygen carrier materials (OCMs) designed for chemical-looping applications: a 100% Fe2O3 (100Fe) OCM and a 60 wt% Fe2O3/40 wt% Al2O3 (60Fe40Al) OCM. A novel 6 kWe two-stage, fixed-bed reactor was designed and constructed to simulate a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with ex situ gasification of biomass. Beech wood was pyrolysed in the first stage of the reactor at 773 K to produce a tar-containing fuel gas that was used to reduce the OCM loaded into the 2nd stage at 973 K. The presence of either OCM was found to significantly reduce the amount of biomass tars exiting the reactor by up to 71 wt% compared with analogous experiments in which the biomass tar compounds were exposed to an inert bed of sand. The tar cracking effect of the 60Fe40Al OCM was slightly greater than the 100Fe OCM although the reduction in the tar yield was roughly equivalent to the increase in carbon deposition observed for the 60Fe40Al OCM compared with the 100Fe OCM. In both cases, the tar cracking effect of the OCMs appeared to be independent of the oxidation state in which the OCM was exposed to the volatile biomass pyrolysis products (i.e. Fe2O3 or Fe3O4). Exposing the pyrolysis vapours to the OCMs in their oxidised (Fe2O3) form favoured the production of CO2. The production of CO was favoured when the OCMs were in their reduced (Fe3O4) form. Carbon deposition was removed in the subsequent oxidation phase with no obvious deleterious effects on the reactivity in subsequent CLC cycles with reduction by 3 mol% CO.

Chong, J., Willetts, J., Abeysuriya, K., Hidayat, L. & Sulistio, H. 2016, 'Strengthening Governance Arrangements for Small City and Town Sanitation', Prakarsa - Journal of the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, no. 23.

Chong, Y., Abeysuriya, K., Hidayat, L., Sulistio, H. & Willetts, J.R. 2016, 'Strengthening local governance arrangements for sanitation: case studies of small cities in Indonesia', Aquatic Procedia, vol. 6, pp. 64-73.
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Local governments in Indonesia have the primary responsibility for delivering sanitation (wastewater) services. However, in large part due to governance factors, local governments invest little in sanitation services and delivery of services is weak. This research adopted a participatory, case study approach to investigate governance and institutional arrangements for planning, budgeting and implementing sanitation services in small cities and towns in Sumatra, Indonesia. The research focused on the effectiveness of city/regency planning for sanitation, the effectiveness of pokja sanitasi (sanitation committees), the links between planning and investment, and local government roles and responsibilities. This paper presents the findings of three case studies. Barriers to effective delivery of sanitation services include: prescriptive local budgeting and approval systems; lack of local government ownership of assets; and policy, funding and technical arrangements that are biased against strategic delivery.

Crofts, P. & Prior, J. 2016, 'Shooting up illicit drugs with God and the State: the legal–spatial constitution of Sydney’s Medically Supervised Injecting Centre as a sanctuary', Geographical Research, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 313-323.
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In 1999, the Uniting Church opened aMedically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) at the Wayside Chapel in the inner Sydney suburb of Kings Cross. The Uniting Church justified this overt act of civil disobedience against the State’s prohibitionist model of drug usage by invoking the ancient right of sanctuary. This invocation sought to produce a specific sort of spatialisation wherein the meaning of the line constituting sanctuary effects a protected ‘inside’ governed by God’s word – civitas dei – ‘outside’ the jurisdiction of state power in civitas terrena. Sanctuary claims a territory exempt from other jurisdictions. The modern assertion of sanctuary enacts in physical space the relationship between state and religious authorities and the integration and intersections of civitas terrena and civitas dei. This article draws upon conceptions of sanctuary at the intersection of the Catholic Christianity tradition and the State since medieval times to analyse the contemporary space of sanctuary in the MSIC, exploring the shifting and ambiguous boundaries in material, legislative, and symbolic spaces. We argue that even though the MSIC has now been incorporated into civitas terrena, it remains and enacts a space of sanctuary.

Crofts, P. & Prior, J. 2016, 'The Proposed Re-introduction of Policing and Crime into the Regulation of Brothels in New South Wales', Current Issues in Criminal Justice, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 209-226.
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Cunningham, R., Cvitanovic, C., Measham, T., Jacobs, B., Dowd, A. & Harman, B. 2016, 'Engaging communities in climate adaptation: the potential of social networks', Climate Policy, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 894-906.
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There has been a growing recognition regarding the use of social networks to engage communities in government actions. However, despite increasing awareness of social networks, there is very limited evidence for their application in relation to climate policy. This study fills this gap by assessing the potential of social networks for engaging local communities in climate adaptation policy, drawing on a case study of the Shoalhaven region in Australia. Participants from key representative groups were recruited using a purposive snowball sampling technique (N . 24). By mapping knowledge acquisition and diffusion networks in relation to climate adaption at the local scale, this study identified key nodes within the networks. Findings demonstrate that although climate adaptation information was acquired from a diverse range of sources, the sharing knowledge networks were far more dispersed. Furthermore, although 165 knowledge sources were identified, three nodes had coverage cross the entire network, and as such acted as boundary spanners within the sharing network. This research demonstrates the utility of social network analysis to reveal the underlying knowledge networks and structures that influence community engagement pathways and in doing so outlines key implications in relation to engaging local communities in climate policy and action.

Cvitanovic, C., Crimp, S., Fleming, A., Bell, J., Howden, M., Hobday, A.J., Taylor, M. & Cunningham, R. 2016, 'Linking adaptation science to action to build food secure Pacific Island communities', Climate Risk Management, vol. 11, pp. 53-62.
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© 2016 The Authors.Climate change is a major threat to food security in Pacific Island countries, with declines in food production and increasing variability in food supplies already evident across the region. Such impacts have already led to observed consequences for human health, safety and economic prosperity. Enhancing the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island communities is one way to reduce vulnerability and is underpinned by the extent to which people can access, understand and use new knowledge to inform their decision-making processes. However, effective engagement of Pacific Island communities in climate adaption remains variable and is an ongoing and significant challenge. Here, we use a qualitative research approach to identify the impediments to engaging Pacific Island communities in the adaptations needed to safeguard food security. The main barriers include cultural differences between western science and cultural knowledge, a lack of trust among local communities and external scientists, inappropriate governance structures, and a lack of political and technical support. We identify the importance of adaptation science, local social networks, key actors (i.e., influential and trusted individuals), and relevant forms of knowledge exchange as being critical to overcoming these barriers. We also identify the importance of co-ordination with existing on-ground activities to effectively leverage, as opposed to duplicating, capacity.

Foster, T. & Hope, R. 2016, 'A multi-decadal and social-ecological systems analysis of community waterpoint payment behaviours in rural Kenya', Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 47, pp. 85-96.
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Foster, T. & Hope, R. 2016, 'Evaluating waterpoint sustainability and access implications of revenue collection approaches in rural Kenya', Water Resources Research.
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Water policies in many sub-Saharan African countries stipulate that rural communities are responsible for self-financing their waterpoint's operation and maintenance. In the absence of policy consensus or evidence on optimal payment models, rural communities adopt a diversity of approaches. This study empirically assesses waterpoint sustainability and access outcomes associated with different revenue collection approaches on the south coast of Kenya. The analysis draws on a unique data set comprising financial records spanning 27 years and 100 communities, operational performance indicators for 200 waterpoints, and water source choices for more than 2,000 households. Results suggest communities collecting pay-as-you-fetch fees on a volumetric basis generate higher levels of income and experience improved operational performance compared with communities charging flat fees. In both cases, financial flows mirror seasonal rainfall peaks and troughs. These outcomes are tempered by evidence that households are more likely to opt for an unimproved drinking water source when a pay-as-you-fetch system is in place. The findings illuminate a possible tension between financial sustainability and universal access. If the Sustainable Development Goal of 'safe water for all' is to become a reality, policymakers and practitioners will need to address this issue and ensure rural water services are both sustainable and inclusive.

Fry, J., Lenzen, M., Giurco, D. & Pauliuk, S. 2016, 'An Australian Multi-Regional Waste Supply-Use Framework', Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1295-1305.
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© 2015 by Yale University. The production of waste creates both direct and indirect environmental impacts. A range of strategies are available to reduce the generation of waste by industry and households, and to select waste treatment approaches that minimize environmental harm. However, evaluating these strategies requires reliable and detailed data on waste production and treatment. Unfortunately, published Australian waste data are typically highly aggregated, published by a variety of entities in different formats, and do not form a complete time-series. We demonstrate a technique for constructing a multi-regional waste supply-use (MRWSU) framework for Australia using information from numerous waste data sources. This is the first MRWSU framework to be constructed (to the authors' knowledge) and the first sub-national waste input-output framework to be constructed for Australia. We construct the framework using the Industrial Ecology Virtual Laboratory (IELab), a cloud-hosted computational platform for building Australian multi-regional input-output tables. The structure of the framework complies with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). We demonstrate the use of the MRWSU framework by calculating waste footprints that enumerate the full supply chain waste production for Australian consumers.

Giurco, D., Teske, S., Fam, D.M. & Florin, N. 2016, 'Energy-mineral Nexus: Tensions between Integration and Reconfiguration', Enerugi Shigen, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 26-31.
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González, B., Blamey, J., Al-Jeboori, M.J., Florin, N.H., Clough, P.T. & Fennell, P.S. 2016, 'Additive effects of steam addition and HBr doping for CaO-based sorbents for CO2 capture', Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, vol. 103, pp. 21-26.
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Calcium looping is a developing CO2 capture and storage technology that employs the reversible carbonation of CaO (potentially derived from natural limestone). The CO2 uptake potential of CaO particles reduces upon repeated reaction, largely through loss of reactive surface area and densification of particles. Doping of particles has previously been found to reduce the rate of decay of CO2 uptake, as has the introduction of steam into calcination and carbonation stages of the reaction. Here, the synergistic effects of steam and doping, using an HBr solution, of 5 natural limestones have been investigated. The enhancement to the CO2 uptake was found to be additive, with CO2 uptake after 13 cycles found to be up to 3 times higher for HBr-doped limestones subjected to cycles of carbonation and calcination in the presence of 10% steam, in comparison to natural limestone cycled in the absence of steam. A qualitative discussion of kinetic data is also presented.

Grant, M.L., Dominish, E., Carrard, N., Bui, L., Ha, H., Nghiem, T. & Willetts, J. 2016, 'Reducing or increasing inequalities? The role of private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam', Development Bulletin, vol. 77, no. August 2016, pp. 31-36.
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Extreme inequalities are recognised as being detrimental to human rights and economic development (Stiglitz 2012), and in response, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has explicitly included addressing inequalities as one of the 17 Global Goals. In order to reduce inequalities an integrated approach across multiple dimensions of human development is required, including access to safe water. This research investigated stakeholder perceptions of rural piped water services in Viet Nam to better understand issues of equality, access and affordability. It asked the question: can poor households access piped water services provided by small scale private enterprises in rural Viet Nam? This question is important because little is known about whether or not poor households access piped water services, related issues of affordability of connection fees and tariffs, and other potential barriers. It is also important because private enterprises are increasingly providing piped water services in Viet Nam, supported by incentives from Government and international donors including some civil society organisations (CSOs)

Hills, T., Florin, N. & Fennell, P. 2016, 'Decarbonising the cement sector: A bottom-up model for optimising carbon capture application in the UK', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 139, pp. 1351-1361.
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Hills, T., Leeson, D., Florin, N. & Fennell, P. 2016, 'Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting', Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 368-377.
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Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4–5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be “carbon-capture ready” for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money.

Iwaniec, D.M., Metson, G.S. & Cordell, D. 2016, 'P-FUTURES: Towards urban food & water security through collaborative design and impact', Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 20, pp. 1-7.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Phosphorus is essential to food production, but current management practices fail to ensure equitable access to farmers globally and often results in polluted waterways. There is a lack of local and global governance mechanisms to ensure phosphorus is sustainably managed. The P-FUTURES research initiative aims to address this gap by working with stakeholders to explore visions and pathways of social transformation towards food and water security. In the seed phase of the project, academic, civil, industry, and municipal stakeholders interacted as partners in Blantyre (Malawi), Hanoi (Vietnam), Sydney (Australia), and Phoenix (USA) to collaboratively develop a full proposal and build capacity for transformational change. The article offers guidance on the opportunities and challenges of co-developing a research approach and proposal in a transdisciplinary, international setting.

Jacobs, B., Boronyak, L.J., Moyle, K. & Leith, P. 2016, 'Ensuring Resilience of Natural Resources under Exposure to Extreme Climate Events', Resources, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-21.
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Natural resources directly support rural livelihoods and underpin much of the wealth of rural and regional Australia. Climate change manifesting as increasing frequency and or severity of extreme weather events poses a threat to sustainable management of natural resources because the recurrence of events may exceed the resilience of natural systems or the coping capacity of social systems. We report the findings of a series of participatory workshops with communities in eight discrete landscapes in South East New South Wales, Australia. The workshops focused on how natural resource management (NRM) is considered in the Prevent-Prepare-Respond-Recover emergency management cycle. We found that NRM is generally considered only in relation to the protection of life and property and not for the intrinsic value of ecosystem services that support communities. We make three recommendations to improve NRM under extreme climate events. Firstly, the support to communities offered by emergency management agencies could be bolstered by guidance material co-produced with government NR agencies. Secondly, financial assistance from government should specifically target the restoration and maintenance of green infrastructure to avoid loss of social-ecological resilience. Thirdly, action by natural resource dependent communities should be encouraged and supported to better protect ecosystem services in preparation for future extreme events.

Kelly, S., Tyler, P. & Crawford-Brown, D. 2016, 'Exploring Vulnerability and Interdependency of UK Infrastructure Using Key-Linkages Analysis', Networks and Spatial Economics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 865-892.
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© 2015, The Author(s).It has been argued the UK has experienced significant underinvestment in critical infrastructure over the last two decades. This in turn has resulted in infrastructure that is less capable of assisting the UK economy to grow. This article seeks to undertake an in-depth analysis of the inter-linkages and economic contributions from infrastructure within the UK. It explores the relationship between nine infrastructure sectors and how these sectors contribute to the rest of the UK economy using key-linkage analysis. Each infrastructure sector is shown to be unique in the way it interacts with other economic sectors and in the form of contribution it makes to the economy overall. Infrastructure is found to be a necessary and important part of economic development. The analysis finds that over the last 23 years there has been a decline in the relative economic contribution from infrastructure to UK GVA. Only two infrastructure sectors increased their relative contribution to GVA since 1992. These were the water transport sector and sewerage and sanitary services sector. Railway transport and gas distribution have had the largest relative decline in contribution towards UK GVA with relative contributions decreasing by over 50 % since 1992. The three most important infrastructure sectors contributing to UK GDP are land transport, electricity production and distribution and telecommunications respectively.

Khorshidi, Z., Florin, N., Ho, M. & Wiley, D. 2016, 'Techno-economic evaluation of co-firing biomass gas with natural gas in existing NGCC plants with and without CO2 capture', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 40, pp. 343-363.
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Natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants have emission intensities a half to a third that of current coal-fired power plants. To meet more stringent emission targets, it is essential to reduce the emissions of these plants to an even lower level. Co-firing gasified biomass with natural gas (NG) reduces the plant emissions while allowing continued use of existing assets. If CO2 capture and storage are also applied, negative emissions may result which could provide additional CO2 credits to reduce the overall cost of decarbonising electricity generation. This paper investigates the impact of biomass gas quantity and quality on the performance and economics of a 547 MWe NGCC plant retrofitted with biomass gas co-firing. The analysis considers co-firing with and without CO2 capture. Three co-firing levels (5%, 20%, 40%) and three biomass gasification technologies (atmospheric air-blown gasification, pressurized oxygen-blown gasification and atmospheric indirectly heated gasification) are evaluated. Compared to the baseline NGCC power plant, at low co-firing levels, the type of gasification technology does not significantly affect the overall thermal efficiency, CO2 emission intensity or cost of electricity (COE). However, at higher levels of co-firing, the overall thermal efficiency increases by up to 2.5% LHV for the atmospheric air-blown gasifier but decreases by about 0.4% LHV for the pressurized oxygen-blown gasification and 2.5% for atmospheric indirectly heated gasification technologies. The CO2 emission intensity also changes by up to 0.16–0.18 t/MWh at co-firing levels of 40% for all three gasification technologies, while the COE increases by 0.12–0.18 $/MWh. The analysis also shows that the increase in the fuel flow rate is more significant for BGs with lower heating values. The increase in the fuel flow rate can increase the topping cycle efficiency but requires more modifications to the gas turbine. Thus, co-firing BGs with lower heating value might ...

Kohlitz, J., Willetts, J.R. & Chong, J. 2016, 'Monitoring the human rights to water and sanitation: an analysis of policy in Pacific Island countries', Water Policy, vol. 18, no. 5.
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Government monitoring of water and sanitation services is a critical step in realising the human rights to water and sanitation (HRWS). In this study we investigated the national water and sanitation policies of 13 Pacific island countries (PICs) to understand how they envision monitoring the water and sanitation service delivery dimensions put forth by the HRWS framework. In particular, we analysed the policies for fundamental aspects of good monitoring governance and sought to learn how strongly monitoring of each service delivery dimension was represented in the policies. We found that delineation of roles and responsibilities and defined information flows are generally underdeveloped, and that the policies tend to give precedence to monitoring the service delivery dimensions of availability, quality, and sustainability over accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and equality. Donors have considerable influence on which dimensions receive the most emphasis in the policies. If realisation of the HRWS is to be effectively supported in PICs, PIC governments and supporting donors must continue to refine national policy to clarify aspects of good monitoring governance and to be more inclusive of monitoring a wider range of service delivery dimensions.

Liu, A., Giurco, D. & Mukheibir, P. 2016, 'Urban water conservation through customised water and end-use information', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 3164-3175.
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Water conservation in urban centres is an ongoing challenge in which new technologies can play an important role. Smart water metering in conjunction with end-use analysis enables the collection of more detailed information on household water consumption than was previously possible. This presents a new and currently underexplored opportunity to promote more efficient water use via the provision of detailed customised water-use information to householders. Among the variety of possible approaches, is the option of paper-based reports containing a highly detailed ‘snapshot’ of household water use. This paper describes a mixed methods study in which customised paper-based ‘Home Water Updates’ were provided to a group of households in Australia to explore the idea of providing detailed feedback, including detailed end-use consumption information on uses of water within the home. The methods used within this research are described in detail to disseminate experience in this relatively new area of research. Analysis of the post-intervention householder evaluation survey showed the provision of detailed water-use information via the Home Water Updates appealed to the vast majority of householders; and further resulted in changed behaviours (e.g. shorter showers and full washing machine loads) and installations of new infrastructure. These research findings suggest a role for customised household water and end-use information via smart metering. However, more work is required to optimise approaches to enable a significant contribution towards more sustainable urban water management.

Liu, A., Giurco, D., Mukheibir, P. & White, S. 2016, 'Detailed water-use feedback: A review and proposed framework for program implementation', Utilities Policy, vol. 43, pp. 140-150.
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Smart water metering (SWM) introduces new opportunities to engage householders about water use based on detailed information. Water utilities must decide how to embrace these opportunities, but remain hesitant due to limited available experience and knowledge, which risks delaying the benefits of involving householders more fully in SWM and more sustainable water consumption. An implementation framework is developed outlining the key strategic, practical and evaluative elements in decision-making for detailed feedback programs by drawing on the literature and first-hand experiences of two feedback trials involving SWM. Existing approaches are reviewed and recommendations are provided to advance more well-considered approaches and realise benefits regarding sustainable water use.

McKenna, K. 2016, 'Land of the Unexpected: Natural Resource Conflict and Peace Building in Papua New Guinea', Business, Peace and Sustainable Development, vol. 2016, no. 7, pp. 32-49.
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McLellan, B., Yamasue, E., Tezuka, T., Corder, G., Golev, A. & Giurco, D. 2016, 'Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources', Resources, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 19-19.
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Metson, G., Cordell, D.J. & Ridoutt, B. 2016, 'Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City', Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 3, pp. 1-7.
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Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region’s “phosphorus footprint” – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management.

Mitchell, C., Abeysuriya, K. & Ross, K. 2016, 'Making pathogen hazards visible: a new heuristic to improve sanitation investment efficacy', Waterlines, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 163-181.
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Mukheibir, P. 2016, 'Shifting to urban-sensitive water design - OneWater', Future Water - Australian Water Management Yearbook.
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Mukheibir, P. & Currie, L. 2016, 'A whole of water approach for the city of Sydney', Water Utility Journal, vol. 12, pp. 27-38.
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Urban water managers and policy makers are struggling with the challenge of transitioning to an approach that considers a whole of urban water approach, where water planning and the urban form are considered in an integrated manner. The recent drive for liveable cities, where water is used to enhance the urban landscape through reuse and stormwater management, has seen a shift in focus. This has brought a number of challenges to bear on institutions charged with water planning and management at strategic, tactical and operational levels. Five central challenges have emerged from the research undertaken by ISF, viz.: a) Legislations and regulations that are prescriptive, overlapping and inconsistent, b) Economic and financial systems that are restrictive and traditional, c) Planning that is uncoordinated and non-collaborative, d) Organisational and professional cultures that are siloed and inflexible, e) Citizens engagement that is uncoordinated, technical and uninspiring. Drawing on the approach adopted by the City of Sydney, the paper will illustrate how a number of these challenges were overcome by local council in their attempt to achieve liveability goals, make the city more resilient to climate change, and reduce pollution levels in the water ways and harbour. The City undertook a consultative process to develop a decentralised water master plan that would both drive and guide future recycling, stormwater management, and pollution control initiatives. Six transferrable lessons and enabling actions were identified that will have relevance to other cities and urban planners aiming to achieve a whole water approach and liveable cities.

Neset, T., Cordell, D.J., Mohr, S., Van Riper, F. & White, S. 2016, 'Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security', Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 47.
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The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains...

Prior, J. & Hubbard, P. 2016, 'Time, space and the authorisation of sex premises in London and Sydney', Urban Studies.
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Prior, J.H. 2016, 'The norms, rules and motivational values driving sustainable remediation of contaminated environments: A study of implementation', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 544, pp. 824-836.
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Probyn-Rapsey, F., Donaldson, S., Ioannides, G., Lea, T., Marsh, K., Neimanis, A., Potts, A., Taylor, N., Twine, R., Wadiwel, D. & White, S. 2016, 'A Sustainable Campus: The Sydney Declaration on Interspecies Sustainability', Animal Studies Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 110-151.
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Under the remit of an expanded definition of sustainability – one that acknowledges animal agriculture as a key carbon intensive industry, and one that includes interspecies ethics as an integral part of social justice – institutions such as Universities can and should play a role in supporting a wider agenda for sustainable food practices on campus. By drawing out clear connections between sustainability objectives on campus and the shift away from animal based products, the objective of this article is to advocate for a more consistent understanding and implementation of sustainability measures as championed by university campuses at large. We will draw out clear connections between sustainability objectives on campus and the shift away from animal based products. Overall, our arguments are contextualised within broader debates on the relationship between sustainability, social justice and interspecies ethics. We envisage that such discussion will contribute to an enriched, more robust sense of sustainability—one in which food justice refers not only to justice for human consumers and producers of food and the land used by them, but also to justice for the nonhuman animals considered as potential sources of food themselves.

Riedy, C.J. 2016, 'Interior transformation on the pathway to a viable future', Journal of Futures Studies, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 35-54.
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A common response to the global sustainability crisis is to argue that human values and culture need to transform. However, the nature of this interior transformation is rarely explored in any de- tail. Instead, transformation is held up uncritically as the saviour that can get us out of trouble. In this paper, I apply a personal causal layered analysis (CLA) to tease out the dimensions of interior transformation for a viable future in more detail. The analysis draws out competing narratives of interior transformation and explores the potential of these narratives to facilitate transformation of values and consciousness. A story of a thriving Earth emerges as a key cultural resource for interior transformation.

Rosenqvist, T., Mitchell, C. & Willetts, J. 2016, 'A short history of how we think and talk about sanitation services and why it matters', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 6, no. 1.
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Rowe, H., Withers, P.J.A., Baas, P., Chan, N.I., Doody, D., Holiman, J., Jacobs, B., Li, H., MacDonald, G.K., McDowell, R., Sharpley, A.N., Shen, J., Taheri, W., Wallenstein, M. & Weintraub, M.N. 2016, 'Integrating legacy soil phosphorus into sustainable nutrient management strategies for future food, bioenergy and water security', Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 393-412.
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Legacy phosphorus (P) that has accumulated in soils from past inputs of fertilizers and manures is a large secondary global source of P that could substitute manufactured fertilizers, help preserve critical reserves of finite phosphate rock to ensure future food and bioenergy supply, and gradually improve water quality. We explore the issues and management options to better utilize legacy soil P and conclude that it represents a valuable and largely accessible P resource. The future value and period over which legacy soil P can be accessed depends on the amount present and its distribution, its availability to crops and rates of drawdown determined by the cropping system. Full exploitation of legacy P requires a transition to a more holistic system approach to nutrient management based on technological advances in precision farming, plant breeding and microbial engineering together with a greater reliance on recovered and recycled P. We propose the term ‘agro-engineering’ to encompass this integrated approach. Smaller targeted applications of fertilizer P may still be needed to optimize crop yields where legacy soil P cannot fully meet crop demands. Farm profitability margins, the need to recycle animal manures and the extent of local eutrophication problems will dictate when, where and how quickly legacy P is best exploited. Based on our analysis, we outline the stages and drivers in a transition to the full utilization of legacy soil P as part of more sustainable regional and global nutrient management.

Turner, A., Sahin, O., Giurco, D., Stewart, R. & Porter, M. 2016, 'The potential role of desalination in managing flood risks from dam overflows: the case of Sydney, Australia', JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol. 135, pp. 342-355.
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Turner, A.J., Mukheibir, P., Mitchell, C., Chong, J., Retamal, M., Murta, J., Carrard, N. & Delaney, C. 2016, 'Recycled water – lessons from Australia on dealing with risk and uncertainty', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 127-138.
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Much can be learned from the numerous water recycling schemes currently in operation in Australia, especially with respect to making investment decisions based on uncertain assumptions. This paper illustrates through a number of case studies, that by considering the contextual and project related risks, a range of business related risks become apparent. Shifts in the contextual landscape and the various players’ objectives can occur over the life of a project, often leading to unforeseen risk and uncertainty. Through a thorough consideration of the potential risks presented in this paper, proponents as well as owners and managers might make better recycled water investment decisions, enhancing the benefits and minimizing the costs of water recycling schemes. This paper presents an overview and discussion of seven key factors to consider when planning a recycling scheme.

Wang, J., Mohr, S., Feng, L., Liu, H. & Tverberg, G.E. 2016, 'Analysis of resource potential for China's unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth', Energy Policy, vol. 88, pp. 389-401.
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© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. China is vigorously promoting the development of its unconventional gas resources because natural gas is viewed as a lower-carbon energy source and because China has relatively little conventional natural gas supply. In this paper, we first evaluate how much unconventional gas might be available based on an analysis of technically recoverable resources for three types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas. We then develop three alternative scenarios of how this extraction might proceed, using the Geologic Resources Supply Demand Model. Based on our analysis, the medium scenario, which we would consider to be our best estimate, shows a resource peak of 176.1 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2068. Depending on economic conditions and advance in extraction techniques, production could vary greatly from this. If economic conditions are adverse, unconventional natural gas production could perhaps be as low as 70.1 bcm, peaking in 2021. Under the extremely optimistic assumption that all of the resources that appear to be technologically available can actually be recovered, unconventional production could amount to as much as 469.7 bcm, with peak production in 2069. Even if this high scenario is achieved, China's total gas production will only be sufficient to meet China's lowest demand forecast. If production instead matches our best estimate, significant amounts of natural gas imports are likely to be needed.

Wang, J., Mohr, S., Feng, L., Liu, H. & Tverberg, G.E. 2016, 'Analysis of resource potential for China's unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth', Energy Policy, vol. 88, pp. 389-401.
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© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. China is vigorously promoting the development of its unconventional gas resources because natural gas is viewed as a lower-carbon energy source and because China has relatively little conventional natural gas supply. In this paper, we first evaluate how much unconventional gas might be available based on an analysis of technically recoverable resources for three types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas. We then develop three alternative scenarios of how this extraction might proceed, using the Geologic Resources Supply Demand Model. Based on our analysis, the medium scenario, which we would consider to be our best estimate, shows a resource peak of 176.1 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2068. Depending on economic conditions and advance in extraction techniques, production could vary greatly from this. If economic conditions are adverse, unconventional natural gas production could perhaps be as low as 70.1 bcm, peaking in 2021. Under the extremely optimistic assumption that all of the resources that appear to be technologically available can actually be recovered, unconventional production could amount to as much as 469.7 bcm, with peak production in 2069. Even if this high scenario is achieved, China's total gas production will only be sufficient to meet China's lowest demand forecast. If production instead matches our best estimate, significant amounts of natural gas imports are likely to be needed.

Ward, J., Sutton, P., Werner, A., Costanza, R., Mohr, S.H. & Simmons, C. 2016, 'Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?', PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 10.
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The argument that human society can decouple economic growth—defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing.

Watson, R., Fane, S. & Mitchell, C.A. 2016, 'The Critical Role of Impact Distribution for Local Recycled Water Systems', International Journal of Water Governance, vol. 2016, no. 4:12, pp. 5-21.
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Small-scale or local recycled water systems are increasingly being installed in urban centers in Australia, and throughout the world. These (often private) systems are in building basements, parks, on industrial sites and within small communities that are already serviced by existing public centralized water and wastewater networks. A consistent and fair assessment of the value of such local recycling systems, particularly in relation to centralized extension, augmentation and replacement, has proved to be problematic. This paper reveals why. It suggests that the traditional characterization of impacts into social, environmental, economic and at times technical groupings misses a key aspect in understanding the relative costs, benefits and risks of these systems: their distribution across the wide range of stakeholder groups. This paper proposes that accounting for the distribution of impacts is critical for assessments that include options of different scales and different levels of responsibility as there is a significant difference in the impact distribution between conventional urban water services and small-scale, local recycled water systems. This will help practitioners better understand the consequences of varying the impact distribution, particularly when moving from substantially public responsibility and ownership of assets to a mix of public and private responsibility and ownership.

Winterford, K.H. 2016, 'A positive notion of power for citizen voice and state accountability', Development in Practice, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 696-705.
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This article explores the notion of power within citizen–state relations. A positive notion of power is presented as an addition to evolving development discourse which has predominantly defined power as a finite resource transferred from state to citizen in a process of ‘‘changing the balance of power’’. A positive notion of power is concerned with maximising and connecting citizen power and affirming state power, for synergistic change. The article draws on development discourse and practical examples to outline a positive notion of power, prioritising relational dialogue and joint citizen state action for development outcomes.

Conferences

Abeysuriya, K.R., Wedahuditama, F., Chong, J. & Willetts, J. 2016, 'Strengthening local government governance for long-term sanitation service delivery', WASH Futures Conference, Brisbane.
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Carrard, N., Grant, M., Willetts, J.R., Bui Ha, L., Nghiem, T., Thu Ha, N. & Tran, N. 2016, 'Are poor households connecting? Private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam', WASH Futures International Conference.
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Chong, J., Abeysuriya, K., Hidayat, L., Sulistio, H. & Willetts, J.R. 2016, 'Strengthening local governance arrangements for sanitation: case studies of small cities in Indonesia', Aquatic Procedia, Elsevier: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivatives License, pp. 64-73.
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Local governments in Indonesia have the primary responsibility for delivering sanitation (wastewater) services. However, in large part due to governance factors, local governments invest little in sanitation services and delivery of services is weak. This research adopted a participatory, case study approach to investigate governance and institutional arrangements for planning, budgeting and implementing sanitation services in small cities and towns in Sumatra, Indonesia. The research focused on the effectiveness of city/regency planning for sanitation, the effectiveness of pokja sanitasi (sanitation committees), the links between planning and investment, and local government roles and responsibilities. This paper presents the findings of three case studies. Barriers to effective delivery of sanitation services include: prescriptive local budgeting and approval systems; lack of local government ownership of assets; and policy, funding and technical arrangements that are biased against strategic delivery.

Chong, J., Abeysuriya, K., Hidayat, L., Sulistio, H., Suartana, N., Ross, K. & Willetts, J. 2015, 'Strengthening institutional and governance arrangements for small city sanitation, Indonesia', Stockholm World Water Week 2016, Stockholm, Sweden.

Chong, J., Grant, M.L., Murta, J., Kome, A. & Willetts, J. 2016, 'Improving urban sanitation services through smart enforcement and compliance'.

Foster, T. 2016, 'Business Models for Rural Water Sustainability', 7th Rural Water Supply Network Forum, Abidjan.
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Foster, T. & Hope, R. 2016, 'Predictors, Patterns & Implications of Waterpoint Financial Performance in Rural Kenya', WASH Futures International Conference.
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Foster, T., McSorley, B. & Willetts, J. 2016, 'Preliminary results from an evaluation of the Blue Pump in Turkana, Kenya', 7th RWSN Forum “Water for Everyone”, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
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This paper presents the preliminary results of an evaluation of the Blue Pump in Turkana County, Kenya. Field work was carried out at 142 waterpoints to comparatively assess the operational performance and water user experiences for the Blue Pump. In order to appraise the broader factors affecting the suitability and sustainability of the Blue Pump, a group of key stakeholders was also convened to apply the Technology Applicability Framework. While 1 in 3 Blue Pumps in Turkana was found to be nonfunctional, breakdowns were less frequent than for the India Mark II and Afridev. Users of the Blue Pump were more satisfied with the reliability of their water service than those using other handpump types, but the difficulty of operation was a prominent complaint. In the Turkana context, the Blue Pump appears to be a more reliable handpump than the India Mark II and Afridev, bearing in mind its higher upfront cost. However, its full value will only be realised if coupled with effective and sustainable maintenance arrangements for which users are willing and able to pay.

Grant, M. & Willetts, J. 2016, 'Basins to Boreholes: Water security and WASH monitoring – opportunities and challenges', World Water Week 2016, Stockholm.

Grant, M., Murta, J. & Powell, B. 2016, 'Effective Communication for Maximum Impact: How do CSOs Learn?', WASH Futures International Conference.
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Kelly, Rutovitz, J., Langham, E. & McIntosh, L. 2016, 'The network value of distributed generation', Australian Utility Week 2016, Sydney.
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Kelly, S. & Reynolds, J. 2017, 'Unhedgeable Risk: How climate change sentiment impacts investment', Central Banking, Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability, Bank of England, London, UK.
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Kohlitz, J., Chong, J. & Willetts, J.R. 2016, 'Monitoring human rights to water and sanitation in Pacific islands', WASH Futures International Conference.
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Madden, B., Florin, N. & Giurco, D. 2016, 'Assessment of waste to energy as a resource recovery intervention using system dynamics: A case study of New South Wales, Australia', Life Cycle Assessment and Other Assessment Tools For Waste Management and Resource Optimisation, Grand Hotel San Michele.
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Driven by an increasing population, affluence and economic activity, waste—an almost inevitable by-product of modern production and consumption—is being generated at a rate that is growing exponentially with time in Australia. Despite the global maturity of waste to energy technology as a waste valorisation process, it is yet to be applied at scale in Australia, which has traditionally relied on landfill disposal, and more recently recycling, for the management of waste. Recent policy frameworks implemented have enabled the uptake of waste to energy in parts of Australia to divert waste from landfill, while offsetting non-renewable energy sources in the transition to a low-carbon energy landscape. However, recent policy dictates that higher order waste valorisation processes such as re-use and recycling, must not be undermined by energy recovery processes. In this paper, we present initial findings from a system dynamics model, developed to assess interventions to improve resource recovery in a multi-stream (municipal, construction and commercial) waste system specific to New South Wales. The system under investigation is characterised by causal feedback processes between waste generation, valorisation processes, and waste management policies, making it ideal for study using a system dynamics approach, and offers benefits in terms of greater understanding of the system processes over more typical mechanistic approaches [1]. System dynamics modelling has been used in the study of sustainable waste management, and waste management planning (see [2], [3], and [4]), and has yet to be applied in the context of waste to energy in Australia. Using socioeconomic and waste management data as inputs, projected waste generation and recycling rates under reference conditions are compared to scenarios with waste to energy intervention, to estimate the potential of energy recovery in achieving local waste management targets. Several scenarios are modelled with variation in al...

Mander, S., Cunningham, R., Lever, L. & Cough, C. 2016, 'Comparing online and offline knowledge networks of Carbon Capture and Storage', 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Memary, R., Giurco, D. & Agarwal, R. 2016, 'Life Cycle Assessment: Environmental Sustainability or Only Environmental Impacts in Case of Resources?', 14th ANZAM Operations, Supply Chain and Services Management Symposium titled “Making a difference in a changing world through collaboration, creativity and innovation”, Sydney.

Murta, J., Keatman, T., Gosling, L., Carrard, N., Neumeyer, H., Murta, J., Roaf, V. & Adam, A. 2016, 'Achieving universal and equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for all – practitioner perspectives and perceptions', 7th RWSN Forum “Water for Everyone”, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
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Peterseim, J.H., Viscuso, L., Hellwig, U. & McIntyre, P. 2016, 'Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation', AIP Conference Proceedings.
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© 2016 Author(s).This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

Peterseim, J.H., White, S. & Hellwig, U. 2016, 'Novel Solar Tower Structure To Lower Plant Cost And Construction Risk', SOLARPACES 2015: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER AND CHEMICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS.
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Riedy, C.J. 2016, 'Can a doctorate be transdisciplinary?', Quality in Postgraduate Research Conference 2016, Adelaide.

Ross, K., Abeysuriya, K. & Mitchell, C. 2015, 'Developing outcome-based indicators for the SDGs: A sanitation case study', 3rd Annual International Conference on Sustainable Development, New York City.

Ruoso, L., Plant, R., Jacobs, B. & Maurel, P. 2016, 'Farmers’ place identity and decision-making in a changing peri-urban environment: A case study of Wollondilly Shire Council, Western Sydney, Australia', 22nd International Symposium on Society and Resource Management: Transitioning: toward sustainable relationships in a different world, Houghton, USA.

Sukura, B., Agarwal, R. & Giurco, D. 2016, 'Interdisciplinary telehealth care collaboration – a literature review', 16th Global Conference on Flexible Systems Management titled “The Future of Manufacturing: Global Value Chains, Smart Specialisation and Flexibility”, Sydney.

Willetts, J.R., Chong, J., Carrard, N., Kohlitz, J. & Grant, M. 2016, 'Water security and the SDGs: Implications for WASH sector monitoring', WASH Futures Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conference 2016.

Reports

Abeysuriya, K.R., Kome, A., Carrard, N., Mukheibir, P. & Willetts, J. SNV and ISF 2016, Are we doing the right thing? Critical questioning for city sanitation planning.
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Our aim is to provoke practitioners, policy makers and development agencies to reflect on their approaches to city sanitation planning and the assumptions that underlie them. The document is not intended as a critique, and it does not recommend a particular planning approach. Nor does it add to existing stocks of guidance materials on how to develop sanitation plans (e.g. Sanitation 21, WHO Sanitation Safety Planning Guide 2015, Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning (CLUES), guidance for City Sanitation Strategies (SSK) in Indonesia and City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) in India etc). Rather, our premise is that raising awareness of underlying assumptions in sanitation planning may lead to better targeted approaches to sanitation planning, if and when those assumptions are shown not to match realities.

Clark, K. & Willetts, J. 2016, Evaluation of the Bobonaro Open Defecation Free Initiative in Sanitaton.

Delaney, C., Jacobs, B. & Gold, A. 2016, Greening the Goods Line.
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Downes, J. & Cordell, D. 2016, Food Waste at Festivals & Markets: Background Research.
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Downes, J. & Cordell, D. 2016, Food waste at festivals: Pyrmont Festival pilot, Sydney.
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Dunstan, C., Fattal, A., James, G. & Teske, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Towards 100% Renewable Energy for Kangaroo Island, pp. 1-73, Sydney, Australia.
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Fattal, A.R., Kelly, S., Liu, A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Waste Fires in Australia: Cause for Concern?, pp. 1-33, Sydney.
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Foster, T. & McSorley, B. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, An Evaluation of the BluePump in Kenya and The Gambia, Sydney, Australia.
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This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Fairwater BluePump, an emerging rural water supply technology in sub-Saharan Africa. Claims about the BluePump’s durability and minimal maintenance requirements have provoked significant interest within the rural water sector. This evaluation set out to assess the suitability of the BluePump as a rural water supply technology, taking into account its operational performance, the experiences of water users, the views of local stakeholders, and the broader contextual factors that impinge upon its sustainability.

Fried, L., Shukla, S., Sawyer, S. & Teske, S. 2016, Global Wind Outlook 2016, pp. 1-44.
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Grant, M., Carrard, N., Madden, B., Willetts, J., Dominish, E., Bui, L. & Nghiem, T. 2016, Access to piped water services from Private Water Enterprises in Rural Viet Nam.

Grant, M., Carrard, N., Madden, B., Willetts, J., Dominish, E., Bui, L. & Nghiem, T. 2016, Access to piped water services from Private Water Enterprises in Rural Viet Nam.

Grant, M., Huggett, C., Willetts, J. & Wilbur, J. Australian Water Partnership 2016, Gender and SDG 6: The Critical Connection. A Framing Paper developed for the High Level Panel on Water, Sydney, Australia.
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Grant, M.L., Murta, J., Willetts, J. & Carrard, N. CS WASH Fund: Palladium 2016, Civil Society Organisations’ Learning for Impact in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programming, Brisbane Australia.
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Harman, B.P., Rylance, K., Brown, P.R., Cunningham, R., Jacobs, B. & Measham, T. 2016, Engaging local communities in climate adaptation: a social network perspective from Orange Valley, New South Wales, Australia, Australia.
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Kelly, S. 2016, Unhedgeable Risk: How climate change sentiment impacts investment.
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Kelly, S., Lewis, H., Atherton, A., Downes, J., Wyndham, J. & Giurco, D. 2016, Packaging Sustainability in Consumer Companies in Emerging Markets: Final Report.
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Kelly, S., Rutovitz, J., Langham, E. & McIntosh, L. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, An Economic Impact Analysis of Local Generation Network Credits in New South Wales, pp. 1-77, Sydney, Australia.
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Kome, A., Ross, K., Carrard, N., Willetts, J., Mills, F., Abeysuriya, K.R. & Murta, J. SNV and ISF 2016, Exploring legal and policy aspects of urban sanitation and hygiene.
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During 2012-2014, SNV did four country reviews of legal arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene (Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Indonesia). Based on this experience, this document was developed to provide guidance on how to undertake a legal scan for urban sanitation. Over time, the ultimate objective of this work and related activities is that WASH professionals will be able to undertake a high-level assessment of legal arrangements for urban sanitation in order to both: 1. use the frameworks and tools offered by legal and policy arrangements to improve urban sanitation and hygiene outcomes; and 2. advocate for improvements in legal, policy and institutional arrangements to facilitate sustainable sanitation and hygiene outcomes for all.

Langham, E., Rutovitz, J. & McIntosh, L. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Towards a method to calculate a local network credit, pp. 1-40, Sydney, Australia.
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Leahy, C., Winterford, K., Kelleher, J., Leong, L., Nghiem, T., Hoa, N.Q. & Willetts, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS. 2016, From practical to strategic changes: Strengthening gender in WASH. Final research report, pp. 1-54, Sydney, Australia.
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Madden, B. & Downes, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Increasing commercial food waste collection services—literature review of Australian and international initiatives, Sydney, Australia.
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The NSW Organics Infrastructure Fund has various waste programs focused on waste avoidance, local government household organics collections, organics processing, and markets for processed, source-separated organics. One of the program, Bin Trim, supports small to medium sized enterprises to monitor, reduce and manage waste including organic food waste. However there is currently a lack of collection services for source separated, commercial food waste. The NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) is investigating options for incentivising commercial food-only collection services. To complement separate research on the barriers to the establishment and expansion of commercial food waste collections in NSW, the EPA commissioned ISF to undertake a literature review of Australian and international initiatives that have sought to provide incentives to increase commercial food waste collection services. The review identified a number of government funded initiatives in other states, particularly SA, as well as examples by the UK Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP). A review of the United States, and academic literature did not yield relevant examples. In these contexts the focus remains on household food waste collection.

McIntosh, L., Langham, E., Rutovitz, J. & Atherton, A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Methodology for calculating a local network credit, pp. 1-58, Sydney, Australia.
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Mitchell, C. & Ross, K. 2016, Findings and Recommendations. A synthesis for key stakeholders community scale sanitation in Indonesia..
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Mitchell, C. & Ross, K. 2016, Governance of local scale sanitation: How to design governance for lasting service? Guidance Material: Introduction.
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Mitchell, C., Abeysuriya, K.R. & Ross, K. 2016, A review and comparative analysis of indicative service costs for different sanitation service scales in Indonesia.
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Mitchell, C., Ross, K., Puspowardoyo, P. & Wedahuditama, F. 2016, Governance of local scale sanitation: Visual Synthesis Report for key stakeholders in Indonesia.
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Mukheibir, P. SNV 2016, A guide to septage transfer stations.
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Mukheibir, P. & Boronyak, L. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Dynamic Adaptive Management Process - Supporting Community Adaptation to Water Shortages in Kiribati, Sydney, Australia.
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In the water-scarce Pacific Island nation of Kiribati wells that supply water are increasingly affected by saltwater intrusion due to high tides, sea level rise and increasingly frequent storms and tropical cyclones. A handbook had been produced to help local facilitators to train communities to identify climate change adaptation strategies by drawing from various sources of knowledge, including traditional knowledge.

Plant, R.A., Chong, J., Lederwasch, A., Prior, J., Asker, S. & Boydell, S. CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment 2016, Value-based Land Remediation: Improved Decision-making for Contaminated Land, no. CRC CARE Technical Report No. xx, pp. 1-33, Adelaide.
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Ross, K., Winterford, K. & Willetts, J. 2016, Water safety planning equity study: Guidance.

Rutovitz, J., Atherton, A., McIntosh, L., Langham, E. & Downes, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Local Electricity Trading: Issues for Retailers, pp. 1-26, Sydney, Australia.
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Rutovitz, J., Atherton, A., McIntosh, L., Teske, S. & Langham, E. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Virtual trial of Local Network Credits and Local Electricity Trading: Byron Shire Council, Sydney, Australia.
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Rutovitz, J., Atherton, A., Teske, S., McIntosh, L. & Langham Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Virtual trial of Local Network Credits and Local Electricity Trading: Winton Shire Council, Sydney, Australia.
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Rutovitz, J., Langham, E., Teske, S., Atherton, A. & McIntosh, L. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Virtual trials of Local Network Charges and Local Electricity Trading: Summary Report, pp. 1-35, Sydney, Australia.
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Rutovitz, J., McIntosh, L., Atherton, A., Teske, S. & Langham, E. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Virtual trial of Local Network Credits and Local Electricity Trading: Wannon Water, Sydney, Australia.
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Rutovitz, J., McIntosh, L., Langham, E. & Atherton, A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Virtual trial of Local Electricity Trading and Local Network Credits: a community solar farm, Sydney, Australia.
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Rutovitz, J., Teske, S., Atherton, A., McIntosh, L. & Langham, E. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Virtual trial of Local Network Credits and Local Electricity Trading: Willoughby Council, Sydney, Australia.
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Teske, S., Dominish, E., Ison, N. & Maras, K. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2016, Renewable Energy for Australia–Decarbonising Australia’s Energy Sector within one Generation.
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Teske, S., Florin, N., Dominish, E. & Giurco, D. 2016, Renewable Energy and Deep Sea Mining: Supply, Demand and Scenarios.
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White, S., Turner, A., Chong, J., Dickinson, M., Cooley, H. & Donnelly, K. the Alliance for Water Efficiency, the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney and the Pacific Institute 2016, Managing drought: Learning from Australia, pp. 1-93.
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California is facing yet another year of unprecedented, record-breaking drought. At this time of need, US agencies have turned to Australia to identify the strategies that urban water utilities and water agencies adopted to survive its worst drought in recorded history, the Millennium Drought, which lasted from 1997 until it officially ended in 2012.

Willetts, J. 2016, Synthesis Report on Market-based Approaches to Sanitation.
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Willetts, J.R. 2016, Principles and Guidelines for ethical research and evaluation in development.
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Willetts, J.R. 2016, Sanitation, human rights and social protection: Briefing Paper.

Willetts, J.R., Murta, J. & Gero, A. 2016, Water and Sanitation Entrepeneurs in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste: Traits, drivers and challenges.
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Wynne, L., Cordell, D., Chong, J. & Jacobs, B. Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) 2016, Planning tools for strategic management of peri-urban food production, pp. 1-44.
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Using Sydney as a case study, this report aims to develop an understanding of what best practice looks for land-use planning on the urban fringe. Peri-urban areas around the world have traditionally been the food bowls of our cities. Increasing urbanisation is threatening the existence of peri-urban agriculture, paving over the soils that have fed global city populations. Increasing conversion to commercial and residential uses, fragmentation, land-use conflicts and global challenges such as climate change pose a threat to the viability of food production in peri-urban areas. This report considers responses that might emerge from the planning system to address threats to peri-urban agriculture. The report focuses on the experience of peri-urban planning and food production in the Sydney Basin, in New South Wales, Australia The report reviews a range of planning responses to managing peri-urban areas for resilience and sustainability. These include strategic planning measures, financial incentives, property rights protections and improved methods for valuing the benefits that peri-urban agriculture provides to cities. For many cities, perhaps including Sydney, a large proportion of peri-urban food production has already been lost, converted to residential use and supporting infrastructure. For that which remains, and for those cities that have sustainably managed their peri-urban agricultural lands, policy and initiatives are required to ensure that food production on the urban fringe can continue to contribute to urban resilience in the future.

Other

Grant, M.L., Murta, J. & Willetts, J. 2016, 'Learning Brief: Civil Society Organisations’ Learning for Impact in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programming'.

Mitchell, C., Ross, K., Puspowardoyo, P., Rosenqvist, T. & Wedahuditama, F. 2016, 'How to design governance for lasting service? Visual resource for workshop, guided stakeholder discussion and group/individual reflection'.
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Winterford, K., Leahy, C., Leong, L., Keheller, J. & Willetts, J.R. 2016, 'Innovation in WASH and Gender Monitoring: Towards strategic gender outcomes and equitable services'.